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Dr. Ashish Khanna has 16 years of expertise in Teaching, Entrepreneurship, and Research & Development. He received his Ph.D. degree from National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra. He has completed his M. Tech. and B. Tech. from GGSIPU, Delhi. He has completed his Post-Doc from Internet of Things Laboratory at Inatel, Brazil, and University of Valladolid, Spain. He has published around 55 SCI indexed papers in IEEE Transaction, Springer, Elsevier, Wiley, and many more reputed Journals with cumulative impact factor of above He has around research articles in top SCI/ Scopus journals, conferences and book chapters. He is Co-Author of around 30 edited and text books. His research interest includes distributed systems, MANET, FANET, VANET, IoT, machine learning, and many more. He is Originator of Bhavya Publications and Universal Innovator Laboratory. Universal Innovator is actively involved in research, innovation, conferences, startup funding events, and workshops. He has served the research field as a Keynote Speaker/ Faculty Resource Person/ Session Chair/ Reviewer/ TPC Member / post-doctorate supervision. He is Convener and Organizer of ICICC conference series. He is currently working at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, under GGSIPU, Delhi, India. He is also serving as Series Editor in Elsevier and De Gruyter publishing houses.

Dr. Deepak Gupta received a shoppingdowntown.us degree in from the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, India. He received M.E. degree in from Delhi Technological University, India and Ph.D. degree in from Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University, India. He has completed his Post-Doc from Inatel, Brazil. With 13 years of rich expertise in teaching and two years in the industry; he focuses on rational and practical learning. He has contributed massive literature in the fields of Intelligent Data Analysis, Biomedical Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, and Soft Computing. He has served as Editor-in-Chief, Guest Editor, and Associate Editor in SCI and various other reputed journals (IEEE, Elsevier, Springer, & Wiley). He has actively been an organizing end of various reputed International conferences. He has authored/edited 50 books with National/International level publishers (IEEE, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and Katson). He has published scientific research publications in reputed International Journals and Conferences including 94 SCI Indexed Journals of IEEE, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and many more.

Prof. Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, FIET (UK), is currently the Principal of Rajnagar Mahavidyalaya, Birbhum, India. Prior to this, he was Professor in Christ University, Bangalore, India. He served as Senior Research Scientist at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of VSB Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, from October to April He also served as Principal of RCC Institute of Information Technology, Kolkata, India. He is Co-Author of 6 books and Co-Editor of 75 books and has more than research publications in international journals and conference proceedings to his credit. His research interests include soft computing, pattern recognition, multimedia data processing, hybrid intelligence, and quantum computing. 

Prof. Aboul Ella Hassanein is Founder and Head of the Egyptian Scientific Research Group (SRGE) and Professor of Information Technology at the Faculty of Computer and Artificial Intelligence, Cairo University. Professor Hassanien is Ex-Dean of the faculty of computers and information, Beni Suef University. Professor Hassanien has more than scientific research papers published in prestigious international journals and over 40 books covering such diverse topics as data mining, medical images, intelligent systems, social networks, and smart environment. Prof. Hassanien won several awards, including the Best Researcher of the Youth Award of Astronomy and Geophysics of the National Research Institute, Academy of Scientific Research (Egypt, ). He was also granted a Scientific Excellence Award in humanities from the University of Kuwait for the Award and received the scientific - University Award (Cairo University, ). Also, he was honored in Egypt as the best researcher at Cairo University in  He was also received the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) prize on Technology () and received the State Award for excellence in engineering sciences He was awarded the medal of Sciences and Arts of the first class by the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt,

Dr. Sameer Anand is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer science at Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi. He has received his shoppingdowntown.us, shoppingdowntown.us, and Ph.D. (Software Reliability) from Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi. He is a recipient of ‘Best Teacher Award’ () instituted by Directorate of Higher Education, Govt. of NCT, Delhi.  The research interest of Dr. Anand includes operational research, software reliability, and machine learning.  He has completed an Innovation project from the University of Delhi.  He has worked in different capacities in International Conferences.  Dr. Anand has published several papers in the reputed journals like IEEE Transactions on Reliability, International journal of production research (Taylor & Francis), International Journal of Performability Engineering, etc. He is Member of Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality, and Operations Management. Dr. Sameer Anand has more than 16 years of teaching experience.

Dr. Ajay Jaiswal is currently serving as Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science of Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi. He Co-Editor of two books/Journals and Co-Author of dozens of research publications in International Journals and conference proceedings. His research interest includes pattern recognition, image processing, and machine learning.  He has completed an interdisciplinary project titled " Financial Inclusion-Issues and Challenges: An Empirical Study" as Co-PI. This project was awarded by the University of Delhi. He obtained his masters from the University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee) and Ph.D. from Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi. He is a recipient of the Best Teacher Award from the Government of NCT of Delhi. He has more than nineteen years of teaching experience.

 


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Canto (Cumulus) Vault Windows :: :: 22
Canto (Cumulus) Web Publisher IRIX :: :: 30
Canto (Cumulus) Web Publisher Linux :: :: 20
Canto (Cumulus) Web Publisher UNIX :: :: 66
Canto (Cumulus) Web Publisher Windows :: :: 42
Canto (Cumulus) Workgroup Windows :: :: 42
Canto (Cumulus) Workgroup IRIX :: :: 45
Canto (Cumulus) Workgroup Linux :: :: 46
Canto (Cumulus) Workgroup SunOS :: :: 0
Canto (Cumulus) Workgroup UNIX :: :: 50
Canto (Cumulus) Workgroup Windows :: :: 33
Canto Cumulus :: :: 56
Canto Cumulus Single User :: :: 57
Canvas 6 :: :: 44
Canvas 7 :: :: 63
Canvas :: :: 76
Canvas :: :: 56
Canvas :: :: 90
Canvas Retail :: :: 53
Canvas Pro :: :: 48
CANVAS Professional Build :: :: 32
Canvas Professional Edition :: :: 18
Canyon Country Scenes from the Southwest :: :: 60
Cap'n Midnight's VCR+ :: :: 25
Capella Deutsch :: :: 41
Capella Capriccio 3 :: :: 60
Capitalism 2 :: :: 4
Capitel :: :: 83
Capsa Professional Build :: :: 52
Captain Bumper :: :: 50
Captain Claw :: :: 58
Captain Nemo :: :: 79
Captiva PixTools v :: :: 50
Captivate :: :: 79
CapTool_Pro_vh-DIGERATI :: :: 44
Capture and Send :: :: 40
Capture and Send :: :: 50
Capture And Send :: :: 47
Capture And Send :: :: 46
Capture By George :: :: 61
Capture By George :: :: 60
Capture By George! :: :: 68
Capture One DSLR C1 SE 13 Beta 4 :: :: 39
Capture One DSLR Pro :: :: 11
Capture One PRO :: :: 11
Capture One PRO :: :: 12
Capture Professional :: :: 40
Capture Professional c :: :: 46
Capture Professional :: :: 33
Capture Professional a :: :: 66
Capture Professional :: :: 57
Capture Solution :: :: 61
Capture Solution :: :: 36
Capture Solution :: :: 43
Capture Solution :: :: 56
Capture Studio :: :: 53
CaptureNet build 1 :: :: 63
CaptureWizLite :: :: 33
CaptureWizLite :: :: 33
CaptureWizPro :: :: 62
CaptureWizPro :: :: 66
CaptureWizPro :: :: 50
CaptureWizPro :: :: 50
CaptureWizPro :: :: 62
CaptureWizPro :: :: 68
CaptureWizPro :: :: 52
CaptureWizPro :: :: 81
CaptureWizPro us :: :: 38
CaptureWizPro Screen Capture :: :: 88
CaptureWizPro Screen Capture :: :: 82
CaptureWizPro v :: :: 41
CaptureWizPro v us :: :: 82
CaptureWizPro v :: :: 75
CaptureWizPro v :: :: 84
Captus v :: :: 0
Car Dealer :: :: 90
Car Organizer 3,6 :: :: 16
Car Organizer :: :: 18
Car Organizer :: :: 40
Car Organizer a :: :: 50
Car Organizer Deluxe 2 :: :: 20
Car Organizer Deluxe :: :: 66
Car Organizer Deluxe :: :: 46
Car Organizer Deluxe :: :: 16
Car Organizer Deluxe :: :: 66
Car Sales Catalog Deluxe :: :: 66
Car Sales Catalog Deluxe :: :: 36
Car Sales Catalog Deluxe :: :: 41
Car Sales Catalog Deluxe v :: :: 22
Car Sales Catalog Deluxe v :: :: 14
Car Sales Organizer Deluxe :: :: 53
Car Sales Organizer Deluxe :: :: 42
Car Sales Organizer Deluxe :: :: 41
Car Sales Organizer Deluxe v :: :: 38
Car Sales Organizer Deluxe v :: :: 33
Car Thief :: :: 76
Cara Pro :: :: 23
CarboMeter :: :: 45
CarboMeter :: :: 33
Carbonix Skin Pack :: :: 63
Carbonix Skin Pack (null) :: :: 25
Carbonix SkinPack :: :: 78
CarCare v :: :: 59
Card Collection Wizard :: :: 95
Card Deck :: :: 54
Card Deck :: :: 66
Card Deck Pro :: :: 61
Card Poker a :: :: 0
Card Poker :: :: 27
Card Poker :: :: 20
Cardbase :: :: 66
CardBase :: :: 66
Cardbase shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 63
CardCheck Verifer :: :: 0
CardExport :: :: 17
CardExport II :: :: 75
CardExport2 En :: :: 23
Cardfile Pegasus :: :: 77
CardFile Pegasus :: :: 28
CardFile Pegasus :: :: 37
CardFile PS .Net :: :: 14
CardFile PS Net :: :: 25
CardGames I :: :: 50
CardPhone :: :: 0
CardScan :: :: 90
CardScan IVY :: :: 62
CardScan :: :: 82
CardWare :: :: 55
CareWindows Process Control Master v :: :: 20
Caribbean Poker (null) :: :: 14
Caribbenpoker - :: :: 62
CaribStud :: :: 50
Caricature Learn to Draw for Beginners v :: :: 66
Caricature Learn to Draw for Beginners v :: :: 66
Caricature Photo To Cartoon :: :: 30
Caricature Photo To Cartoon v :: :: 75
Caricature Photo To Cartoon v ::
Caricature PhotoS :: :: 70
Caricature Software Learn to Draw for Beginners v ::
Caricature Studio :: :: 44
Caricature Studio v :: :: 0
Carlos guisasola suarez :: :: 33
Carlson CGSurvey v :: :: 41
Carlton Card Game :: :: 57
Carmen Electra Screensaver :: :: 24
Carnisoft Caricature Studio v ::
Carnival Jackpot :: :: 76
CAROLINE PIVEN :: :: 42
CaroTechnology PictureViewer v :: :: 40
CaroTechnology PictureViewer v :: :: 25
CaroTechnology PictureViewer v :: :: 40
CaroTechnology PictureViewer v ::
Carrara 4 pro serial :: :: 40
Carrara Pro v :: :: 22
Carrara PRO v Render Node-rG :: :: 23
Carrara PRO vrG :: :: 8
Carrara Studio vrG :: :: 50
Carrera.3D Basic vrG :: :: 14
Cart Catalog :: :: 55
Cart Catalog :: :: 33
Carte Blanche :: :: 42
Carte de Bucate :: :: 23
Carte telefoane :: :: 57
Cartea de Telefoane :: :: 46
Cartea de Telefoane :: :: 54
CarteBlanche :: :: 25
CarteBlanche :: :: 38
CarteBlanche :: :: 35
CarteBlanche :: :: 55
CARTEL s EUROS :: :: 40
CARTEL's EUROS french :: :: 55
Carthago Software Twistpad v :: :: 30
Carthago Software Twistpad v :: :: 33
CarThief :: :: 9
CarThief 2 Build :: :: 66
CarThief :: :: 79
Cartman :: :: 0
Cartoon Maker :: :: 38
Cartoon Maker v by Extreme Team :: :: 28
Cartoon Maker v :: :: 66
Cartoon Maker v :: :: 0
Cartoon Maker v :: :: 0
Cartoon Mini Golf :: :: 55
Cartoon Xonix :: :: 57
Cartoonnetwork Cartoon Cove :: :: 28
CarTrax :: :: 40
CarTrax :: :: 20
Cartrax :: ::
CAS DVD Audio Extractor :: :: 85
Casa Memo :: :: 60
Casa Memo Multilingual :: :: 25
Casa Memo :: :: 60
Casa Memo :: :: 33
CASA Pro :: :: 28
CASA PRO :: :: 42
CASA Pro :: :: 41
CASA Pro :: :: 12
CASA Pro :: :: 25
CASA PRO :: :: 66
CASA Pro :: :: 25
CASA PRO :: :: 0
CASA Pro :: :: 40
CASA PRO :: :: 66
CASA PRO :: :: 18
CASA PRO :: :: 37
CASA Pro :: :: 50
CASA Pro :: :: 25
CASA PRO :: :: 44
CASA PRO :: :: 60
Cascade! :: :: 36
CaseLinr :: ::
CaseLinr :: :: 33
Casemaker DBMaker :: :: 50
Casemaker DBMAKER :: :: 16
CASEMaker DBMaker :: :: 36
CaseXL :: :: 62
cash organizer :: :: 24
Cash Track :: :: 55
Cashflow Manager :: :: 27
CashPrinter :: :: 91
CashPrinter :: :: 87
Cashroll club fruit machine :: :: 6
Casino Pack I :: :: 40
Casle Strike :: :: 32
CaslonFlow :: :: 38
Casper Spam Hunter :: :: 44
Casper XP :: :: 29
CassiniVision :: :: 10
CassiniVision v :: :: 50
CAST VB-Miner Pro :: ::
CAST VB-Miner Standard :: :: 25
Castelle FaxPress vDVT :: :: 57
Castle II :: :: 60
Castle III :: :: 62
Castle Lotto :: :: 89
Castle strike :: :: 18
Castle Strike [german] :: :: 37
Castles 1 :: :: 60
Castles 2 :: :: 42
Castlle strike :: :: 0
Castrol Honda Superbike :: :: 38
Cat woman :: :: 76
Catacombs :: :: 50
Catalog Max :: :: 44
Catalog Max v :: :: 90
Catalog Organizer Deluxe 2 :: :: 46
Catalog Organizer Deluxe :: :: 50
Catalog Organizer Deluxe :: :: 50
Catalog Organizer Deluxe :: :: 46
Catalog Organizer Deluxe :: :: 30
Catalog Organizer Deluxe :: :: 42
Catalog Organizer Deluxe v :: :: 41
Catalog Organizer Deluxe v :: :: 50
Catalogue n :: :: 50
Catalogue :: :: 66
Catalogue b :: :: 40
Catalogue a :: ::
Catalogue b :: :: 30
Catalogue :: :: 0
Catalogue b :: ::
Catalogue e :: :: 33
Catalogue g ::
Catalogue :: :: 50
Catalogue b :: :: 46
Catalogue c :: :: 0
Catalogue d :: ::
Catalogue e :: :: 44
Catalogue :: :: 0
Catalogue Files Metadata Miner :: :: 40
Catalogue Pro :: :: 62
Catalogue Pro :: :: 40
Catalogue Pro :: :: 46
Catalogue Pro :: :: 50
Catalogue Pro :: :: 35
Catalogue Pro :: :: 0
Catalogue Pro :: :: 66
Catalogue Pro :: :: 55
Catalogue Pro :: :: 30
Catalogue vb :: :: 25
Catalogue vc :: :: 30
Cataloguez :: :: 66
Catalogue_Pro_vDIGERATI :: :: 50
Catalys Browser :: :: 35
Catalyst ActivePatch SDK :: :: 33
Catalyst File Transfer :: ::
Catalyst File Transfer :: :: 36
Catalyst File Transfer :: :: 25
Catalyst File Transfer :: :: 33
Catalyst File Transfer v :: :: 45
Catalyst File Transfer v :: :: 0
Catalyst Internet Mail :: :: 50
Catalyst Internet Mail :: :: 33
Catalyst Internet Mail :: :: 54
Catalyst Internet Mail :: :: 57
Catalyst Internet Mail v :: :: 8
Catalyst Internet Mail v :: :: 16
Catalyst Internet Mail v :: :: 66
Catalyst SocketTools Enterprise Edition :: :: 66
Catalyst SocketTools Enterprise Edition :: :: 50
Catalyst SocketTools Enterprise Edition :: ::
Catalyst SocketTools Library Edition :: :: 37
Catalyst SocketTools Library Edition :: :: 0
Catalyst SocketTools Secure DotNET Edition v :: :: 36
Catalyst SocketTools Secure DotNET Edition v :: :: 25
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Enterprise Edition :: :: 33
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Enterprise Edition SP2 :: :: 0
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Enterprise Edition :: :: 40
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Enterprise Edition :: :: 40
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Library Edition :: :: 66
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Library Edition :: :: 25
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Library Edition v ::
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Scripting Edition v ::
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Visual Edition :: :: 30
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Visual Edition :: :: 14
Catalyst SocketTools Secure Visual Edition v :: ::
Catalyst SocketTools Universal Subscription :: :: 0
Catalyst SocketTools Universal Subscription :: :: 33
Catalyst SocketTools Universal Subscription :: :: 57
Catalyst SocketTools Universal Subscription v :: :: 58
Catalyst SocketTools Visual Edition :: :: 33
Catalyst SocketTools Visual Edition :: :: 18
Catalyst SocketTools Visual Edition :: :: 33
Catalyst SocketWrench DotNET Edition v :: ::
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition :: :: 41
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition :: :: 25
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition :: :: 50
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition :: :: 33
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition :: :: 36
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition :: :: 33
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition v :: :: 22
Catalyst SocketWrench Secure Edition v :: ::
Catalyst SocketWrench Standard Edition :: :: 40
Catalyst SocketWrench shoppingdowntown.usn :: :: 20
Catch :: :: 33
Catch fr :: :: 11
Catch :: :: 23
Catch :: :: 0
Catch 3D :: :: 33
Catch 3D :: :: 33
Catch 3D :: :: 53
Catch Input v :: :: 60
Catch Me Win Server Enterprise :: :: 36
Catch-Up :: :: 61
Catcher Console :: :: 50
Catcher Sentry :: :: 20
Catcher Video Server :: :: 42
Catcher Wildlife :: :: 72
CatDV Pro :: :: 33
Caterpillar :: :: 53
Caterpillar :: :: 37
Caterpillar :: :: 53
Catfood CamSaver :: :: 44
Catfood Desktate :: :: 75
Catfood Desktate :: :: 75
Catfood Desktate :: :: 45
Catfood Desktate :: :: 50
Catfood Desktate :: :: 41
Catfood Desktate :: :: 41
Catfood Desktate v :: :: 72
Catfood Desktate v :: :: 75
Catfood Fortune Cookies :: :: 75
Catfood Fortune Cookies :: ::
Catfood FTP Wizard :: :: 60
Catfood Mail :: :: 0
Catfood Quote :: :: 50
Catfood Quote :: :: 75
CatFood WebCamSaver :: :: 46
Cathedral 3D Screensaver v :: :: 72
CATIII Software Code Signer Pro v :: :: 57
Cats and Kittens :: :: 12
Cats and Quotes Screen Saver :: :: 25
CATS Complete Anti Trojan System :: :: 16
Cats ScreenSaver a_SERIAL-FFF :: :: 50
CatShell e :: :: 50
Catwoman :: :: 93
Catz II g4 (Retail) :: :: 71
Catz II The Screensaver :: :: 66
Catz II The Screensaver (null) :: :: 45
Catz Your Computer Petz :: :: 54
cavas :: :: 33
Cave RMD :: :: 55
Cave RMD VL :: :: 40
CBAdress :: :: 33
CBR ANTIBK :: :: 51
CC File Transfer :: :: 50
CC File Transfer v :: :: 25
CC File Transfer v :: :: 80
CC File Transfer v ::
CC Get MAC Address :: :: 83
CC Software Access Password Recover :: :: 60
CC3XEXYLEK :: :: 33
Ccounter strike :: :: 21
CCProxy :: :: 39
CCProxy :: :: 29
CCS Payroll :: :: 66
CCS TimeKeeper :: :: 66
CCS Training :: :: 75
CD & DVD Inspector Retail :: :: 40
cd -writer plus :: :: 55
CD :: :: 25
Cd Anywhere :: :: 33
Cd Anywhere :: :: 0
Cd Anywhere Network Edition :: :: 28
CD Anywhere :: :: 71
CD Architect :: :: 10
CD Architect a build :: :: 4
CD Audio MP3 Converter :: :: 38
CD Audio MP3 Converter :: :: 26
CD Audio MP3 Converter :: :: 55
CD Audio MP3 Converter v :: :: 62
CD Autorun Creator :: :: 33
CD Autorun Creator v :: :: 11
CD Bank :: :: 37
CD Bank :: :: 58
CD Bank :: :: 46
CD Bank :: :: 55
CD Bank :: :: 38
CD Bank :: :: 57
CD bank cataloguer :: :: 62
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 68
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 22
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 30
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 75
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 72
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 71
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 50
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 35
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 50
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 56
CD Bank Cataloguer beta :: :: 44
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 69
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 58
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 63
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 75
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 65
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 64
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 58
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 58
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 52
CD Bank Cataloguer :: :: 59
CD Bank Cataloguer PRO v :: :: 65
CD Bank Cataloguer PRO v Beta Multilingual :: :: 90
CD Bank Cataloguer PRO v Beta Multilingual :: :: 38
CD Bank Cataloguer PRO v :: :: 50
CD Bank Cataloguer PRO v Beta Multilingual :: :: 85
CD Bank Cataloguer v :: :: 14
CD Bank Cataloguer v :: :: 56
CD Bank Cataloguer version :: :: 43
Cd Bank v BY EFC87 :: :: 34
CD Blaster :: :: 46
CD Blaster v :: :: 59
CD Box Labeler :: :: 46
CD Box Labeler 98 :: :: 60
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 40
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 50
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 50
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 57
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 63
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 42
CD Box Labeler Pro beta :: :: 35
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 22
CD Box Labeler Pro :: :: 56
CD Bremse German :: :: 82
CD Bremse :: :: 71
CD Bremse :: :: 50
CD Bremse :: :: 68
CD Bremse :: :: 28
CD Bremse :: :: 52
CD Bremse :: :: 55
CD Bremse :: :: 68
CD Burner v :: :: 45
CD Catalog :: :: 50
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 42
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 0
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 33
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 83
CD Catalog Expert Build :: :: 54
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 46
CD Catalog Expert Build :: :: 60
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 79
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 83
CD Catalog Expert :: :: 66
CD Catalog Expert v :: :: 81
CD Catalog Expert v :: :: 88
CD Catalog Expert v ::
CD Catalog Sxpert Build :: :: 81
Cd Coding :: :: 0
CD Collection :: :: 25
CD Collection :: :: 31
CD Cover Maker :: :: 62
CD creator Platnum v :: :: 48
CD Data Rescue :: :: 22
CD Data Rescue :: :: 24
CD Diver :: :: 50
CD DVD Analyse :: :: 16
CD DVD Analyse :: :: 63
CD DVD catalog :: :: 54
CD DVD catalog v :: :: 66
CD dvd data recovery :: :: 58
CD DVD Data Recovery :: :: 72
CD DVD Data Recovery :: :: 50
CD DVD Data Recovery v :: :: 71
Cd Dvd Graveur :: :: 33
CD DVD Helper Pro v :: :: 80
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 50
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 47
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 54
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 40
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 66
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 62
CD DVD Helper Professional :: :: 36
CD DVD Helper Professional v :: :: 16
CD DVD Helper Professional v :: :: 50
CD DVD Helper Professional v :: :: 85
CD DVD Lock :: :: 45
CD Easy-Sticker vc :: :: 40
CD Everywhere :: :: 40
CD Extraction Wizard :: :: 77
CD Extraction Wizard :: :: 50
CD Extractor :: :: 55
CD FACTA :: :: 30
CD File :: :: 30
CD Indexer Pro Build 75 :: :: 11
CD Indexer Pro :: :: 62
Cd Indexer Pro :: :: 40
CD Indexer Pro :: :: 33
CD Indexer Professional :: :: 25
CD Key :: :: 35
CD Key - Micrsoft Windows Vista Ultimate BT Msdn :: :: 24
CD Label Designer (build 85) :: :: 43
CD Label designer :: :: 52
CD Label designer :: :: 44
CD Label designer (build 92) :: :: 20
CD Label designer (build 93) :: :: 33
CD Label Designer :: :: 55
CD Label Designer :: :: 38
CD Label Designer build :: :: 50
CD Labels Designer v :: :: 90
CD Launch Pad :: :: 81
CD M?te :: :: 70
CD Maker Pro :: :: 57
CD Manager :: :: 80
CD Master Clone 4 - Alle Versions :: :: 36
CD Mate :: :: 84
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 33
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 37
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 28
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 92
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 76
CD Mate Deluxe Build 26 :: :: 44
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 25
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 57
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 86
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 50
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 87
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 76
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 37
CD Mate Deluxe :: :: 90
CD Mate Deluxe v :: :: 50
CD Mate Deluxe v :: :: 82
CD Mate Deluxe v :: :: 61
CD Max x :: ::
CD Max Build :: :: 25
CD Max :: :: 50
CD MegaManager a :: :: 33
CD Menu Creator :: :: 17
CD Menu-Generator :: :: 0
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 40
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 57
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 47
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 43
CD Mp3 Burner :: :: 44
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 27
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 31
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 55
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 55
CD MP3 Burner :: :: 55
CD MP3 Burner v :: :: 18
CD MP3 Ripper :: :: 30
CD MP3 Studio :: :: 57
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 37
CD MP3 Terminator 1,7 :: :: 18
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 38
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 75
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 44
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 66
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 47
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 42
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 66
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 33
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 44
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 55
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 12
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 40
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 50
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 33
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 54
CD MP3 Terminator :: :: 56
CD player & ripper :: :: 20
Cd Portal :: :: 44
CD Portal Multilanguage :: :: 20
CD Right Plus :: :: 30
CD Ripper :: :: 34
CD Ripper :: :: 41
CD Ripper :: :: 30
CD Ripper :: :: 40
CD Ripper :: :: 40
CD Ripper :: :: 31
CD Ripper :: :: 37
CD Roller :: :: 51
CD roller :: :: 20
CD Roller :: :: 33
cd roller v :: :: 37
CD Space a :: :: 41
CD Space 4 :: :: 45
CD Space :: :: 72
CD Space 5 :: :: 77
CD Space :: :: 65
Cd Space Power Plus u :: :: 75
CD Space Power+ (null) :: :: 57
CD space v :: :: 75
CD Speed :: :: 69
CD Speed :: :: 66
CD Speed v :: :: 75
CD Storage Master Professional :: :: 50
CD Storage Master Professional v :: :: 28
CD Storager Professional :: :: 40
CD Stripper :: :: 0
CD Stripper us :: :: 31
CD Stripper :: :: 60
CD to Mp3 Converter :: :: 22
CD to MP3 Maker :: :: 60
CD To Mp3 Maker :: :: 54
CD To MP3 Ripper :: :: 15
CD To MP3 Ripper Repack v :: :: 8
CD to MP3 WAV Maker :: :: 15
CD to MP3 Wav Maker :: :: 60
CD to MP3 Wav Maker :: :: 66
CD to MP3 WAV Maker :: :: 37
CD to MP3 WAV Maker :: :: 23
CD to MP3 WAV Maker :: :: 43
CD To OGG Ripper Repack v :: :: 66
CD to WAV/MP3/WMA/OGG Ripper :: :: 37
CD to WMA MP3 Ripper :: :: 23
CD To WMA Ripper Repack v :: ::
CD Trustee :: :: 30
CD Trustee v :: :: 53
CD Valet :: :: 40
CD Wave Audio Editor :: :: 52
CD Wave Audio Editor :: :: 0
CD Wave Audio Editor :: :: 71
CD Wave Editor :: :: 68
CD Wave Editor Final :: :: 40
CD Wave Editor :: :: 56
CD Wave Editor :: :: 62
CD Wave Editor :: :: 69
CD Wave Editor :: :: 82
CD Wave Editor :: :: 63
CD Wave Editor Beta :: :: 75
CD Wave Editor :: :: 64
CD Wave Editor Beta :: :: 33
CD Wave Editor :: :: 50
CD Wave Editor :: :: 50
CD Wave Editor :: :: 55
CD Wave Editor v :: :: 62
CD Wave Editor v :: :: 60
CD Winder :: :: 40
CD Winder :: :: 28
CD Wizard :: :: 33
CD Zoznam :: :: 40
CD Zoznam [Slovak] :: :: 71
Cd+G Karaoke Disc Player :: :: 45
CD+G Winamp Plugin :: :: 59
CD-Backup :: :: 50
CD-CREATOR INGLES :: :: 45
CD-DVD Cover Builder :: :: 28
CD-DVD Data Recovery v By UnREal :: :: 80
CD-DVD Lock v :: :: 52
CD-DVD Lock v ;:-_-:; MaliN :: :: 50
CD-Gen :: :: 38
CD-Lock :: :: 62
CD-Manager :: :: 0
CD-Mate OEM Hecho en México :: :: 68
CD-Mate v :: :: 85
CD-Menu Creator :: :: 27
CD-QuickShare v for Windows :: :: 0
CD-R Beta :: :: 40
CD-Teka :: :: 50
shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 54
CD/DVD Diagnîstic Retail build :: :: 58
CD/DVD Diagnostic build Retail :: :: 64
CD/DVD Druck Paket :: :: 19
CD/DVD Inspector Retail :: :: 76
CD/DVD Laber Maker :: :: 42
CD2HTML :: :: 87
CD2HTML :: :: 62
CD2HTML :: :: 24
CD2HTML v :: :: 16
CDBank :: :: 25
CDBremse (CDThrottle) v :: :: 50
CDchech v :: :: 35
CDCheck :: :: 50
CDCheck :: :: 96
CDCheck :: :: 78
CDCheck b Beta :: :: 52
CDCheck b Beta :: :: 38
CDCheck b Beta :: :: 41
CDCheck b :: :: 52
CDCheck :: :: 66
CDCheck :: :: 94
CDCheck Personal :: :: 91
CDCheck :: :: 92
CDCheck :: :: 91
CDCheck :: :: 77
CDCheck :: :: 84
CDCheck :: :: 75
CDCheck :: :: 68
CDCheck v RC :: :: 89
CDCover :: :: 87
CDCover Easy Layout :: :: 75
CDCover! :: :: 81
CDCover! :: :: 87
CDCoverKit vDVT :: :: 0
CDDB-MP3-Tagger :: :: 25
CDDVD Lock :: :: 48
CDEdit :: :: 72
CDEdit :: :: 41
CDEdit :: :: 46
CDEveryWhere :: :: 57
CDEveryWhere :: :: 57
CDFiles2 French :: :: 0
CDfinder :: :: 20
CDG2VCD :: :: 29
CDG2VCD :: :: 61
CDH Image Explorer Pro 5,3 :: :: 0
CDLauncherCreator :: :: 45
CDLX :: :: 33
CDmax :: :: 42
CDmax :: :: 27
CDmax :: :: 0
CDmax :: :: 85
CDmax :: :: 38
CdMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 73
CDMenuPro :: :: 68
CDMenuPro :: :: 61
CDMenuPro :: :: 50
CDMenuPro :: :: 68
CDMenuPro :: :: 55
CDMenuPro GERMAN :: :: 77
CDMenuPro :: :: 38
CDMenuPro :: :: 59
CDMenuPro :: :: 62
CDMenuPro :: :: 37
CDMenuPro :: :: 23
CDMenuPro :: :: 28
CDMenuPro :: :: 56
CDMenuPro :: :: 10
CDMenuPro :: :: 54
CDMenuPro :: :: 23
CDMenuPro :: :: 66
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 36
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 74
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 37
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 35
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 64
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 16
CDMenuPro Business Edition German :: :: 37
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 43
CDMenuPro Business Edition :: :: 46
CDMenuPro Personal Edition :: :: 25
CDMenuPro v4.+ :: :: 50
CDMenuPro v :: :: 44
CDMenuPro V :: :: 67
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 62
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 55
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 52
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 66
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 71
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 70
CDMenuPro v Business Edition :: :: 84
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 25
CDMenuPro v Business Edition :: :: 72
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 40
CDMenuPro v Business Edition Bilingual :: :: 59
CDMenuPro V6 :: :: 80
CDMenuPro v :: :: 0
CDMenuPro_v_Business_Edition_Bilingual :: :: 66
CDMenüPro :: :: 24
CDN Win Tool (Professional Edition Version :: :: 40
CDNowPro v4.x :: :: 50
CDO(Chief Desktop Officer) :: :: 50
CDP :: :: 25
CDProw v :: ::
CDR Label Build :: :: 89
Cdr Labels :: :: 77
Cdr Labels :: :: 68
CDR Site Map Pro :: :: 63
CDR-Win :: :: 36
CDR-Win(german) :: :: 79
CDRestore 2 :: :: 55
CDRipMP3 - French :: :: 28
CDRipMP3 :: :: 42
CDRipper :: :: 25
CdRipper :: :: 63
CDRipper :: :: 50
CDRipper :: :: 0
CDRipper :: :: 71
CDRipper :: :: 60
CDRipper :: :: 65
CDRipper :: :: 75
CDRipper :: :: 73
CDRipper v :: :: 0
CDRipper v :: :: 20
CDRipper v :: :: 35
CDRlabel :: :: 84
CDRLabel :: :: 66
CDRLabel :: :: 69
CDRLabel build :: :: 78
CDRLabel :: :: 90
CDRLabel v by EFC87 :: :: 87
CDRLabel [by Pitulon] :: :: 25
CDRoller :: :: 33
CDRoller :: :: 13
CDRoller :: :: 34
CDRoller :: :: 65
CDRoller :: :: 68
CDRoller :: :: 18
CDRoller :: :: 58
CDRoller & :: :: 17
CDRoller :: :: 19
CdRoller :: :: 10
CDRoller v :: :: 19
CDRoller :: :: 52
Cdrom Boss :: :: 50
CdrWin :: :: 7
CDRWIN - version 4. OA BETA :: :: 29
CDRWIN G :: :: 39
CDRWIN A build :: :: 50
CDRWIN b :: :: 52
CDRWIN C :: :: 63
CDRWIN c by felipollo :: :: 24
CDRWIN C Working :: :: 67
CDRWIN D :: :: 78
CDRWIN e :: :: 65
CDRWin F :: :: 75
CDRWIN g :: :: 81
Cdrwin H :: :: 78
CDRWin k :: :: 70
CDRWin B :: :: 74
CDRwin 5 :: :: 45
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CDRwin :: :: 19
CDRWIN :: :: 17
CDRWIN (Any language) :: :: 30
CDRWIN by neilarmstrong@shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 42
CDRWIN :: :: 65
CDRWIN Final :: :: 28
CDRWIN :: :: 91
CDRWIN Deutsch :: :: 71
CDRWIN c :: :: 24
CDRWin :: :: 94
Cdrwinc (15/2/03) Golden Hawk :: :: 71
CDRWIN50 :: :: 41
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CDSpace :: :: 81
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CDStore :: :: 44
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CDSurf Net Professional :: :: 62
CDSurf Net Professional :: :: 50
CDSurf Professionnal :: :: 44
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shoppingdowntown.us Professional v :: :: 22
CDTeka v :: :: 50
CDThrottle :: :: 50
CDToMP3 Maker :: :: 57
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CDWinder :: :: 50
CDWinder :: :: 72
CDWinder :: :: 29
CDWinder :: :: 50
CDWinder :: :: 66
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CDWinder v GERMAN :: :: 60
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CDX CREATOR :: :: 0
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CDXtract :: :: 53
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CDXtract Samplit v ::
CD\DVD Analyse :: :: 40
CD\DVD Analyse :: :: 33
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Cecima WinDesign :: :: 40
CECraft iGolf :: :: 47
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CEdit :: :: 17
Ceetah CD Burner :: :: 25
Ceetah CD Burner x :: :: 40
Celartem Technology VFZ Plug-in for PS Retail :: :: 10
Celartem Technology VFZoom :: :: 7
CeledyDraw :: :: 26
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Celemony Melodyne Studio Edition :: :: 48
Celemony Melodyne Studio Edition :: :: 41
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Center :: :: 11
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Centrivex Bin Man :: :: 0
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Cepstral All Products :: :: 30
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Cepstral Swifttalker With Amy :: :: 33
Cepstral Swifttalker with Amy :: :: 50
Cepstral Swifttalker with Amy :: :: 51
Cepstral Swifttalker with Amy :: :: 38
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Damien :: :: 33
Cepstral Swifttalker with Damien :: :: 20
Cepstral Swifttalker with Damien :: :: 58
Cepstral Swifttalker With Damien :: :: 25
Cepstral Swifttalker with Damien :: :: 36
Cepstral Swifttalker with Damien :: :: 41
Cepstral Swifttalker with Damien :: :: 42
Cepstral Swifttalker with David :: :: 43
Cepstral Swifttalker with David :: :: 41
Cepstral Swifttalker with David :: :: 54
Cepstral Swifttalker with David :: :: 32
Cepstral Swifttalker with David :: :: 20
Cepstral Swifttalker with David :: :: 41
Cepstral Swifttalker with Diane :: :: 44
Cepstral Swifttalker with Diane :: :: 45
Cepstral Swifttalker with Diane :: :: 31
Cepstral Swifttalker with Diane :: :: 29
Cepstral Swifttalker with Diane :: :: 10
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Duchess :: :: 0
Cepstral Swifttalker with Duchess :: :: 40
Cepstral Swifttalker with Duchess :: :: 42
Cepstral Swifttalker With Duchess :: :: 16
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Duchess :: :: 41
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Duncan :: :: 38
Cepstral Swifttalker with Duncan :: :: 53
Cepstral Swifttalker with Duncan :: :: 15
Cepstral Swifttalker with Emily :: :: 25
Cepstral Swifttalker with Emily :: :: 25
Cepstral Swifttalker with Emily :: :: 42
Cepstral Swifttalker With Emily :: :: 60
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Emily :: :: 42
Cepstral Swifttalker with Emily :: :: 63
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Frank :: :: 15
Cepstral Swifttalker with Frank :: :: 54
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Frank :: :: 21
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Jean Pierre :: ::
Cepstral Swifttalker with Jean Pierre :: :: 50
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Jean Pierre :: :: 20
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Katrin :: :: 23
Cepstral Swifttalker With Katrin :: :: 29
Cepstral Swifttalker with Katrin :: :: 53
Cepstral Swifttalker with Katrin :: :: 43
Cepstral Swifttalker with Katrin :: :: 15
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Lawrence :: :: 38
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Linda :: :: 38
Cepstral Swifttalker with Linda :: :: 38
Cepstral Swifttalker With Linda :: :: 36
Cepstral Swifttalker with Linda :: :: 30
Cepstral Swifttalker with Linda :: :: 35
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Marta :: :: 0
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Marta :: :: 18
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Marta :: :: 23
Cepstral Swifttalker with Marta :: :: 31
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Matthias :: :: 33
Cepstral Swifttalker with Matthias :: :: 23
Cepstral Swifttalker With Matthias :: :: 27
Cepstral Swifttalker with Matthias :: :: 28
Cepstral Swifttalker with Matthias :: :: 37
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Miguel :: :: 33
Cepstral Swifttalker with Miguel :: :: 25
Cepstral Swifttalker with Miguel :: :: 21
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Miguel :: :: 11
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Millie :: :: 20
Cepstral Swifttalker With Millie :: :: 42
Cepstral Swifttalker with Millie :: :: 36
Cepstral Swifttalker with Millie :: :: 64
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Cepstral Swifttalker with Robin :: :: 50
Cepstral Swifttalker with Robin :: :: 35
Cepstral Swifttalker with Walter :: :: 66
Cepstral Swifttalker with Walter :: :: 27
Cepstral Swifttalker with Walter :: :: 22
Cepstral Swifttalker With Walter :: :: 40
Cepstral Swifttalker with Walter :: :: 15
Cepstral Swifttalker with Walter :: :: 41
Cepstral Swifttalker With William :: :: 0
Cepstral Swifttalker with William :: :: 23
Cepstral Swifttalker With William :: :: 28
Cepstral Swifttalker with William :: :: 58
Cepstral Swifttalker with William :: :: 39
Cepstral Swifttalker with Willliam :: :: 50
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Cerberus FTP Server :: :: 81
Cerberus FTP Server :: :: 61
Cerberus FTP Server :: :: 50
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Cerberus FTP Server :: :: 38
Cerberus FTP Server :: :: 78
Cerberus ftp server :: :: 70
Cerberus HelpDesk v2 6 1 with Email Parser with :: :: 33
shoppingdowntown.us Simulator :: :: 29
Cesarz: Narodziny Panstwa Srodka PL :: :: 80
Cestovni Prikazy S Automapou :: :: 33
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CETuner :: :: 63
CFA RipIt :: :: 28
CFA SFVit :: :: 50
CFI Stylepad :: :: 28
CFi StylePad :: :: 0
CFi TreeView Pro Designer :: :: 10
CFI WebPad :: :: 25
CFMEncryptor :: :: 75
CFMX Exam Buster :: :: 42
Cfont Pro :: :: 65
Cfont Pro v :: :: 75
CFos :: :: 71
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CFosSpeed :: :: 42
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cFosSpeed :: :: 39
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CFosSpeed v :: :: 55
cFosSpeed v :: :: 41
CG23X-3KVJ4-DWVTG-TWQGMBG :: :: 70
CGMRIP :: :: 42
CGSD Bump Texture Tools for Adobe Photoshop 2 :: :: 75
CGSD Real Texture Tools Pro for Adobe Photoshop :: :: 50
CGSD Upright for Adobe Photoshop 1 :: :: 25
Chain Reaction :: :: 31
Chalama_anti soft :: :: 71
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Chameleon Clock :: :: 25
Chameleon Clock :: :: 33
Chameleon Clock :: :: 76
Chameleon Clock :: :: 30
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Chameleon Clock :: :: 13
Chameleon Clock :: :: 45
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chameleon clock v :: :: 56
Chameleon Clock v :: :: 68
Chameleon v :: :: 24
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Championship Pro :: :: 28
Championship Pro :: :: 39
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Championship Browser :: ::
Championship Cribbage Pro :: :: 35
Championship Cribbage Pro :: :: 46
Championship Cribbage Pro :: :: 33
Championship Cribbage Pro :: :: 30
Championship Euchre Pro :: :: 50
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Championship Euchre Pro :: :: 9
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Championship Gin Pro :: :: 33
Championship Gin Pro :: :: 40
Championship Gin Pro :: :: 25
Championship Gin Pro :: :: 22
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Championship Hearts Pro :: :: 33
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Championship Spades Pro :: :: 12
Championship Spades Pro :: :: 27
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Change7 I Ching :: :: 46
ChangeAgent :: :: 25
ChangeAnyIcon :: :: 65
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Changes Saver :: :: 60
Changes Saver :: :: 0
Changes Saver :: :: 20
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Chant Developer Workbench :: :: 37
Chant SpeechKit :: :: 35
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Chaos For Security :: :: 20
Chaos Legion :: :: 88
Chapay Chi :: :: 44
Chaperone :: :: 50
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Chaperone Professional incl :: :: 28
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Chaperone Professional v :: :: 50
Chaperone Professional v ::
Character FX :: :: 66
Character FX :: :: 23
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ChargeMeter :: :: 20
ChargeMeter :: :: 66
ChargeMeter :: :: 50
Charles :: :: 7
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Charlie 2 :: :: 50
Charlie II :: :: 47
Charlie II :: :: 56
Charlie II v Multilingual :: :: 28
Charlie II v Multilingual :: :: 45
Charlie the Duck :: :: 40
Charlie's Angels: Angel X :: :: 62
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Charm Dvd To Real Converter :: :: 28
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Charm DVD To Real Converter :: :: 33
Charm DVD To Real Converter :: :: 41
Charm DVD To Real Converter :: :: 60
Charm DVD To Real Converter :: :: 62
Charm Real Converter :: :: 64
Charm Real Converter Pro :: :: 50
Charm Real Converter Pro :: :: 63
Charm Real Converter Pro :: :: 41
Charm Real Converter Pro :: :: 57
Charm Real Converter Pro :: :: 52
Charm Real Converter Pro :: :: 77
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Charmas :: :: 36
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Chart FX Developer Studio :: :: 65
Chart Note :: :: 0
Chartist :: :: 41
Chaser :: :: 61
Chaser (PC-Game) :: :: 39
Chaser by shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 49
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Chat Anywhere :: :: 24
Chat Anywhere :: :: 62
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Chat Anywhere v :: :: 58
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Chat Watch :: :: 0
Chat Watch :: :: 11
Chat Watch :: :: 10
Chat Watch :: :: 41
Chat Watch :: :: 9
Chat Watch :: :: 9
Chat Watch :: :: 23
ChatSpace Server Edition :: :: 61
ChatSpace Premium Edition :: :: 25
ChatSpace :: :: 37
ChatSpace IRC Server :: :: 14
ChatterBlocker v :: :: 21
ChatterBlocker vSHOCK :: :: 70
ChatWare c :: :: 0
ChatWatch :: :: 25
Cheapest Gas Price Locater :: :: 35
CheapShareware DVD Cover Searcher vLz0 :: :: 14
CheapShareware PWKeeper :: ::
Cheat Guru :: :: 10
Cheatbook :: :: 52
Chebo Man :: :: 22
Cheboman 1.x :: :: 47
Chebs :: :: 56
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Check :: :: 30
Check Favorites :: :: 53
Check Favorites :: :: 66
Check Identical Files :: :: 4
Check Identical Files :: :: 93
Check Identical Files :: :: 83
Check n Do Pro v :: ::
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Check2Check :: :: 75
Check2Check :: :: 63
CheckBook :: :: 14
Checkbook for Excel b :: :: 20
Checkbook for Excel b :: :: 66
Checkbook for Excel v :: :: 50
Checkbook For Excel v ::
CheckBook v :: :: 22
CheckBook v :: :: 50
CheckDialer Apr :: :: 11
CheckDialer :: :: 11
Checkers NX :: :: 8
Checkers Nx :: :: 44
CheckIt :: :: 35
Checkit pro + :: :: 50
CheckIt Speed & Security Internet Suite :: :: 40
Checklist - Handmark V :: :: 56
CheckList :: :: 45
Checklist Investor :: :: 38
CheckList Investor :: :: 20
Checklist Investor :: :: 0
Checklist Investor :: :: 25
CheckPoint Integrity Advanced Server :: :: 30
CheckPoint Integrity Advanced Server :: :: 50
CheckPoint Integrity SecureClient :: :: 14
CheckPoint ZoneAlarm Internet Security Suite v :: :: 71
CheckPoint ZoneAlarm Pro v :: :: 56
CheckPoint ZoneAlarm with Anti Virus v :: :: 15
CheckPoint ZoneAlarm with AntiSpyware v :: :: 37
CheckPoint ZoneAlarm with Antivirus v :: :: 44
CheckSum Calculator beta :: :: 33
CheesGenius v [POCKETPC] :: :: 30
Cheetah Audio CD Copier :: :: 62
Cheetah Audio CD Copier :: :: 60
Cheetah Audio CD Copier :: :: 40
Cheetah Audio CD Copier :: :: 50
Cheetah Audio CD Creator :: :: 36
Cheetah AudioCDCopier :: :: 33
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Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 45
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 66
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 48
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 60
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 61
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 87
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 87
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 72
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 77
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 73
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 33
Cheetah CD Burner shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 68
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 45
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 77
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 57
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 52
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 30
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 64
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 50
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 71
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 40
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 50
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 58
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 50
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 57
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 76
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 52
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 30
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 37
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 62
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 60
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 83
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 38
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 50
Cheetah CD Burner :: :: 66
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Cheetah Cd Burner V :: :: 50
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 60
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 62
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 45
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 65
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 54
Cheetah CD Burner v ::
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 75
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 60
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 71
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 66
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 82
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 50
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 45
Cheetah CD Burner v :: ::
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 58
Cheetah CD Burner vSHADOW :: :: 83
Cheetah CD Burner v :: :: 62
Cheetah Command Line Burner :: :: 27
Cheetah CommandLine Burner :: :: 62
Cheetah CommandLine Burner :: :: 83
Cheetah CommandLine Burner :: :: 28
Cheetah CommandLine Burner :: :: 50
Cheetah CommandLine Burner v :: :: 28
Cheetah DVD Burner 1 :: :: 63
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 68
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 70
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 77
Cheetah dvd burner :: :: 57
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 78
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 60
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 80
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 77
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 76
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 72
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 72
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 73
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 52
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 71
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 44
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 65
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 55
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 48
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 28
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 75
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 54
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 56
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 64
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 64
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 44
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 60
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 81
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 44
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 45
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 57
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 23
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 52
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 36
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 63
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 69
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 40
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 73
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 61
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 54
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 68
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 44
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 71
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 78
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 77
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 50
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 45
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 81
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 66
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 45
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: ::
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 57
Cheetah DVD Burner v :: :: 50
Cheetah DVD Burner :: :: 81
Cheetah Quick Burner v :: :: 40
Cheetah Quick Burner v :: :: 40
Cheetah Quick Burner v :: :: 70
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CheetahBurner :: :: 50
CheetahDVDBurner :: :: 86
Cheftec Plus Network Edition :: :: 10
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Chem Office :: :: 54
Chem Paster :: :: 60
Chem Paster :: :: 71
Chem Tools :: :: 37
Chem3D Pro :: :: 47
Chem3D Studio :: :: 25
ChemEng Software ChemMaths :: :: 25
ChemEng Software DataPro :: :: 50
ChemEng Software Design ChemMaths vLz0 :: :: 72
ChemEng Software Equations :: :: 56
Chemic Pen c :: :: 75
Chemical Calculator :: :: 43
ChemicPen :: :: 50
ChemMaths_vDIGERATI :: :: 15
ChemOffice Ultra :: :: 51
ChemOffice Ultra :: :: 60
ChemOffice Ultra :: :: 18
ChemOffice Ultra :: :: 92
Chemoffice Ultra v :: :: 85
Chemoffice ultra :: :: 11
ChemOffice Ultra v :: :: 11
ChemOffice Ultra v :: :: 15
ChemPaster :: :: 53
ChemPen :: :: 60
ChemPoint Professional Ansi Edition :: :: 0
ChemPoint Professional Edition Unicode Edition :: :: 55
ChemRef PC :: :: 50
CHEMSPREAD Pro :: :: 66
ChemWindow :: :: 50
Chequebook 96 :: :: 0
Cheques Editor :: :: 62
Cheques Editor Fr :: :: 33
Cheques Editor French :: :: 70
Cheques Editor :: :: 50
Cheques Editor 4r9 French :: :: 46
Cherry Bandit Slots :: :: 73
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Chess Jr :: :: 40
Chess 3D (Schach 3D) :: :: 18
Chess 3D (Schach 3D) :: :: 20
Chess 3D :: :: 25
Chess 3D v :: :: 20
Chess 3D v :: :: 15
chess genius :: :: 16
Chess Magician :: :: 20
Chess Magician Build :: :: 50
Chess Magician build :: :: 65
Chess Magician :: :: 52
Chess Magician :: :: 22
Chess Magician v :: :: 38
Chess Nx :: :: 6
Chess Nx :: :: 66
Chess Plus Fantasy :: :: 50
Chess Rk :: :: 64
Chess Rk :: :: 47
Chess Tiger 15 :: :: 18
Chess3D viNDUCT :: :: 17
Chess3D v :: :: 0
Chess3D v :: :: 41
ChessAlex_v_Beta3_Happy_New_Year-DIGERATI :: :: 0
ChessBase 9 :: :: 58
ChessBlaster Pro :: :: 54
ChessBlaster Pro :: :: 33
ChessExplorer :: :: 50
chessgenius :: :: 9
Chessgenius :: :: 12
ChessGenius Classic :: :: 18
ChessGenius for Symbian Series 60 60 :: :: 10
ChessGenius V :: :: 20
ChessMaker :: :: 54
chessmaster :: :: 34
ChessPad :: :: 0
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ChessRally build :: :: 24
ChessRally Gold :: :: 38
Chessrally :: :: 52
ChessRk :: :: 40
ChessTiger :: :: 13
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Chickens invaders 2 :: :: 24
chico panda titanium :: :: 32
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chico platinum 7/4 :: :: 22
chico platitnum 7/2 :: :: 25
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chico titanium 2 :: :: 41
Chico titanium :: :: 66
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chico titanium 4 :: :: 16
chico titanium 5 :: :: 22
chico titanium 6 :: :: 58
chico titanium 7 :: :: 14
chico titanium 8 :: :: 25
chico titanium 9 :: :: 21
Chief Architect 10 :: :: 10
Chief Architect :: :: 34
Chief Desktop Officer :: :: 33
Chief Desktop Officer v :: :: 0
Chiffres ::
Child Control :: :: 61
Child Control :: :: 25
Child Control :: :: 36
Child Control :: :: 80
Child Control :: :: 0
Child Control :: :: 60
Child Control :: :: 66
Child Control :: :: 76
Child Control :: :: 50
Child Control :: :: 25
Child Control :: :: 28
Child Control :: :: 33
Child Control :: :: 51
Child Control :: :: 41
Child Control :: :: 63
Child Control :: :: 50
Child Control :: :: 69
Child Control :: :: 50
Child Control :: :: 45
Child Control :: :: 54
Child Control :: :: 28
Child Control :: :: 12
Child Control :: :: 21
Child Control :: :: 34
Child Control :: :: 30
Child Control :: :: 40
Child Control v :: :: 45
Child Control Kindersicherung v Bilanguage :: :: 46
Child Control v :: :: 71
Child Control v :: :: 65
Child Control v :: :: 62
Child Control v :: :: 63
Child Control v :: :: 76
Child Control v Bilingual :: :: 50
Child Control v Bilingual :: :: 75
Child Control v :: :: 57
Child Parental Control French :: :: 31
ChildPad :: ::
ChildProtector :: :: 78
Children Control :: :: 28
Children Control v :: :: 40
Child_Control__vDIGERATI :: :: 25
Chili FTP :: :: 42
Chili FTP :: :: 50
Chili FTP :: :: 71
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Chilkat Bounce ActiveX v :: :: 50
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shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 66
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CMB A Plus Web Screen Saver :: :: 40
CMB Password Pro :: :: 75
CMB Presentation Publisher :: :: 72
CMB SlideShow Ultra Gold Custom SlideShow Packager :: :: 83
Cmcorder pro v1 :: :: 66
CmdSOHO :: :: 0
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CMJ Designs DaySmart :: :: 38
CMJ Designs Orchid Medical Spa :: :: 27
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CMP Qwk :: :: 29
CMS Products BounceBack Professional v :: :: 28
CMS Products BounceBack Professional v Multilingual :: :: 18
CMUD v :: :: 7
CnC Generals - Zero Hour :: :: 95
cnc generals zero hour :: :: 76
CNDR FTP :: :: 41
CNSearch Pro :: :: 38
Coalesys Internet NewsWire :: :: 50
Coalesys PanelBar for ASP .NET Build 72 :: :: 25
Coalesys PanelBar for ASP :: :: 10
Coalesys PanelBar for ASP Build 72 :: :: 75
Coalesys PanelBar for ASP build 73 :: :: 41
Coalesys PanelBar for ASP NET build 73 :: :: 20
Coalesys Panelbar Studio :: :: 55
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Coalesys SureGrid Control v :: :: 28
Coalesys Webmenu For ASP .NET Build 71 :: :: 46
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Coalesys WebMenu Studio - Build 56 :: :: 14
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Coalesys Webmenu Studio :: :: 74
Coalesys Winsock Library Build 71 :: :: 58
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Coca Cola Rewards Cap Serial :: :: 16
Cockpit Master Backyard Edition v :: :: 6
Cocktail :: :: 14
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Code Visualizer v :: :: 50
Code Visualizer v :: :: 20
Code Visualizer v :: :: 13
Code-Genie :: :: 50
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CodecPackDeluxe v ( de shoppingdowntown.us) :: :: 65
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CodeExpert HTML french :: :: 58
CodeKeeper .NET :: :: 33
CodeLobster :: :: 22
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CodeLobster v :: :: 75
Codeman Klaani v ::
Codename Alvin :: :: 14
Codename panzers :: :: 18
Codename Panzers : Phase One :: :: 28
Codename Panzers : Phase One (PL) :: :: 34
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cool :: :: 47
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Cool CD Ripper v :: :: 33
Cool CD Ripper v ::
Cool CD Ripper v :: :: 58
Cool CD Ripper v ::
Cool CD Ripper v :: :: 66
Cool CD Ripper v ::
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Cool Center :: :: 22
Cool Center :: :: 60
Cool Center :: :: 50
Cool Edit :: :: 79
Cool Edit :: :: 35
Cool Edit :: :: 56
Cool Edit Studio Plug-In :: :: 66
Cool Edit v Studio Plug-In :: :: 23
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Cool edit pro :: :: 59
Cool Edit Pro :: :: 47
Cool edit pro V :: :: 33
Cool Edit Pro v -by Emzky :: :: 36
Cool Edit Pro v (name: Peter Quistgard) :: :: 71
Cool File Encryption :: :: 20
Cool File Encryption :: :: 27
Cool File Encryption :: :: 30
Cool Flie Encryption :: :: 30
Cool FTP :: :: 44
Cool Magic Audio Editor Pro v :: :: 50
Cool Malamutes b :: :: 50
Cool Mp3 Converter :: :: 30
Cool Mp3 Converter :: :: 25
Cool MP3 Converter :: :: 38
Cool Mp3 Converter :: :: 29
Cool MP3 Converter :: :: 33
Cool MP3 Converter :: :: 74
Cool MP3 Converter V :: :: 69
Cool shoppingdowntown.uster v :: :: 20
Cool Music Card :: :: 50
Cool Music Card :: :: 9
Cool Notes :: ::
Cool numpad :: :: 54
Cool PostIt :: :: 11
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Cool Search Maker :: :: 50
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Cool Search Maker :: :: 28
Cool Search Maker :: :: 50
Cool Speech :: :: 90
Cool Text Replacer :: :: 33
Cool Text Replacer :: :: 0
Cool Text Replacer :: :: 63
Cool Text Replacer :: :: 39
Cool Text Replacer v :: :: 18
Cool! Remote Control :: :: 79
Cool! Remote Control :: :: 52
Cool! Remote Control v :: :: 64
Cool-t v3 :: :: 25
CoolBannana MySite it :: :: 33
CoolCalc :: :: 14
CoolCalc :: :: 16
Coolcat :: :: 75
CoolCD Studio :: :: 23
CoolCD Studio :: :: 12
CoolCDBurner Feb :: :: 56
CoolCDRipper SERIAL shoppingdowntown.us ::
CoolClock :: :: 0
cooledit :: :: 29
Coolexon :: :: 50
CoolHTML :: :: 50
CoolHunt :: :: 0
Coolmaps Goldmine Bundle :: :: 0
Coolmaps Goldmine Bundle for Netobjects 7 and olders :: :: 66
Coolmaps Goldmine for Netobjects Fusion :: :: 75
CoolMaps Roll Over Component :: :: 33
CoolMenus Pro :: :: 57
CoolProg v :: :: 33
CoolProxy :: :: 76
CoolProxy build :: :: 62
CoolProxy build :: :: 69
CoolRecorder :: :: 64
CoolSpech :: ::
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CoolStrip Designer :: :: 25
CoolTabs :: :: 10
Coolumns Classic :: :: 54
Coolumns Classic :: :: 56
Cool_Audio_Magic_Audio_Editor_Pro_vDIGERATI :: :: 44
Cool_Magic_Audio_Editor_Pro_vDIGERATI :: :: 33
Coopernic v :: :: 71
CoordTrans :: :: 28
CoordTrans :: :: 12
Copernic :: :: 45
Copernic Pro :: :: 45
Copernic Agent Pro Build :: :: 85
Copernic Agent Pro v :: :: 87
Copernic Agent Professional :: :: 44
Copernic Agent Professional :: :: 88
COPERNIC AGENT PROFESSIONAL :: :: 75
Copernic Agent Professional :: :: 85
Copernic Plus French :: :: 63
Copernic Pro :: :: 17
Copernic pro :: :: 70
Copernic shopper plus :: :: 25
Copernic summarizer :: :: 35
Copernic Summarizer :: :: 73
Copernic Tracker b :: :: 66
Copernic Tracker Build :: :: 73
CoPlot :: :: 80
Copy and Restore :: :: 66
Copy and Restore :: :: 76
Copy and Restore :: :: 18
Copy and Restore v :: :: 42
Copy Backup :: ::
Copy Backup :: :: 16
Copy Commander :: :: 46
Copy DVD 6 :: :: 52
Copy DVD Gold :: :: 50
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Copy DVD Gold v :: :: 42
Copy DVD Gold v :: :: 78
Copy DVD Gold v :: :: 63
Copy DVD to CD-R :: :: 48
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Copy Expert :: :: 59
Copy Media Center :: :: 61
Copy to dvd :: :: 73
Copy to DVD :: :: 75
Copy to dvd :: :: 69
CopyBack :: :: 0
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CopyCat :: :: 14
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CopyCleaner :: ::
CopyDVD :: :: 47
CopyDVD :: :: 62
CopyKiller :: :: 22
CopyKiller (pre ) :: :: 39
CopyKiller (pre ) - By Sina_DiR :: :: 54
CopyKiller va :: :: 53
CopyKiller va - By Sina_DiR :: :: 46
CopyKiller v :: :: 36
CopyList :: :: 37
CopyNook :: :: 75
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CopyPod :: :: 10
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CopyPod :: :: 37
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CopyRator 1 4 :: :: 49
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CopyRator :: :: 32
CopyTo Synchronizer a :: :: 78
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Copytocd DVD :: :: 40
Copytocd DVD :: :: 50
Copytocd DVD :: :: 68
Copytocd DVD :: :: 61
shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 52
CopytoCD/DVD :: :: 50
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CopyToDVD :: :: 61
CopyToDVD :: :: 77
CopyToDVD :: :: 66
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CopyToDVD b :: :: 60
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CopyToDVD :: :: 62
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CopyToDVD :: :: 54
CopyToDVD :: :: 76
CopyToDVD :: :: 69
CopyToDVD :: :: 50
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CopyToDVD :: :: 69
CopyToDVD :: :: 52
CopyToDVD :: :: 57
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CopyToDVD :: :: 76
CopyToDVD :: :: 72
CopyToDVD :: :: 50
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CopyToDVD 4 :: :: 26
CopyToDVD v3 :: :: 45
CopyTrans :: :: 24
Coral draw key :: :: 35
Coral painter 9 :: :: 38
Corda Enterprise Builder :: :: 75
Corda Enterprise Cluster :: :: 25
Corda Enterprise Highwire :: :: 37
Corda Enterprise OptiMap :: :: 57
Corda Enterprise PopChart :: :: 25
Corda PopChart Server Enterprise :: :: 42
Corda PopChart Server Enterprise :: ::
Cordial 10 pro :: :: 51
Core FTP c build :: :: 85
Core FTP Pro :: :: 52
Core FTP Pro shoppingdowntown.us :: :: 61
Core Ftp Pro Vc build :: :: 88
Core FTP Pro vBuild :: :: 64
Core FTP Pro vBuild :: ::
Core Impact :: :: 29
CoreAVC Professional Edition :: ::
CoreFTP Pro c build :: :: 79
Corel 10 ( Por Hacker dJ Marshal ) :: :: 21
Corel 11 Czech :: :: 72
Corel 12 :: :: 56
Corel 12 :: :: 40
COREL 12 PL :: :: 77
Corel Bryce 5 :: :: 65
Corel Bryce :: :: 58
Corel Craphic Suite 11 :: :: 92
Corel Draw :: :: 84
Corel Draw X3 :: :: 47
Corel Draw 10 :: :: 78
Corel Draw 10 upgrade :: :: 40
Corel Draw :: :: 65
Corel Draw :: :: 59
Corel Draw 11 :: :: 72
Corel Draw 11 En :: :: 65
COREL DRAW 11 FR :: :: 53
Corel Draw :: :: 20
Corel Draw :: :: 66
COREL DRAW 12 :: :: 48
Corel Draw 12 (Graphics Suite) :: :: 57
Corel DraW 12 -=bY Lord=- :: :: 44
Corel draw 12 CZ :: :: 61
COREL DRAW 9 :: :: 76
Corel Draw graphic sute 12 :: :: 54
Corel Draw Graphics Suite 11 :: :: 78
Corel Draw Graphics Suite 11 Español :: :: 71
Corel DRAW Graphics Suite 12 :: :: 76
Corel Draw Graphics Suite 12 by Jevus_Mx

Wild West How To Protect and Restore Your Reputation On The Untamed Social Frontier

access codes, stolen, accidental content, accidental mistakes, intentional attacks vs., accountability, 65, active defense, activists, administrators, contacting, see contacting administrators Adobe After Effects, advance-fee scams, advertising, shoppingdowntown.us, , algorithms, , 84, 86, AltaVista, 93 America Online (AOL), , amorality of Google search results, , , of Internet, Andreessen, Marc, 33, 35 Angie's List, Annan, Kofi, on impartiality vs. neutrality, 86 anonymity, culture of, as default rule, destruction of accountability by, 65, destruction of social norms by, and extortion, and "Google voyeurism," Internet Protocol and,

and legal system, and online vs. pre-Internet world, in physical world, AOL, see America Online Apple Computer, 11 Aravosis, John, 12 shoppingdowntown.us, , , archives, 51, arguments, avoiding, Ashley, Darlene, shoppingdowntown.us, assessment of damage (to reputation), attachments, attacks on reputation, , and bullying, in business context, content of, and envy, and extortion, Google and, historical basis of, and jealousy, legal aspects of, 73, measuring damage from, neutral content as defense against, and politics, recovering from, see restoring your reputation and revenge, and social gossip, by sociopaths,

Contents
CHAPTER 1:

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier 1


CHAPTER 2:

Your Online Reputation Is Your Reputation 16


CHAPTER 3:

The Internet Is the New Wild West 30


CHAPTER 4:

The Forces Driving Online Reputation 44


CHAPTER 5:

Anonymous Cowards 61
CHAPTER 6:

Google Gone Wild: The Digital Threat to Reputation 82


CHAPTER 7:

Why People Attack Each Other Online


CHAPTER 8:

Types of Internet Attacks


V

Wild West

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Wild West
How to Protect and Restore Your Online Reputation on the Untamed Social Frontier

Michael Fertik and David Thompson

American Management Association


New York Atlanta Brussels Chicago Mexico City San Francisco Shanghai Tokyo Toronto Washington, D.C.

Bulk discounts available. For details visit: shoppingdowntown.us Or contact special sales: Phone: E-mail: specialsls@shoppingdowntown.us View all the AMACOM titles at: shoppingdowntown.us

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fertik, Michael. Wild west : how to protect and restore your online reputation on the untamed social frontier / Michael Fertik and David Thompson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN ISBN 1. Personal information management. 2. Online identities. 3. Rumor. 4. Internet in publicity. 5. Public relations. 6. Corporate image. I. Thompson, David, II. Title. HDF 'dc22 David Thompson and Michael Fertik. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of AMACOM, a division of American Management Association, Broadway, New York, NY About AMA American Management Association (shoppingdowntown.us) is a world leader in talent development, advancing the skills of individuals to drive business success. Our mission is to support the goals of individuals and organizations through a complete range of products and services, including classroom and virtual seminars, webcasts, webinars, podcasts, conferences, corporate and government solutions, business books and research. AMA's approach to improving performance combines experiential learninglearning through doingwith opportunities for ongoing professional growth at every step of one's career journey. Printing number 10 9 8 7 6

5 4 3 2 1

vi

Contents

CHAPTER

9:

How to Measure Damage to Your Internet Reputation Damage


CHAPTER

Your Reputation Road Map and Online Reputation Audit


CHAPTER

Getting Proactive: The Best Defense Is a Good Offense


CHAPTER

Recovering from Online Smears: Restoring Your Reputation After the Damage Has Been Done
CHAPTER

Protect Your Small Business and Your Professional Reputation


CHAPTER

Conclusion: Embrace the Internet Glossary Index

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CHAPTER

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier


Imagine a place where anonymous vandals can spray repugnant graffiti about you or your business without any consequence. They may call you a criminal, accuse your business of fraud, or reveal your most personal secrets. And this graffiti is viewed not only by a handful of passersbyinstead, it is spread worldwide and instantly broadcast to anyone who looks for information about you. You can't remove the smear, and copies of it are permanently saved around the world. Sound frightening? You don't have to imagine this scenario. It happens every day on the Internet. The victims are innocent peopleparents, teachers, students, managers, workers, craftsmen, business owners, and more. Real personal reputations are being trashed with just a few mouse clicks, real businesses are losing thousands of customers due to false reports online, and real relationships are being destroyed by anonymous gossip.

W i l d We s t 2 . 0

The Internet has changed the rules for reputation. Once, reputation was hard-earned and carefully guarded. Today, your reputation can be created or destroyed in just a few clicks. And there are plenty of people who seek to destroy your reputation: bullies, people jealous of your success, competitors for jobs or customers (or even loves), and gangs of disaffected teenagers. The Internet gives them the power to permanently scar your reputation. They harness the power of Google and the Web to broadcast false and distorted information about you and your business to your closest friends and most distant customers. They can manipulate your photos, steal your secrets, and ruin your credit. If you are prepared, you can defend yourself from these attacks. But if you aren't careful, you can just make matters worse by fanning the flames. Don't even think of ignoring the Internet's impact on your reputation. The Internet is not some passing fad; it is here to stay. It is the primary source of information about people, products, services, and companies. Even if you don't use the Internet, your boss, your customers, your neighbors, your friends, and your family do. What they find online will shape how they think about you, for better or worse: they could find slanderous allegations or shocking photos posted by a digital Peeping Tom; your business might be the subject of an online boycott or an urban legend about your business might spread through social discussion sites; or your relationships might be poisoned by false gossip. The worst part is that once false information about you is spread online, it can start a self-sustaining cycle that spreads it further and faster than you thought possible. Luckily, the well prepared can still prosper on this new digital frontier. The Internet is not something to be afraid of; instead, it is a tremendous opportunity to shape the way that people see you or your business. Careful monitoring of your online reputation (or that of your business) combined with delicate intervention can help you make sure that your online image is a true reflection of reality. Often, by acting quickly you can stop online attacks and set the record straight. And careful seeding of positive truthful content will help

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier

you improve your social standing, get more clients, or grow your business. Thanks to the Internet, you have the chance to take direct control of the way people see you. This book will teach you what you need to know to prosper in the new Wild West of online reputation. It will explain the rules of the new digital frontier, teach you to measure and analyze your reputation, and then give you the tools you need to defend yourself from online reputation attack. It will also explain special considerations and tactics for small businesses and professionals. In short, not all hope is lost: by learning the tricks of online reputation, you can defendor even improveyour online image.

The Internet Is a New Digital Frontier


The Internet today resembles the Old West of American history. Like the Old West, the Internet is rich with opportunity and hope, but it is also still a rough-and-tumble place with many hidden dangers. There is a chance for individuals to express themselves or strike it rich, but the unprepared also face immense dangers. And, just like in the Old West, law enforcement is weak, and traditional society has not yet adapted to the strange new technology, social norms, and culture of the Internet. In short, the Internet is a new digital frontier that echoes the Wild West of American history. Call it "Wild West " Just like in the original Wild West, countless people have struck it rich on the new digital frontier. From the Google foundersnow among the richest people on Earthto microbloggers who supplement their incomes with a few hundred dollars a month in advertising revenues, the Internet has created a modern gold rush. And the frontier is still open: There is still a chance for ordinary people to change their lives forever with new and creative business ventures. Thanks to the Internet, there are useful new services like powerful search engines capable of finding any document on the planet (Google), the largest and most comprehensive encyclopedia in the

W i l d We s t 2 . 0

history of mankind (Wikipedia), and countless other sites that provide news, entertainment, and commerce. With just a few clicks it's possible to find out nearly any information, from the chemical formula for caffeine (C8H10N4O2) to the name of the Red Sox' third baseman in (Larry Gardner). Research that would once have required a trip to the local public library can now be conducted online in seconds from anywhere in the world; a student sitting in class in Calcutta can research any topic using the California-based Wikipedia, and a student at home in California can just as easily look up the weather in Calcutta. The Internet has forever changed politics. Now, it is possible for an anonymous whistleblower to reveal corruption to an audience of millions. Sites that provide outlets for classified documents (such as shoppingdowntown.us) exist because thousands of people want to reveal the truth about government wrongdoing. Political dissenters in Iran have organized their opposition to their government using e-mail and social sites like Twitter. Closer to home, supporters and opponents of local or national political candidates can anonymously express their deepest and most fervent beliefs. The power to speak anonymously has generated wide-ranging debate on the biggest issues of the day, free from constraints of political correctness and peer pressure. Even more important, the world has become more closely connected. Electronic mail has replaced postal letters: you can send an e-mail across the globe in seconds for free rather than pay to send a "snailmail" letter that might be delivered days or weeks later. Skype and other Internet telephone services have slashed the cost of long-distance phone calls, allowing far-flung families and lovers to connect for pennies (rather than dollars) per minute. The ability to send videos and photos electronically has allowed closer communication between friends, parents, and others. Thousands of Web-based discussion forums allow far-flung people to discuss the issues most important to them and to find like-minded souls spread around the world. For all the praise heaped upon the Internet for opening up political and social thought, it might be just as useful for the mundane.

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier

The ability to get answers to basic questions has saved countless college students from pink laundry and burnt macaroni; the ability to get phone numbers of local businesses has saved millions in "" phone charges; and the ability to plot driving routes electronically has prevented countless drivers from getting lost.

The Dangers of Frontier Life Are Real But, also as in the old Wild West, the frontier has expanded faster than the law and our culture, which have proven unable to keep up. There is no sheriff in town, and Internet users have been left with rough frontier justice. Innocent reputations can be ruined by anonymous attackers, and the victims are often greeted with blank stares by law enforcement. Disputes are settled at the ends of virtual pitchforks and torches instead of at a negotiation table or in a court of law. People suspected of wrongdoing are run out of town on an electronic rail, often before there is time to figure out whether they are really guilty or innocent. And, all too often, the victims are innocent people, who have done nothing wrong other than venturing online without fully understanding the unique culture of the Internet. The increase in connectivity that allows instantaneous research and positive connections also brings with it the capability to do immense harm. Popular search engines like Google that allow students to research their homework also allow anybody anywhere in the world to search for your name and find nasty commentary written by a bitter ex-lover. Internet forums that empower positive discussions also allow insular communities to gossip and spread lies about outsiders. The power to instantly transmit data also allows malicious software to spread worldwide instantaneously. The power to speak anonymously about corrupt politicians also allows anonymous attacks on private people who have done no wrong. The Internet has grown too fast for social norms and common sense to keep up. Special software makes it possible for malevolent users to access the Internet anonymously without leaving any digital fingerprints; society has not yet come to grips with truly anonymous

W i l d We s t 2 . 0

untraceable speech. Social norms have not yet evolved to create a code of conduct for acceptable online behaviorand may never do so. The psychology of the Internet creates a feeling that the targets are somehow distant or unreal and therefore less sympatheticthis problem has been known since the psychologist Stanley Milgram demonstrated the effect of social distance on human behavior, but, has been accentuated and made nearly universally applicable by modern technology. Law enforcement also lags behind the Internet. In the United States, online law enforcement has generally been focused on major fraud and child pornography. Many victims of "routine" online attacks cannot obtain help from the legal system, either because the attackers have disappeared into the digital night or because local courts and lawyers simply don't know how to deal with complex online attacks that might have come from the far side of the world. Developments in the law itself have also lagged far behind the evolution of Internet technology. Today, the law of the Internet is controlled by two major federal statutes: the Communications Decency Act (CDA) and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). These laws were enacted in and , respectively, and they have not been updated, even though the Internet today would be unrecognizable to politicians of A legal loophole in the Communications Decency Act makes it impossible to force a website to remove anonymous attacks, no matter how false and damaging they may be. The result of the CDA and the DMCA is perverse and bewildering: Viacom can send one letter to YouTube and force it to remove 50, videos for copyright violations, but if an anonymous attacker were to upload a lie-filled video about your kid sister to the same site, she would have no power to force the site to take the undoubtedly illegal video down. As a result, false rumors are spreading with lightning speed. Intimate photographs, videos, and personal details are being leaked worldwide. Gossip and innuendo are replacing honesty and truth. And, thanks to the power of the Internet, attackers and gossipmongers enjoy instant global audiences and powerful anonymity. They

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier

work from the shadowy corners of the Web to sabotage reputations, careers, and families. Loopholes in the law protect them from being found or prosecuted. Of course, anonymous gossip and lies are as old as civilization. But, thanks to the Internet, smears that would once have been limited to a bathroom stall or a hand-passed note can now be seen by employers, friends, families, dates, clients, and anyone else with access to the Web. Before the Internet, a smear campaign based on a personal grudge would last only as long as it took for scrawled notes to find their way to the trash can or as long as it took to paint over graffiti. But today, notes posted on the Web are broadcast to a worldwide audience, preserved into the distant future, and spread to thousands by Google. For too many people, the Web has become a permanent scarlet letter. Who is going to hire a victim of an online smear when there is a similar candidate up for the job who is not accused, however nonchalantly and anonymously, of being a liar, thief, or cheating husband? Too often, the attack is hard to undo, even if the smears are untrue: how does one rebut an allegation of sexual impropriety? Can one forget the emotional damage caused by being crassly reminded of the loss of a loved one? How is it possible for an everyday person to prove that a photograph is a forgery, let alone inform everyone who has seen it? The harm caused by electronic attacks extends into the "real" world of flesh-and-blood interactions. Nothing separates the "virtual" and the "real" worlds; an online smear impacts face-to-face interactions just as much as a hushed comment or a passed note. A false claim about your businessaccusations of bias or of a lack of patriotism, claims that your product is dangerous, or even claims that employees made offensive comments to customerscan send customers running in droves away from your business and even tie up your phone lines or flood your e-mail with howling protests. These online attacks are happening more and more frequently. Bullies, jerks, jilted lovers, and sociopaths have realized that they can wreak far more havoc with far less accountability by using the Inter-

W i l d We s t 2 . 0

net to launch their barbs. The attackers seek explosive revenge for petty differences and jealousies, censorship of their critics through humiliation, destruction of political and business opponents, and sometimes schadenfreude or just nerdy self-celebration from the ability to inflict pain on unsuspecting people hundreds of miles away.

The Machine Is Amoral The problems caused by the Internet are amplified by its structure. The computers that run the Internetincluding the big network switches that control the flow of data and the computers that store the content of websitesdo not know or care what information is being transmitted. To a computer, it is all just digital bits. A computer doesn't know if information is true or false, kind or hurtful, public or private. There is no way for a computer to realize that real people are being hurt by a website. A computer is amoralit just does not have any sense of what is "good" or "bad." (The Internet is not immoralof bad moralsbut rather merely amoral, meaning that it has no regard for morals either way.) If a computer is programmed to repeat information that it finds, then it will do so no matter whether the information it finds is true ("the moon is made of rock"), false ("the moon is made of cheese"), or completely nonsensi- cal ("the moon cheeses the rock"). The most obvious example is Google's search results. No matter what terms you search for, the results you see will be selected by a computer without human intervention. The details of the algorithm used by Google to rank search results are a closely guarded secret, but the general outlines have been made public. In short, Google's algorithm ranks "popular" sites higher and less "popular" sites lower. The algorithm does not make any judgment about the correctness of a page; it just finds the most popular pages. Google is notorious for refusing to alter the results provided by the algorithm, no matter how compelling the circumstances. Sometimes this policy leads to painful results. For some time, a search for "Jew" on Google returned a hateful anti-Semitic site as the first result, rather than information

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier

about the Jewish faith or people. Google apologized and blamed the algorithm's result on the popularity of the hate site, but refused to intervene directly.1 Just because the hate site was popular, Google's algorithm assumed it must be important. Other results of the algorithm's single-minded focus on popularity are more comical: A search for "miserable failure" used to return a link to the White House, and a search for "French military victories" still returns a link to a page suggesting that the user should have been searching for "French military defeats." The danger of the automated Web is not limited to search engines: The "social Web" or "Web " is a group of increasingly interconnected websites that are based around active user participation. This "Web " model relies on users to create large amounts of content, which is then displayed to other users. The new"Web " model stands in sharp contrast to the older generation of websites (call it "Web " or even the"old Web"), which relied on a top-down content model: a paid author would write content and then hope that users would read it. The basic functions of sites like shoppingdowntown.us or shoppingdowntown.us are classic examples of "Web " sites: content (like news stories and photographs) is developed by a professional staff, and average users play an entirely passive role when reading the site. On the other hand, shoppingdowntown.us and its adult cousin, shoppingdowntown.us, are paradigmatic examples of "Web " websites in that they are both sites where most of the content comes from active user interactions: the sites both allow people to connect online with friends and co-workers in order to share photos and life updates. There is very little content that is created by employees of Facebook or LinkedIn; instead, the sites simply create an open space where users can determine for themselves how to interact. Discussion sites like Slashdot, Digg, and Reddit are also classic examples of "Web " sites. These sites allow users to submit news stories for others to view and discuss; there is no editor who picks news stories or puts an official spin on the newsinstead, it is up to users to submit news and commentary for other users to view. Hundreds of thousands of people visit

10

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these sites to get an eclectic view of current events and to discuss the social issues of the day, and most of the value comes from other users. These Web sites allow (and encourage) positive user interaction. But they also create grave risks to personal reputation. Back in the days of Web , the reputation of most private individuals was pretty safe: most highly visible content was created by professional journalists (or at least by serious amateur ones), and a big news website like shoppingdowntown.us had no reason to spread rumors about individual people (the big sites had other news topics to cover) and a big financial reason not to smear individuals (the threat of a libel lawsuit). But, in the days of Web , everyone is a publisher, and everyone can distribute content. Your enemies have been armed with new weapons: blogs, easy "WYSIWIYG" website editing ("What You See Is What You Get" editors that allow everyday people to create fancy-looking sites), extensive discussion forums, and a massive social echo chamber to repeat it all. And, most important, all of these enemies have been armed with the power of Google to index everything they say. Disgruntled customers no longer have to rely on professional journalists to carefully research their claims against your company; now, customers can directly blog about their experience or write negative reviews on consumer sitesand then these sites will appear in a Google search for the name of your business. Bitter exlovers or rejected suitors can create online attacks that have the same impact as buying a massive billboard above a freeway, but at a fraction of the priceand with the possibility of doing it anonymously. Kids who would once end their mischief with prank phone calls can now leave a permanent scarlet letter on your reputation by publicizing a rumor or lie just for kicks and giggles. The power of Web to create positive connections among its users also creates the danger of misuse to attack and smear reputations. The open nature of Web sites can also create a system of interconnected websites, algorithms, and search systems that no one person or company is responsible for. Call it a "machine" of sorts, with parts spread around the world. Often the system works for

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good: information is found, packaged, and presented to users. But, the system can also spin out of control when users feed it false information. With one bad input, the connections between the sites can cause the entire system to amplify and echo false information. The amplification starts when one user copies bad information to a "Web " site, that website automatically spreads it to others, and then another user repeats the processthe cycle repeats uncontrollably until the false information has been distributed far beyond where it should be. For example, a false story posted on the social news site Digg might be shared by users of the social networking site Facebook, which might be "tweeted" by users of the short-form messaging site shoppingdowntown.us, where other users will post it to the news site Reddit, where an automated software "robot" will display it on other popular websites without any human intervention, and so on. The sites start to resemble a game of "telephone"one person posts a story, which gets transformed a little bit as it is relayed to another site, then a little more, then a little more, until complete fiction has been accepted as reality. Often, the story moves so far away from its original source that readers have no way to find out if it is false or incomplete. The out-of-control Internet "machine" has caused millions of dollars in real-world losses. One day, a "citizen journalist" participating in CNN's "iReport" experiment posted a prank article claiming that Apple CEO Steve Jobs had been rushed to the hospital after suffering a heart attack. The news automatically spread from CNN's site to others and was quickly visible on hundreds of websites that provide stock news and trading information. Apple stock dropped $10 (nearly 10 percent) on the news, and millions of dollars of value was destroyed. Apple was later able to correct the rumors, but the stock still ended the day lower.2 Or take the example of the website shoppingdowntown.us, which was purchased in by the public records and background-check company Intelius. shoppingdowntown.us attempts to aggregate information about everyday people. If you were to search shoppingdowntown.us for the authors of

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this book, you would likely find a little profile about each of us. Much of the content on shoppingdowntown.us is based on a robot's automated exploration of a variety of directories. The site then uses other software to cross-reference the results that the robot finds in order to compile an automated dossier on as many people as it can identify. There is generally no human intervention and no way for the robot to verify whether any content it finds is true. In one infamous incident, the robot mistook John Aravosis (a prominent blogger) for a pedophile, because of the robot's inability to tell whether Aravosis was writing about a pedophile or whether he was one himself. (For the record, John Aravosis is not a pedophile.) Nonetheless, the site tagged his profile as "pedophile," and his name appeared whenever somebody searched for "pedophile" on the site. The problem was instantly compounded when news reporters mentioned the robot's error. The robot, lacking any irony detector whatsoever, interpreted news stories about the errormany of which contained the words "John Aravosis" and "pedophile"as confirmation that it got it right the first time around. The link was reinforced, and Aravosis was reduced to pleading with shoppingdowntown.us's customer service team to get his name cleared. In that case, shoppingdowntown.us was willing to override the robot's actions, probably because Aravosis is a powerful blogger and could create massive bad publicity for the company. Future victims might not be as lucky. Another example of false amplification occurred when Google Newsan automatic newsbot that searches the Internet to find the important news of the day without any human interventiongot out of control. The results that the newsbot calculates to be the most important (usually the most popular stories that appear in the most news sources) are displayed on the Google News homepage. One morning in late , a software glitch occurred, and an outdated article about United Airlines' bankruptcy filing suddenly appeared in the Google News system as if it were new. The sudden appearance of a new-seeming article led a writer at the "Income Securities Advisor" newsletter to mention the possibility of a bank-

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13

ruptcy in his own article. That article was then automatically distributed by the Bloomberg wire to hundreds of websites. Once a (false) story about the new United bankruptcy rumor appeared on hundreds of sites, the Google newsbot mistook the story's popular- ity as confirmation of its importance and made the story even more prominent on the Google News site. The cycle continued. Stock traders immediately reacted, sending UAL stock into a tailspin that ended with a 76 percent drop in the company's value before trading was automatically halted. By afternoon, United was able to deny the rumor, but UAL stock still closed down 10 percent on the day. Of course, all parties involved claim that somebody else was responsible for the error.3 These stories are vivid, but they are neither unique nor rare. Similar events happen all the time to everyday people who have done nothing wrong and done nothing to attract attention to themselves. Sometimes these events go without publicity because they are less egregious, but just as often extreme errors go unnoticed by the media because they happen to everyday people and small businesses, rather than to big companies or powerful bloggers. Unfortunately, the effect of one of these incidents on a private individual or small business can be even larger than on a big company or famous person: most everyday people don't have millions of dollars to spend on PR or their own blog through which to correct the record. The machine can cause great harm even when it is working as designed. A number of well-known companies are in the business of aggregating and selling enormous amounts of personal information: social security numbers, phone numbers, current and old addresses, spousal information, information about children, medical histories and insurance claims, income data, and other revealing details. They often gather this information from widely dispersed sources, ranging from phonebooks to innocent-seeming consumer surveys to state governments. This information is often used for good purposes, such as rooting out credit card fraud and providing background checks for

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teachers and medical professionals. But some data brokers also sell their lists to less scrupulous companies, like telemarketers and small-time scammers. Their data has been used by identity thieves and stalkers to help find details about victims. And, because these database companies possess such rich stores of data, they become targets of opportunity for fraudsters and computer hackers.

There Is Hope
Thank goodness, there is hope for the average Internet user. Despite all the threats and changes, millions of people have positive online images and live in peace with their Internet neighbors. Through a few simple steps, everyday people like you can still guard your reputation on the digital frontier and even improve your online image in order to increase your success in dating, socializing, getting a job, or getting more clients. By understanding how the Internet is different from other communications media, you will begin to understand the rules of reputation online and the online reputation dangers faced by individuals and small businesses. Then, by learning specific tactics to measure and analyze your own online reputation, you will be able to assess your online reputation prioritiesand the gaps that need to be filled to meet those priorities. Next, by learning the techniques used by professionals to repair and improve online reputations, you will learn the active steps you can take to improve your reputation todayand why you should act before you have suffered a reputation attack at all (especially if you hope to get more customers, meet new people, or just generally present a positive appearance to the world). Finally, by discovering steps to take in case of an online reputation attack, you will learn how to protect yourself in a worst-case attack and how to start down the road to reputation recovery. Hold tight; traversing the new digital frontier can still be a rough ride, but the rewards are powerful.

Welcome to the New Digital Frontier

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A Note About Notes


For your convenience, the authors have provided many links to additional information or to the full text of sources. In order to save space and avoid the need for you to retype some dreadfully long URLs, all links to additional information are provided through the official website of the book: shoppingdowntown.us Links of this kind appear in the format "Go: shoppingdowntown.us" When you come across one of these links, it is a signal that there is more information available online. Simply type the URL in your web browser and you will be automatically forwarded to the original source of additional information. The authors might not agree with anything (or everything) that a source says, but the links are provided so that you can gather information for yourself. Of course, the authors do not control any linked websites, which may have different privacy policiesplease browse cautiously.

Notes
1. Google, Inc., "An Explanation of Our Search Results." Go: http://wildwest2 .com/go/ 2. Eric Schonfeld,"Citizen 'Journalist' Hits Apple Stock with False (Steve Jobs) Heart Attack Rumor," TechCruch, October 3, Go: http://wildwest2 .com/go/ 3. Jackson West, "Google News Glitch Helps Cause United Stock Selloff," ValleyWag, September 8, Go: shoppingdowntown.us

CHAPTER

Your Online Reputation Is Your Reputation


Your online reputation is your reputation. Period. Your online reputation determines how people look at you. Your online reputation determines who is willing to hire you, buy from you, or sell to you. Your online reputation determines if you will get a second date, or even a first. Your online reputation can be the source of gossip and rumors that can spin a whirlwind around your personal life. And you probably know less about your online reputation than you should.

Your Reputation Shapes Your Real-World Interactions


Reputation is reality.
UPDATING A CLASSIC QUOTE
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It does not matter whether your reputation is accurate or not; people are going to judge you by it and make their decisions on it. It is an unfortunate fact that the world is too crowded and hectic for most people to stop and take the time to make a careful judgment about you or your business after collecting and weighing all of the evidence available. Instead, people are far more likely to rush to a snap judgment based on the first information they seeand then use that judgment to decide whether they will date, befriend, do business with, hire, or trust you. Your reputation is the sum total of how you are seen by the public. It is all of the facts and judgments that people make about you. It can be based on news, gossip, rumors, public records, photos, personal experience, and anything else people use to form their opinions. Reputation is more than just "good" or "bad," although both are part of reputation. Reputation is all of the judgments people make about you: Are you considered an innovator or a leader? Do people think of you as trustworthy and loyal? Do you have a reputation for being good with details or a master of the big picture? Are you seen as stoic or emotional? The list of all the parts of your reputation could stretch many pages. If you are a small business owner, the same concerns apply. Is your company compared to a Ford Pinto or to a Mercedes Benz? Is it seen as down-market like Wal-Mart or cheap-chic like Target? Positive like Johnson & Johnson or negative like Enron? Growing like Google or shrinking like Alcoa? A leader in customer satisfaction like Southwest Airlines or a laggard like United? The reputation of a business drives sales and growth; customers are unlikely to buy from a business with a tarnished reputation, especially if there are other alternatives available. Some investors even think that almost two-thirds of a company's value is driven by its reputation.1 This figure has been confirmed on Wall Street; in many corporate buyouts, billions of dollars are attributed to "goodwill"Wall Street jargon for having a good reputation that encourages consumers to buy whatever the company is selling.

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Sometimes, reputation is earned through a combination of many observations over time. Your reputation among your close friends is likely formed this way; they have seen you through thick and thin, and they know your true character. But, other times, a reputation can be made or lost on one event: Captain "Sully" Sullenberger, pilot of the U.S. Airways jet that landed safely in the Hudson River in early , has a reputation as a skilled airman solely because of that one incident.2 On the other side of the ledger, the supermarket chain Food Lion suffered from a bad reputation for years after one report that the company was selling expired meat. Many athletes have made their reputations on the basis of just one failure success or failure in the clutch: the name Bill Buckner reminds all too many fans of a crucial error in the World Series, rather than his consistent play across his twenty-year, 1,RBI career, and the U.S. Olympic hockey team is remembered for its "Miracle on Ice" win over the Soviet Union in the medal round instead of its uninspired play in international exhibition matches.

Reputation Matters Because People Take Shortcuts


Every day, thousands of judgments are made on the basis of reputation: Is this person trustworthy? Does this company make reliable products? Will this politician be honest in office? Will this adviser manage my money responsibly? Those judgments lead to countless real-life decisions with serious consequences: whom to hire, what products to buy, how to vote, whom to befriend or date. This heavy reliance on reputation is probably inevitable. Reputation gives us a fast way to make decisions. We all interact with so many people and companies on a daily basis that it would be impossible to thoroughly investigate each interaction from scratch. And, many times, there is no way to take a person, product, or business partner for a"test drive" to experience them firsthand; you can't safely test the food from a restau- rant known for food poisoning, and you certainly would not test en-

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trusting your children to a school bus driver known for alcoholism. Instead, we rely on the collected wisdom of others. This distilled wisdom is known as reputation and makes it possible to make fast decisions. In more scientific terminology, people rely on so-called heuristics. A heuristic is nothing more than a rule of thumb used to make a decision in the face of uncertainty. Some heuristics are easy to spot: when all else is equal, most people assume that expensive products are of higher quality than cheaper products, even to the point of telling their doctors that a $ sugar pill was more effective than an identical $ sugar pill.3 Obviously, the heuristic is wrong when applied to the sugar pill, but it is understandable how it came about: our life experience tells us that expensive products are usually of higher quality than cheap products. Sometimes, real-world use of heuristics can be manipulated to comical result. The "social proof " heuristica rule of thumb suggesting that there is often wisdom in crowdshas been heavily used by "candid camera" TV shows. The formula is simple: place the unsuspecting target (the "mark") in an unfamiliar environment, surround the mark with actors who behave strangely, and then watch as the mark conforms his own behavior to whatever odd manner the actors are adopting. The mark might face the wrong way in an elevator because everyone else is also facing the wrong way,4 or walk right past a world-famous artist playing a $ million violin in a subway because everyone else is treating the violinist as a common busker.5 The application to reputation is straightforward: Most people will follow the crowd when deciding whom to trust, whom to befriend, and whom to do business with. If you ever need proof that this works in practice, then look at the way that many nightclubs artificially create a line outside their front door in order to appear more popular and exclusive; many people subconsciously assume that the club must be better simply because so many people are willing to wait in line to go inside. Another common heuristic related to reputation is the so-called halo effect. It was first studied by the psychologist Edward Thorndike in the U.S. Army in He discovered that once a

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military officer formed a positive impression of a soldier, the officer was likely to give that soldier good scores in all evaluation categories, even if an objective observer would have scored the soldier lower in some categories. And once the officer formed a negative impression of a soldier, the officer was likely to give that soldier a negative evaluation across all evaluation categories, even if the solider deserved high marks in some categories. The explanation was simple: the officer dealt with hundreds of soldiers, so he formed a mental image of each soldier as either a "good" or "bad" soldier and viewed all of the soldier's actions in that light. Combining social proof with the halo effect creates a powerful basis for social reputation. It is a common rule of thumb to trust people with a good reputation in the community and to distrust people with a bad reputation in the community. This heuristic makes sense: It is efficient to learn from the experiences that other people have had. If a poker player had a reputation for cheating, only a fool would sit down and play a high-stakes game with him. If a company had a reputation for selling unsafe products, it would be foolish to trust its product without inspecting it first. The halo effect makes this form of social reputation even more powerful: Just like most people would not play poker against a gambler with a reputation as a cheater, most people also would not trust him to watch their children. Unfortunately, this use of reputation as a heuristic is not always accurate. Many reputations are undeserved, especially in the age of digital media and Web socialization. There are people and companies that have been unfairly smeared and that do not deserve their negative reputations. And there are people and companies that have positive reputations beyond what they have earned. But the inaccuracy of many reputations does not stop people from using reputation to judge each other. Instead, let this serve as a reminder of why you must carefully guard your reputation if you hope to succeed at any pursuit in life.

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Online Content Can Make or Break Your Reputation


The Internet is the instant universal research source. If nobody relied on the Internet, online smears and attacks would not matter. To paraphrase a Zen master,"if a vandal scrawled insults on a bathroom wall and there was nobody there to read it, would it really be graffiti?" Anonymous lies and smears would go unnoticed, inaccurate information would not be repeated, and reputations would be earned the old-fashioned way. But, unfortunately, the Internet is the source of every kind of information imaginable. It is hard to overestimate the impact of the Internet. Millions upon millions of people use the Internet to learn about the people they meet and the businesses they interact with. The Internet is the primary source of news, research, entertainment, and information for innumerable people. Almost everyone in the developed world relies either directly or indirectly on the Internet for research into something. The difference between the pre-Internet era and today is the difference between graffiti in a bar bathroom and graffiti on a billboard overlooking Highway in downtown Los Angeles. It is the difference between a classroom note and a full-page advertisement in USA Today. It is the difference between lies that would have once faded into obscurity and a permanent scarlet letter (see Figure ).

The Internet Is Given Too Much Trust


The Internet has the power to shape reputation only because many Internet users trust it. This trust is often misplaced. Anyone can create Internet content, often anonymously (as is described in Chapters 4 and 5). There is no person or computer that verifies that Internet content is complete, balanced, or even vaguely truthful.

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Figure "Who Might Be Searching for You?


If you are a Parent
Teachers PTAboard members Other parents Your child's peers sions offices Guidance counselors Salesperson Yourboss Co-workers Potential customers Past customers companies Competing salespeople Student Teachers Classmates Boss Yourboss Co-workers Anybody Friends Nosy neighbors Acquaintances Identity thieves Disaffected strangers

Private school admis-Competing

College admissions Subordinates offices Recruiters Your parents Competitors Other parents Disaffected Summer jobs customers Political protestors

. . . these people might be searching for information about you online! What will they find?

Nonetheless, vast swaths of Internet content are accorded at least some degree of trust, which is far more than a lot of Internet content probably deserves. The fact that most Internet content is in print (rather than spoken) and the way that it is presented (through a computer, rather than scrawled on a bathroom wall) encourage blind faith in online content, even though much online content is given about as much thought when posting as a bathroom artist gives when scrawling a drunken graffito. Even if readers take online content with a grain of salt, they still often give too much credit to a false or malicious story; it is a false compromise to assume that the truth must be somewhere between two (or more) anonymous stories, when everything online might be entirely groundless.7 At the same time that users are giving too much trust to content found on the Internet, they are also giving too much meaning to its absence. Today, a "Google trail"a long history of information that can be found about you or your business through Googleis nec-

Your Online Reputation Is Your Reputation

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essary for you to be seen as legitimate. A company with no Google trail is viewed as possibly fraudulent; people wonder why there is no recorded mention of the company.8 Similarly, an individual who claims to be a leader in her field is viewed with skepticism if there are no trade journal publications about her, blog posts or Twitter "tweets" from conferences, or other relevant online content. It doesn't matter how many people know about you offline or how many local newspapers wrote about you in the pre-Internet era: if it doesn't show up in Google, then it doesn't count. Many people think that if something doesn't exist in Google, then it probably doesn't exist at all. The Internet also provides such an easy way to perform research that it has replaced many more traditional sources. Before the Internet, researching a company or product often involved a trip to the local public library to dig up old newspapers on microfilm, check the volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica, or at least dig through dusty issues of Consumer Reports magazine. These sources were never completely accurate, but at least they were written and edited by professionals, subject to corrections, vetted by librarians, and published by companies concerned with their own reputations for accuracy and completeness. But, today, it is possible to perform nearly any kind of research online, from the comfort of one's home, at any hour of the day. You can wake up early to perform research or stay up late. Frankly, you don't even need to wear clothes to perform research online. It is so easy to perform research online that few people bother to check offline sources anymore. But many Internet users still have not learned how to apportion trust to online sources that might not be trustworthy, complete, or accurate. Of course, there are plenty of websites that present reliable information written and edited by dedicated amateurs, but there are also websites stocked with half-truth, bias, slander, and outright liesand few ways to tell the difference between the good and the bad. Today, even professional journalists have been caught cribbing their stories entirely from the Internet. The prestigious The Times

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(London), founded in , was caught red-handed relying exclusively on Internet research when it published a list of the "Top 50 Rising Stars" in European soccer. The paper listed a Moldavian player named Masal Bugduv as the thirtieth hottest soccer star. It turns out that there is no "Masal Bugduv" anywhere in the world; he was nothing more than an elaborate Internet hoax. But, because the author relied exclusively on online research, he was easily fooled by a series of fake news releases. Had the newspaper performed even a tiny amount of offline researchperhaps by making a phone call to "Bugduv's" alleged coachit could have avoided major embarrassment.9 Fortunately for fans, local coaches took the time to perform their own research before signing "Bugduv" to a contract. Of course, if an anonymous hoaxster can fool the Times into reporting on a fictional soccer star, other tricks can fool millions of others. And many tricks are not nearly as innocent as pulling a newspaper's leg. False reports started online can destroy real-life reputations, break up families, and shorten careers. And, as the "Masal Bugduv" story shows, false information online can quickly be echoed in print publications. The print publication then supports the false online information, leading to a cycle of self-reinforcing false information. This is the so-called Wikipedia echo effect, based on the tendency of lazy journalists to collect their "facts" from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and then the tendency of Wikipedia to cite those same journalists as proof of the (possibly false) facts.

A Bad First Impression Might Be Your Only Impression


First impressions matter. The first thing somebody knows about you gives context to all subsequent interactions. If you make a positive first impression, that positive impression will provide a positive background for all future interactionsremember the power of the "halo

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effect" to reinforce a positive image. But a negative first impression will sabotage your future interactions and leave you playing at a disadvantage. There is extensive experimental evidence supporting the common wisdom that first impressions create a powerful impact. In job interviews, it is possible for an observer to correctly predict which candidates will get the job by looking at only the first thirty seconds of a thirty-minute interview In just thirty seconds, enough social cues are exchanged that a powerful first impression is formed. First impressions are just as important in social life: college freshmen could tell within the first three minutes of interaction whether a classmate would become a friend or stay an acquaintance There is even more evidence that people make very quick decisions online. One study showed that consumers could decide within secondsnot much longer than it takes to blinkwhether they were interested in reading a web page or if they wanted to leave for another site In other words, many people do not take the time to slowly and deliberately research all possible information before making their decisions about whom to trust, especially online. Instead, in less than three minutes (and sometimes in just the time that it takes to blink), people come to snap decisions about whom to hire, fire, befriend, or ignore. It is crucial to make that first impression count if you hope to achieve success.

Your Online Rsum Is Your Online First Impression


Your online rsum is the first blast of content that people find when they look for information about you. If your reputation is a book, your online rsum is its cover; it is what too many people will use to judge you at a glance. It is the most prominent information about you, and it shapes your personal brand.

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Your online rsum is the information that can be quickly found and skimmed through a quick search using a general search engine like Google, a social site like Facebook, a photo-specific site like Flickr, a professional site like LinkedIn, or a people-specific engine like shoppingdowntown.us In short, it is the first blast of content that a curious Internet user could find when looking for you or your business. Within your online rsum, some content is more important than the rest. Content that is more prominent online makes up a larger part of your online rsum. For example, content found at the very top of a search engine search for your name will make up an important part of your online rsum. Content that is less prominent is a smaller part of your online rsum. Content that cannot be found by an average user in five minutes or less is not part of your online rsum at all; for example, information about you that can be found only through a detailed query in a very specific government database might make up some part of your online reputation, but it is not part of your online rsum. The metaphor behind the term "online rsum" is simple: in a job search, your professional rsum provides a summary of your qualifications. Hiring managers quickly flip through rsums and weed out rsums with obvious flaws; someone with a bad rsum is unlikely to get an interview or a job. Similarly, your online rsum provides what appears to be a summary of who you are, and it is used to quickly make a judgment about you and your character. Web searchers quickly flip through your online rsum, looking at the first few items that come up. They may investigate some items further, or they may simply make their final judgment about you on the basis of the limited information available at first glance. Unfortunately, you don't have the same control over your online rsum that you have over your professional rsum. It is easy enough to update your professional rsum: just fire up a copy of Microsoft Word (or any other word processing software) and add or delete whatever information suits you. But control over your online rsum is much more difficult; it is not entirely up to you what appears in a

Your Online Reputation Is Your Reputation

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Google search for your name. You can exert some control over your online rsum, as will be described in Chapters , but it takes careful planning and detailed execution. If all online rsums were always accurate, then it would be easy to have a positive online rsum: just live a good life, achieve great things, be kind to others, and clean up after your own messes But, unfortunately, your online reputation often does not reflect the complete truth about you. It might be incomplete. It might reflect inaccurate statements or distortions. It might be obsolete or outdated. It might focus on only one event, rather than on the entirety of your life and career. Or it might contain outright lies and nasty attacks. These distortions might be accidentalthe result of a similarity in name or a computer erroror might be caused by malicious users with their own agendas. In short, your online reputation does not necessarily reflect the truth. Instead, it reflects the "Google Truth." The Google Truth looks like the authoritative truth, but it is often incomplete, inaccurate, or just plain wrong. It is what happens when computers try to guess who you are and what you do. But computers cannot always tell what is really you and what is truly important. And if there is inaccurate information about you online, all too often the Google Truth will reflect it. There is an old adage about computer algorithms, and it applies fully to the output of search engines like Google:"garbage in, garbage out." Chapter 9 covers, in great detail, the way to measure and analyze your online rsum. It gives you step-by-step instructions how to understand your online rsum by carefully analyzing who is looking for information about you or your business, where they are likely to search, and what they are likely to find.

Your Total Online Profile Is Everything About You Online


In contrast to your online rsum, your total online profile is the sum of what people can learn about you or your business through detailed

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online research. It includes everything in your online rsum, plus everything that would take a more substantial search to find, including information that can be found only indirectly or only through proprietary data services. Your total online profile can be vast. It can include everything from news articles to blog posts about you, to photos of you, to information in phone-number and address databases, to criminal records, to land deed records, and much more. In many ways, your total online profile is like a painting. Much like a painting, it is a stylized interpretation of realityyou hope more like a Renoir and less like a Picasso. Because not everything you have ever done is online, it does not include everything that is part of your life; instead, it represents only one angle or perspective on you. And, also like a painting, it is composed of hundreds of tiny details that add up to a larger image. Just as paintings have small brush strokes that add up to a scene, your total online profile is the sum of many small bits of content that add up to a snapshot of your life. The content that is most readily available to someone searching your name makes up a big part of your total online profile, whereas content that is hard to find is a small part. Someone just glancing at your online profile will see only the big picture and will not see most of the small details, but a dedicated searcher can find and examine each individual brush stroke. Chapter 9 explains how to take inventory of your total online profile, and Chapters 10 through 13 help you improve your total online profile by painting over the worst content and drawing attention to the best content.

Notes
1. Weber Shandwick,"Safeguarding Reputation," at 2. Go: shoppingdowntown.us go/ 2. For example, his "fan page" on Facebook. Go: shoppingdowntown.us

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3. Justin Wolfers,"More Expense = Less Pain," Freakonomics (blog), in New York Times, March 6, , via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us 4. Dan Lockton, "London Design Festival: Greengaged," Design with Intent (blog), September 18, , via shoppingdowntown.us Go: http://wildwest2 .com/go/ 5. Gene Weingarten, "Pearls Before Breakfast," Washington Post, April 8, , via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us 6. E. L. Thorndike, "A Constant Error in Psychological Rating," Journal of Applied Psychology 4 (): 7. Perhaps a grain of salt is outdated. Internet users should be issued burlap sacks of salt. 8. Chadwick Matlin, "The Way We Beg," The Big Money (blog), February 5, , via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us 9. Brian Phillips, "Fictional Moldavian Soccer Player Tells All," Slate, January 23, , via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us Martha Brockenbrough, "First Impressions: How Much Do They Really Matter?" Encarta, via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us Ibid. Martha Brockenbrough, "First Impressions Count for Web," BBC News (online), January 16, , via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us go/ If it really were that easy, the authors would simply direct readers to a popular self-help book, such as The Purpose Driven Life, by Rick Warren (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, ), Go: shoppingdowntown.us; or Living a Life That Matters, by Harold Kushner (New York: Knopf, ). Go: shoppingdowntown.us

CHAPTER

The Internet Is the New Wild West


The Internet is a new frontier. In many ways, the experience of the Internet today echoes the experience of the American Old West. To understand why the Internet is the way it is today, one must understand how it got its start and how it has changed over time. In a frontier environment like the early Internet, the only certain thing is that everything is subject to change. Frontiers often start with rapid expansion. In American history, expansion started with the early "Wild West" days, when land was cheap, there was always something new over the horizon, and settlement moved rapidly westward. There were no established interests that had an incentive to preserve the status quo. And, like all frontiers, the West had little government regulationwhich also meant little formal law enforcement and a strong need for self-defense (which often became rough vigilante justice). Innovation and experimentation thrived in the Old West; frontiers are always known for spurring

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entrepreneurs to create new and useful products and services. And the West was a place where new forms of social expression were accepted. But the story of the American West did not end with rapid growth. Frontiers don't stay wild forever; eventually, the frontier either becomes civilized or fades away. Later phases of frontier development in the West created tensions between new and old, between"civilized" and "wild," and between early pioneers and late arrivers. Towns that were once on the margins of the frontier quickly found themselves becoming interior cities. Sturdy buildings replaced canvas tents. Law and order began to replace frontier violence as the growth of wealth and stability prompted residents to replace vigilante committees with formal law enforcement. And other changes were forced by late arrivers who were not accustomed to the frontier way of doing things. The recent history of the Internet closely echoes this stylized history of the American West, simply substituting an electronic frontier for a physical one.

The Internet Is a New Frontier: Call It Wild West


Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
GEORGE SANTAYANA1

The similarity between the original Wild West and the Internet of today is striking. Both started as outposts at the edges of civilization that were known for their lawlessness: gambling, prostitution, and petty scams dominated both the American West and the early Internet. Both were known for having wide-open societies that tolerated behavior previously condemned by "civilized" society. Both enabled the creation (and loss) of spectacular fortunes, and both prompted the development of many wondrous new technologies.

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But, as more people migrated to the American West and more people started to connect to the Internet, law enforcement started to catch up to the outlaws. Entrenched interests began to slow the growth of new industries. It became harder to strike it rich overnight. And a flood of late arrivers from the "old world" brought morals and social norms that clashed with the frontier's wild ways. The Internet has captured the global imagination, just like the original Wild West. Many people see the Internet as more than just a technological innovation; instead, many people view it as a revolutionary frontier experience. Proposals to change the Internet are met with emotional protests that defend the current state of the Internet as if it were an idealized representation of freedom, just as many residents of the Wild West protested vigorously against changes to the frontier culture of the early wild days. Many people project their dreams and aspirations of freedom onto the Internet, even if many expressions of that "freedom" are harmful or prevent other people from making full use of the Internet. Even the technical history of the Internet mimics that of the Old West frontier.2 Very few people even knew about the Internet in its early days, and even fewer were able to access it. In the s and s, dedicated lines and expensive computer terminals were required to connect to the fledgling network. But, by the early s it was possible to use a home computer and a dial-up line to access the Internet through a new class of Internet Service Providers (ISPs). These early connections were slow and primitive, and early users had to be very tech-savvy in order to configure their home computers to work with the network. The World Wide Web did not exist yet, so most of the social value of the early Internet came through a free-ranging discussion system known as Usenet and through a few file-transfer systems sites that shared simple programs or games through a text interface. But, just like the Old West, the Internet had its own gold rush that opened the frontier to all. In the early s, the World Wide Web was invented, allowing users to navigate the Internet visually instead of

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by typing arcane commands into a text interface. Entrepreneurs recognized an opportunity and started to find ways to profit from the accelerating growth of the Internet. On August 9, , Netscape was the first Internet company to go public.3 Its initial public offering (IPO) marked the official start of the Internet gold rush. At its IPO, Netscape's most visible founder, Marc Andreessen, was only twentyfour years old. The company had never reported a profit, and its main product (the now-forgotten Mosaic Internet browser) was given away free. But antiquated concerns like"profit" and"revenue" could not stop the speculators; there were more than million requests for the 5 million shares that Netscape was willing to sell.4 Its stock opened trading at $26 dollars per share, already double the price that bankers thought it was worth. At one point during the first day of trading, Netscape shares were selling for more than $75, which meant that Netscapea company that recorded less than $25 million in total revenue before going publichad a market value of more than $2 billion, large enough to put it in league with then-Fortune companies like the New York Times Company (NYSE: NYT).5 The IPO made multimillionaires out of kids who were barely out of college and who would normally have been working at entry-level jobs in faceless corporationsas Malcolm Gladwell explains in Outliers, the Internet gold rush was one of the rare moments in history when ordinary people could strike it extraordinarily rich.6 The media frenzy rivaled that of the original Wild West promoter Samuel Brannan: MSNBC tried to get a live feed of the NASDAQ trading floor, Netscape founder Marc Andreessen was on the cover of Time magazine, and new magazines sprung up to cover the rapidly growing Internet IPO market. Netscape was to the shoppingdowntown.us boom what Sutter's Mill was to the gold rush. And, in a peculiarly close echo of the first gold rush, thousands of migrants again moved west to join the early Internet pioneers in California. But this wave of Internet entrepreneurs bypassed San Francisco (the heart of the old gold rush) and instead settled just thirty miles south in Silicon Valley and San Jose (see Figure ).

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Figure Sand Hill Road in Silicon Valley, the heart of the s technology bubble. Credit: Mark Coggins (via Flickr).

Just as in the original Wild West, a boom followed the first discovery of (electronic) gold. In , there were more than technology IPOs, creating instant paper millionaires out of thousands of entrepreneurs. And, just like in the old West, the overheated market collapsed within a few years; the only difference is that Netscape

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founder Marc Andreessen took home at least $ million, while Old West gold rush originator James Marshall went broke and eventually relied on the state for assistance.7

The Internet Developed a Frontier Culture


As a result of its cultural isolation, the young Internet developed its own manners, rules, and conduct apart from the culture of the "offline" society. The most obvious signal that things were different online was the unique vocabulary of the Internet; most users quickly began to use and understand emoticons like ":)" and ":("and new acronyms like "LOL" (which morphed from "lots of love" in handwritten letters to "laugh out loud" online) and "ROFL" ("rolling on the floor laughing"). More advanced users developed a specialized vocabulary, extending all the way to "leetspeak," a complex language that substitutes symbols for letters in words (the word "leetspeak" itself might be written as "l33tsp33k").8 But the cultural differences of the Internet extend far beyond linguistics. For example, the early Internet's heavy reliance on self-policing created a culture of governmental noninterference that continues to this day. In the very early days, only academic researchers had access to the Internet. They had little need for oversight because they were all bound by their academic interests and personal connections. These first pioneers were amazed by the potential of the network and thought that any restrictions on the network would hinder its growth; their views echoed those of the cattlemen of the Old West who thought that absolute freedom to move their cattle would lead to riches for all. Disputes on the early Internet were resolved by massive "town hall" discussions and direct democracy, another hallmark of frontier societies. This frontier culture of self-policing and self-reliance matured somewhat over time. Early online disputes were settled under a code of behavior that bore only a loose resemblance to offline law or offline behavioral norms. A unique rough-and-tumble character emerged: Users would take great pride in gently competing to undermine each

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other's security. Actual malicious use was rare, but pranks were common; one well-known prank was to chide a user who left his account insecure by accessing the victim's computer and broadcasting a standard message under the negligent user's name: "I have very baggy pants."9 The victim of the prank was embarrassed by the message, but there was no permanent harm done. The Internet soon grew into a larger community than could support gentle "baggy pants" trickery. The network spread outside the personal networks that initially restrained behavior. The first obvious bumps occurred in , when the first "spam," or unsolicited commercial e-mail, was sent to early e-mail users. The message advertised a demonstration of new computing hardware by Digital Equipment Corporation The response, however, was a typical frontier response: Instead of imposing technical or legal limits, the community encouraged restraint and social enforcement of vague norms. Law enforcement was frowned upon: "Any censorship can only lead to worse things later on," said one debate participant The Internet also quickly took on many other qualities of the lawless Old West frontier. Just as in the first Wild West, prostitution and gambling were rampant online by the late s. Of course, any transaction for prostitution still had to be consummated offline, but online advertising of services offered was plentiful; even the mainstream classified site Craigslist had an "erotic services" section. For years, law enforcement turned a blind eye: There were simply other priorities that it considered more important than obscure electronic advertisements for prostitution Similarly, online gambling blossomed, with online casinos raking in tens of millions of dollars from players worldwide. The game of Texas Hold 'Em poker experienced a renaissance in the early twenty-first century largely because of the sudden availability of online poker. And, again, the law looked the other way. And, just like the Old West, the digital Wild West had its share of petty con men, starting with the infamous"" advance-fee scammers who promised a share of a (nonexistent) fortune if only the victim

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would pay a small tax or transfer fee required to release (nonexistent) lottery winnings or the (nonexistent) estate of a deceased businessman. As early as , the U.S. government confirmed that individuals had lost almost $ million to this scam, and actual losses were probably much higher. And, just as in the original Old West, there were accusations of rigged card gamesone charlatan was confirmed to have stolen roughly between $, and $, after just forty days of "work" rigging an online poker website In another echo of the Old West, there were substantially more men than women on the early digital frontier. While there are few statistics about the very early days of the Internet, as late as there was a roughly seven-to-three ratio of men to women online, meaning that there were more than twice as many men as women online The result was an online culture that was vastly different from the offline culture: Gambling was effectively legal, prostitution was openly advertised, countless con men and scam artists worked the virtual streets, and the law turned a blind eye to it all. For these early pioneers, the only form of defense was self-defense; the law was simply unable (or unwilling) to track down scammers and spammers working in far-off countries or to crack down on the proliferation of online vice.

The Culture of the Internet is in Conflict with Offline Culture


The Internet boom also put a limit on the Internet's cultural isolation. This too is an echo of the original gold rush, which created the infrastructure that allowed late-arrivers to flock to mining boomtowns like San Francisco and Denver. Online, the digital " 'ers" of the shoppingdowntown.us era cleared a path that made it easier for everyday citizens to access the Internet today. To take one example, the Mosaic Internet browser itself has been long forgotten, but it introduced a world of visual browsing that has become the foundation for the Web and for

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modern programs like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome. In fact, the Firefox browser is a direct descendant of Netscape's Mosaic browser thanks to Netscape's decision to release the source code for Mosaic. Similarly, the founders of Google made a massive fortune, but their efforts also made it possible for everyday users to find nearly anything online through a simple search interface. Early users who played obscure online games through dial-up modems spurred the technology now used by senior citizens to play online hearts and bridge. The demand for high-speed connections to view "adult" videos sparked the creation of high-bandwidth connections that allow services like Netflix to stream mainstream movies directly to the home. And countless other technologies have been adapted for mainstream use thanks to the contributions of the Internet pioneers. But, the expansion of the frontier has not always been peaceful. The explosive growth of the Internet through the s has created a massive clash between the new and old cultures of the Internet. Hundreds of thousands of new users have flooded the Internet, unaware of the unique history of the network or the culture that had developed online. Many of these new users did not grow up with the Internet. They never internalized the unique language of the Internet and never worked within its strange social norms. When these new users connected, they expected an environment like the offline worldsecure, safe, and governed by the same offline manners and standards of behavior. They were shocked to find an Internet filled with scams and con artists, unsecure websites, devious pranksters, and plentiful hoaxsters. And these users were even more shocked to find out that law enforcement was doing virtually nothing to reduce the dangers online (especially the petty scams and viruses that make up "online street crime"). The results were painful for many new users: loss of money to scammers, embarrassment at being pranked, time spent fixing identity theft, and so forth. Even physical harm is possible when online cultures collide. To take an extreme (but entirely true) example, a group of pranksters decided to attack a web-

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site used by people with photosensitive epilepsy. The motive appears to have been nothing more than a cruel desire to get laughs at the expense of a less technologically savvy group. The method? The pranksters filled the website with flashing images intended to trigger epileptic migrainesor even epileptic seizuresin anybody who viewed them The resulting outrage among "offline" society was entirely predictable, as was the backlash among Internet natives who thought that it was nothing more than a prank that revealed the need for users (the victims) to invest more energy in self-defense and computer security. To new users of the Internet, who were accustomed to a relatively safe and familiar offline world, the need to take active technological steps to avoid harm came as a shock. The online world was simply different in a dangerous way. Some new users took their lumps and stuck around long enough to learn how to practice online self-defense, but other usersespecially from an older generation were frightened by what they saw and fled, losing the benefits of the Internet in the process. Of course, experienced users have been frustrated by the naivet of the newcomers (sometimes called"newbies" or just"noobs"), just as the newcomers have been frightened of the Internet natives. As early as , long-time users of the Usenet discussion system began to complain about the"Eternal September." The term arose when Amer- ica Online connected its network to the Usenet system and allowed tens of thousands of new users to flood the existing discussion, disrupting what had been a relatively stable discussion system. The"September" of "Eternal September" was a reference to the annual flood of inappropriate messages and silly questions caused by the wave of new Internet users every September when college freshmen got their first Internet access through their school. The fear underlying the term "Eternal September" was that the sudden flood of AOL users would permanently destabilize the discussion system. The old-timers complained that the new users lacked etiquette ("netiquette"), used the system inappropriately, and did not understand how the system

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worked. The new users, of course, thought the old users rude, unwelcoming, and unrealistic to think that their idiosyncratic culture would last forever. Of course, the influx of new AOL users in was a mere trickle compared to what came later, but it represented the first major clash to result from a large group of the general public crashing what had been a private Internet party. The influx of new users into the formerly insolated Internet culture has re-created many of the same tensions that plagued interactions on the Old West frontier between newcomers and old-timers. The changes created by the Internet culture clash have been obvious in some ways. There has been a massive crackdown on gambling and prostitution online, just as there was at the close of the frontier in the Old West. In , the FBI arrested the owner of a major online gambling site Digital natives lamented the move as the beginning of the end of the wild Internet. Later that year, Congress passed and the President signed a bill outlawing all monetary transactions with online casinos, effectively making it impossible for U.S. residents to get money into or out of an online casino Similarly, the online classified site Craigslist removed many of its prostitution advertisements after being investigated by forty state attorneys general,18 and law enforcement officers started to create fake online prostitution ads as part of a sting operation against johns Extensive investigations took some malicious websites offline, including the complete shutdown of one server farm that was a haven for spammers and criminals But law enforcement online has not yet caught up with offline enforcement, and it may never. Thousands of spammers and malicious websites are still online. International scammers and fraudsters still work with impunity. Vigilante justice remains the only form of justice against many fraudsters; for example, an extensive community of Internet users has sprung up with the goal of playing tricks on "" fraudsters, often by encouraging the fraudster to take embarrassing photos of himself or by convincing the fraudster to go on a long trip to collect (nonexistent) wire transfer payments from the would-be victim One can argue until blue in the face about whether this

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digital vigilantism ("digilantism," if you will) is good or bad, but there's no doubt that it happens frequently. Long-time Internet users continue to preach self-reliance and technical measures to make the Internet more useable. To take just one example, the well-known Internet developer Paul Graham (responsible for many of the online shopping cart innovations that have become standard practice online) thinks that pure technology is better than law at stopping unsolicited commercial e-mail ("spam"). He elaborated on this theme in his classic book Hackers and Painters To him, it is only natural that the solution for an online problem is a technological solution designed to detect key phrases that appear in spam messages and to delete the offending messages. In contrast, many people more familiar with offline legal systems suggest imposing new laws and controls on the Internet. One leading example is technology lawyer David Baumer, who believes that legal solutions based on the federal CAN-SPAM law and similar state laws that give private citizens an incentive to sue spammers are "within sight."23 To him, it is only natural that the solution for an online problem is a legal regime. Somewhere in between, leading Internet scholar Jonathan Zittrain suggests that the answer to problems like spam might be a mix of technological and social solutions, such as cooperation between Internet Service Providers and users to identify and block websites that send spam The result is a continuing conflict between self-defense and law enforcement, between open and closed borders, and between order and chaos. It is the same debate that raged in the Old West. And it is not clear that either side is entirely"right" or"better." There are fundamental technological limitations in the Internet that mean that it may never be as safe and secure as the offline world, or at least not in the same ways. But there is no reason for it to be a complete free range for fraud, scams, attacks, smears, impersonation, and libel. Too many people are using the Internet these days to continue a world of vigilante justice and aggressive self-defense. But much of the growth of the Internet was spurred by its wide-open nature, free from government in-

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terference or rules of any sort. It is inevitable that some balance will be struck between these positions, but it is not yet certain what balance that will be. And, as Internet scholar Lawrence Lessig wisely points out, the final balance might depend a lot on whether the old policy of Internet self-governance is able to avert a massive catastrophe or whether serious government regulation of the Internet starts from the perspective of recovering from a digital terrorist attack. The Internet is still fundamentally a frontier environment. But it is not the frontier of the early pioneers anymore. Just as the end of the gold rush was not the end of the story for the Old West, the end of the first stage of the Internet's development is not the end of its story. Those who understand the battle over the future of the Internet will be well positioned to preserve their own reputation along the way.

Notes
1. From George Santayana, Reason in Common Sense, the first volume of The Life of Reason. Go: shoppingdowntown.us 2. For a more detailed history of the Internet, check out the free online bonus chapter detailing the history of the Internet, exclusively available at shoppingdowntown.us 3. "Remembering Netscape: The Birth of The Web," Fortune, July 25, Go: shoppingdowntown.us 4. "Further Fallout from Last Week's Nutty Netscape IPO," Fortune, September 4, Go: shoppingdowntown.us 5. "It's the IPO, Stupid," Vanity Fair, January Go: shoppingdowntown.us go/ 6. Go: shoppingdowntown.us 7. Gary Rivlin, "If You Can Make It in Silicon Valley, You Can Make It . . . in Silicon Valley Again," New York Times (magazine), June 5, Go: shoppingdowntown.us 8. Go: shoppingdowntown.us 9. Go: shoppingdowntown.us

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Brad Templeton, "Reactions to the DEC Spam of " Go: http:// shoppingdowntown.us Mark Crispin, in Brad Templeton, "Reactions to the DEC Spam of " Go: shoppingdowntown.us Bruce Lambert, "As Prostitutes Turn to Craigslist, Law Takes Notice," New York Times, September 5, Go: shoppingdowntown.us Mike Brunker, "Online poker cheating blamed on employee," shoppingdowntown.us, October 19, Go: shoppingdowntown.us Also visit a site dedicated to recounting the scam. Go: shoppingdowntown.us The Internet Encyclopedia, Hossein Bidgoli (ed.), , at WARNING: The following link contains samples of the images used in the attack and may trigger a response in readers with photo-sensitive epilepsy: Go: shoppingdowntown.us Also see a news report at Go: shoppingdowntown.us Simon Bowers, "Online Betting Boss Faces Conspiracy Charges in U.S.," The Guardian (UK), July 18, Go: shoppingdowntown.us Associated Press, "Bush Signs Port-Security, Internet Gambling Bill," USA Today, October 13, Go: shoppingdowntown.us Associated Press, "Craigslist to Crack Down on Prostitution Ads," shoppingdowntown.us, November 6, Go: shoppingdowntown.us Also see Craigslist's response, at Go: shoppingdowntown.us Hector Castro, "Ad on Craigslist Really a Sex Sting," Seattle PostIntelligencer, November 16, Go: http://wildwest2/com/go/ Jeremy Kirk, "After McColo Takedown, Spam Surges Again," Network World, January 26, Go: shoppingdowntown.us The website is at shoppingdowntown.us Paul Graham, Hackers and Painters (Santa Rosa, Calif.: O'Reilly Media, ). Go: shoppingdowntown.us David Baumer, "SPAM: Are Legal Solutions Within Sight?" Working paper (). Go: shoppingdowntown.us Jonathan Zittrain, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, ). Go: shoppingdowntown.us

CHAPTER

The Forces Driving Online Reputation

The Internet has turned reputation on its head. What was once private is now public. What was once local is now global. What was once fleeting is now permanent. And what was once trustworthy is now unreliable. These changes are explained by the way that the technology of the Internet has shaped the people's interaction with it. Understanding the unique relationship between technology and culture online is key to understanding how to manage your reputation online. Failure is certain for users who apply offline techniques to their Internet reputation or who use offline assumptions when dealing with online problems. Instead, savvy users must understand the technical and cultural differences between the Internet and the offline world in order to effectively preserve and improve their reputations online.

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A Brave New World for Reputation


The Internet is not like other forms of communication. The Internet is not a phone, a radio, a TV, a newspaper, a magazine, a billboard, or a bathroom wall. It is entirely unique: it is simultaneously the largest soapbox in the history of soapbox speeches, the largest library of human knowledge ever created, the biggest party line chat in the history of conversation, and much more. Unlike any medium that has come before it, it offers powerful, global, instant, interactive communication equally to everyone, no matter how young or old, no matter where in the world they are located, and no matter what they have to say. Everyone can broadcast, and everyone can listen. Thanks to the Internet, we now have more power over one another's reputations than at any point in history. Average everyday citizens have the power to create or destroy almost anybody's good name. But, fortunately, the Internet has also given people the power to monitor, manage, and improve their own reputation, in a way never before seen. Understanding the technical nature of the Internet is the first step toward monitoring and managing your online reputation. The technology of the Internet is dramatically different from the offline world: it allows anyone to publish anything instantly and globally, it is easily searched, search engines don't know or care if something is true so long as it is popular, nearly everything online is permanent, and disparate audiences are thrown together in a way that doesn't often happen in the real world. Leading scholar Daniel Solove's groundbreaking book The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on the Internet goes into great depth explaining the massive impact of this digital revolution on personal reputation. He examines both the digital causes, many of which are discussed in this chapter, and legal and social factors that can help mitigate the destructive impact of these changes.

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Everyone Can Create, and Everyone Is (Almost) Equal


Everywhere you look on the Internet, you can find content written by other everyday people like yourself. The industry calls this"user-created content," and it appears to be the future of the Internet. In the early days, much Internet content was written by professional journalists and large corporations. This"top-down" model of publishing featured a few trusted content creators who spread their message to many readers. Today, user-created content is king. Profit-oriented websites like Facebook and Reddit have discovered that it is cheaper to let users create their own content than it is to pay writers and editors to write and edit it. As a result, countless "Web " sites rely on users to cre- ate the content that other users will view. These sites range from blogging sites like LiveJournal and Blogger, to online encyclopedias like Wikipedia, to news aggregation sites like Digg, to short-message sites like Twitter (used for content as banal as "I'm eating a cheeseburger" and as meaningful as political commentary in characters or less).

Everyone Can Create The result of the Web revolution is that everyday people now can create online content that can be viewed by millions of people. It is possible for anyone to set up a free online journal or blog with just a few clicks. An online journal can hold any kind of information, ranging from family photos to political thoughts to gossip and scandal. It is entirely up to the creator to decide what to write on the blank slate he or she is given. This immense power is given to anyone, and it is up to the user to decide whether to use this newfound power for good or for evil. Similarly, there are hundreds (if not thousands) of sites that focus on discussion and chat. These "forums" and "bulletin boards" usu- ally allow users to read messages left by others and to post their own thoughts in response. Often, discussion sites are organized around a larger theme (like a particular sports team), and allow users to create

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smaller discussions ("threads") about a particular topic (such as the role of steroids in sports). Any user can post any message, subject only to the whim of the website owner. The result is massively multidirectional conversations about every topic under the sun. To just paraphrase one short list of topics, it is possible to find discussions about parenting, painting, the playoffs, the Partridge Family, Picasso, Proctor and Gamble, Portland (Oregon), Portland (Maine), and myriad other niches. There is probably a discussion group for any identifiable interest. And, even if there isn't, many forums have "offtopic" sections where anything else can be discussed. The owners of Web or discussion websites may choose to moderate discussions by deleting offensive content, or they may simply choose to let users set their own standards. Moderation is timeconsuming for site owners; everyone has a different idea of what it means for something to be offensive (consider, for example, the controversy about depictions of the religious figure Mohammed in a series of editorial cartoons), and moderation decisions frequently lead to more bickering and debate among users. As a result of the difficulty of moderation and the natural tendency of humans toward scandal, some user-created content has a tendency to devolve toward the lowest common denominator. Gossip and scandal attracts attention, online and off, and there is a strong temptation for site owners to allow (or even encourage) users to discuss scandalous topics in order to attract more traffic, which usually leads to more ad revenue. Unfortunately, some users take this freedom and use it to spread gossip, to attack other people out of jealousy or spite, and to repeat misinformation. And, unlike the tabloids of yore, website users often don't limit themselves to discussing celebrities and public figures. The open publishing model of Web is the first ingredient of the sometimes dangerous online mix.

Everyone Is (Almost) Equal To the extent that everyone can create content, everyone is equal. For just a few dollars, anyone can purchase her own ".com" domain name

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and create a website with almost any conceivable content. Such a site would be visible to users around the world, just the same as sites made by major corporations. There is absolutely no filter on what people can create: someone could make a website claiming that the moon is made of green cheese, and someone else could create a website claiming that there is no such thing as 3-D space.1 Unlike most print media, any website can be viewed millions of times by millions of different people. Print distribution is extremely limited; each person who takes a copy of a print message effectively destroys one; to reach an audience of millions would cost hundreds of thousands of dollars in printing costs alone (not to mention the lead time required to coordinate such an effort, the shipping costs such an effort would incur, the staffing that it would take to handle a million pieces of paper, and more). Simple websites that don't include video or extensive graphics almost never exceed the limit of their Web hosting contract, allowing any website to become popular overnight and to reach a massive audience, perhaps even before the site owner realizes it. Of course, just as in Animal Farm, some online publishers are more equal than others. Most major corporations have websites that look substantially better than many personal blogs because major companies can afford professional designers and artists. And most Web users have learned to associate professional design with professional content; a site that features tacky design and rudimentary navigation will often be considered amateurish or untrustworthy. But even that advantage of major sites is limited. It is possible for a skilled designer to mimic the elements of a well-designed site or for a less-skilled designer to outright copy the design of a different site. The ease of copying substantially cuts the design advantage held by major corporations and organizations. There is no inherent bias within Google (or within most search engines) in favor of large corporate sites or sites that favor the old media establishment. The Google algorithm doesn't appear to have any opinion about the difference between the New York Times and

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the Onion, a satirical newspaper; both websites are measured by the same criteria, with no favoritism toward one or the other. Nor does the Google algorithm know the difference between some individual's website and the Washington Post; to the algorithm, they're both just websites to be measured along the same scale, even if that means the Post will usually win. Internet scholar Andrew Keen thinks this new egalitarianism will trash our culture, to the point of mindless Youtube clips replacing meaningful movies and plays. In his book, The Cult of the Amateur, he predicts that the noise created by amateurish user-created content will drown out the contributions that can be made by skilled and talented experts: He compares the music created by a trained symphony to an average Youtube clip of kids rocking out.2 Google, of course, is part of the problem because it makes no distinctions between quality and garbage; if you search Google for music, it will bring up the most popular web page rather than the best music. Even if you don't agree with Keen's doom-and-gloom prophe- cies, it is undeniable that the ever-increasing visibility of user-created content has changed the way we look at each other, and the way that our reputations are shaped.

Everything Is Online Somewhere


Not only is information unfiltered, but there is a vast amount of it online. The combination of individual contributions, corporate media, and government records means that there is more data about private individuals available online than through any other medium in history. The Internet is without limit. Much like the universe, it is constantly expanding. There is effectively no maximum size to the Internet; new websites can be created, new blogs started, new information added, and new photos uploaded without ever having to remove anything. A prominent politician once verbally stumbled by comparing the Internet to a dump truck and a series of tubes.3 At the risk of repeating the error, the Internet is more like a black hole than a closet: you

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can stuff an endless amount of material online without ever having to take anything out. The infinite capacity of the Internet means that it is possible for an endless amount of information to be provided about even the most obscure topics and for this information to be archived permanently. Almost everything can be found online somewhere. If it happened in the past ten years, it might be online. If it happened in the past five years, it's probably online. And if it happened in the past two years, it's almost certainly online. Not all of it can be easily found (at least not yet), but it's therehidden in government databases, corporate databases, blog posts, Facebook updates, Twitter "tweets," MySpace pictures, and all the hundreds of other ways that content is shared online. The data varies from the mundane (the members of local soccer teams) to the dangerous (property records that give stalkers the info they need to find their victims) to the damaging (uncorrected arrest records of people later proved innocent). Even vast amounts of political information is online: All financial contributions to political candidates in the United States made since are online now, copied across several sites, and readily found by Google; it's easy to find out if your neighbors gave to Democrats, Republicans, Greens, Independents, or even the Marijuana Party.4 The depth of information online is also staggering. Want to know who played third base for the Red Sox in ? A simple search reveals that Larry Gardner was covering the "hot corner" at Fenway Park's first opening day.5 Want to know anyone's current ad- dress and previous residences? Just search a "whitepages" site online, or at most pay a few dollars to a background-check company for the data. Want to know how much your neighbors paid for their home? Check shoppingdowntown.us, which lists past sales and current estimates on millions of homes. Want to know what a particular beachfront home in California looks like? There is a website showing helicopter photos of every beachfront lot along the coast, along with comparison photos dating back to The government has been just as aggressive about putting data on-

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line; one can easily find Ellis Island immigration records,7 sex offender registrations,8 the names of current prison inmates,9 and even complete land historic ownership and appraisal records for every plot of land in some counties There are even lots of things online that probably were not meant to be placed online. There have been news stories about curious Web visitors finding lists of passwords,11 credit card numbers, private phone meetings, and even access codes for buildings Archives of old data are also being uploaded. The New York Times has digitized its complete archives from through ; any story from that period is available online and visible to anyone who searches using Google. The original contemporary coverage of President Abraham Lincoln's election can be found through a simple Google search And, predictably enough, the election coverage shows how the long life of online data can harm reputations; for example, the Times article detailing the election results includes an allegation that a Census Bureau clerk by the name of Goldsborough was plotting to disrupt the counting of the ballots The clerk is long dead, but the unsubstantiated allegation about his character lingers years later. Even much smaller newspapers, including college newspapers, are placing their archives online. The Yale Daily News, the oldest college daily newspaper, has placed online its entire archive back to the first issue in Of course, there has been a backlash against the permanent memory of the Internet. A recent book by scholar Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age, proposes that all website data should automatically be deleted unless there is a compelling reason to keep it. He proposes that programmers set up websites so that "old news" is eventually hidden from Google's memory, especially when it does not concern matters of great public importance (e.g., national politics, scientific advancements). While compelling, his ideas are unlikely to be implemented soon, which leaves everyday users the task of trying to control what information about them will be permanently archived.

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Everything Is Instant
The Internet creates instant universality. The very moment that something is created online, it is available to be viewed by anyone, anywhere. A newly written blog post can be transmitted around the world, copied digitally to tens or hundreds of websites, and permanently archivedall faster than you can blink. A newly posted photo can be copied, analyzed, and redistributed in the time it takes to sneeze. And a newly penned comment in a forum or blog can become irretrievably permanent in the time it takes for the mouse button to rebound after clicking on "submit." Everything is instantly universal. Technologies like "Really Simple Syndication" (RSS) make sure that new content automatically gets distributed as fast as computers can process data. Using RSS, it is possible for a blogger to automatically notify other news outlets and news aggregation sites that there is new content available. Those aggregators often immediately scan any new content provided, process it, and display it to their users (like at NewsVine) or pass it on to yet another step (like at Yahoo! Pipes). The next step can display, pass along, or do both. In seconds, a new piece of content can circle the globe and appear on tens or hundreds of sites. This culture of speed is a sharp break from the old "news cycle." In fact, the concept of a "news cycle" at all is a remnant of the preInternet era of news publication. Before the Internet, for a news story to reach a mass audience it had to be published in a morning newspaper or appear on an evening news program. As a result, editors had time to stop, think a story over, and then decide whether to publish it. There was time to gather additional facts, do further research, and perhaps debunk false stories before they were published. Of course, false stories and errors got through, but at least there was time to try to limit their numbers. Today, the Internet news cycle is constant: at any hour of the day or night, anyone can publish news, which is immediately viewable by millions of readers. There is a never-ending race among news outlets

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to be first to break a story. All the major news sites update their content 60/24/7/ Breaking news is posted within minutes. The time to investigate a major scandal is measured in hours rather than days. And big news organizations are not merely competing against each other; they're also competing against thousands of blogs and other small outlets. The legacy news organizations are left to play catch-up; they must investigate and publish every story in the shortest amount of time possible if they hope to compete online, while desperately trying to preserve the journalistic standards of a more leisurely era. One or the other has to give. This culture of rushing to be first has extended beyond just writing the news. It has also extended to sharing and discussing it. On news discussion sites, like Digg, Slashdot, and Reddit, many users compete to be the first to post a link to a news article or discussion topic; on some sites, users are even awarded "karma" points for being the first to submit a breaking news story. The online culture of speed has even extended so far that, on many blogs, readers race to be the first person to comment on a new post, if only to shout "FIRST" in allcapital letters. (This practice gets old just as fast as you think it would, namely the "FIRST" time you see it.) In the end, there is little time to consider whether publishing a news article, blog post, or comment is a good idea. The result is that ill-considered and poorly researched content all too often is unleashed after an impulsive mouse click. The race to be first has overcome the quaint desire to be right and appropriate.

Everything Is Permanent
Anything that is said online may be available forever, no matter how hard anyone tries to delete it. Conversations among friends were once conducted in private; they left no permanent trace once the last echo faded, and they could spread only at the speed of interpersonal communication. Classroom notes were passed and trashed or at worst intercepted by a teacher and read aloud before being recycled.

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But many of those same conversations are now conducted online in a blog or chat room, in full view of the world, automatically indexed by Google, and broadcast to an audience of millions. Indelicate comments are archived for posterity and presented by Google as if they were as important as newspapers or government reports. The permanence of the Internet has hit students and jobseekers particularly hard. Those classroom notes have become MySpace posts that are permanently archived in computers around the globe and that are effectively impossible to delete. Pranks and insults that might seem funny to teenagers become visible years later to employers through a simple Google search. Digital photos of the indiscretions of youth are copied around the world and live on long after the acts themselves have faded from memory. The permanence of the Internet is often caused by the fact that digital data can be copied perfectly and nearly instantaneously. An embarrassing photograph might start on one site, but viewers may c o p y i t t o t e n s o r h u n d re d s o f o t h e r s i t e s w i t h i n h o u r s o r d a y s . Even if the original is removed, the copies will live on. The same is true of any information: the text of a news article or government report can be copied and pasted from place to place just as easily. The act of copying one piece of content (an image, a news story, whatever) across many sites is so common that there is even slang for it: "copypasta." Even in the absence of user intervention, many sites on the Internet automatically archive vast amounts of content. One not-forprofit project, the Internet Archive, has been creating a permanent historical record of the entire Internet since The project created a computer program, a "crawler," that wanders from link to link across the Internet and saves everything that it sees. So far, it has saved more than 86 billion web pages. Even when an original web page is deleted, the copy in the Internet Archive will live on forever. A smear today can be found tomorrow in the Internet Archive, images and all. Even the federal government, through the Library of

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Congress, is getting into archiving Web content. The Library is working with the Archive to preserve special collections of Internet content that the government finds interesting; right now, the government project is limited to a collection of websites as they stood on September 11, , but other government archives may come in the future There are also automatic systems designed to create short-term archives of Internet content. When Google's Web spider reviews a page in order to update its index, it also automatically saves a copy of the page. This cached copy can be viewed by clicking the "cached" button that appears under a Google search result. The Google cache copy is accessible for days (or even weeks) after the original website has been removed or taken offline, regardless of whether the original content was false, defamatory, hurtful, or otherwise wrong and often the Google cache will stay online even if the original author wants to remove it. And there are even shorter-term automatic means of copying Internet content. Many Web browsers allow users to utilize caching technology that automatically saves a copy of every web page viewed. For example, there is an "extension" (a helper program) for the Fire- fox browser that automatically saves a copy of every page a user of the program views; even if the original page is pulled offline, that user will be able to view, share, and duplicate his copy of the web page. Similar technology has even been made social. For example, the Coral Content Distribution Network (better known as "Coral cache") allows users to view the Web through hundreds of distrib- uted caches (storage systems) around the world. If any user has viewed a page through the Coral network, then it continues to be available through the Coral network for some time, even if the original website is taken offline (intentionally or accidentally). Even in the absence of fancy technology, many things on the Internet end up becoming permanent through sheer inertia. Storage is so cheap these days that it is often easier to simply buy a larger hard

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d r i v e t h a n t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r o l d d a t a s h o u l d b e ke p t o r d e l e t e d . This leads to countless "zombie sites" that are no longer being maintained but that still have content. Often, they are blogs, journals, or other personal sites; they become zombies when the owner loses interest in the site but never bothers to delete it. Or the user may have lost the password, passed away, lost access to the Internet, or forgotten about the site's existence entirely. The site lives on, and the Web host has no incentive to go through the expensive and timeconsuming process of sorting out active and inactive sites when it costs only pennies to keep the old sites around. All too often, these zombie sites contain vastly outdated information, and there is often no way to contact the ownereven if an e-mail address is listed on the site, it is probably no longer in service. There are vast ghost towns of inactive sites like these, but Google often has no way to know which sites are frozen in time and which sites are still actively maintained. Of course, not absolutely everything ends up being permanent. Plenty of things drift away into effective obscurity or complete de- s t r u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a rl y i f t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t i n g o n l y t o a v e r y s m a l l group of people. But anything that piques the interest of a larger community can almost never be destroyed. At best, it will fade in prominence over time, but it will rarely be completely eradicated. In fact, many naive attempts to get rid of content just make matters worse. The "Streisand Effect" describes what happens when an attempt to get rid of content causes it to become even more permanent. The facts are simple: Barbra Streisand was unhappy that a high-resolution photograph of her beachfront home was online, in part because it showed access points that could be used by intruders or burglars However, her attempts to use heavy-handed legal compulsion to remove the photo from the Internet actually made the problem worse; the photo was copied to hundreds of sites out of spite, and now her name is permanently associated with the photo. Similarly, the Motion Picture Association of America

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caused more trouble for itself when it used similar tactics to try to eliminate an isolated reference to an encryption key that could be used to copy high-definition DVDs. The Internet backlash against the MPAA's heavy-handed tactics was fierce: the code was copied to more than , websites and will never be removed from the Internet

Everything Is Powerful
The power of modern computer technology has been a mixed blessing for reputation. Thanks to vast databases of digital data, fast networks, and powerful computers, it is possible for computers to connect onceseparate facts in ways that can be liberating or damaging. To take one example, millions of people carry cell phones capable of taking photos and uploading them to the Internet. Users often upload their photos to the Internet without identifying the people in the photos in order to preserve some measure of privacy. But, advancements in digital technology mean that facial recognition is now good enough that computers can reliably identify individuals in photos after being "trained" on only a handful of known samples. The result is a world where countless peoplefriends and strangersupload photos to photo-sharing sites with the best of intentions, but where the anonymous people in these photos can be quickly identified by computers. The training system for a facial recognition system already exists thanks to photo "tagging" features of sites like Facebook, Flickr, and Picasa. Facebook in particular has a massive set of photo tags millions of users have each been tagged hundreds of times each If the security of Facebook is ever broken, it will be possible to identify millions of people in previously anonymous photos spread across the Internet. There are literally hundreds of millions of photos on the Internet that can become fodder for facial recognition. There are millions of photos of streets, offices, bars, parties, and other events that in-

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clude images of people. When combined with facial recognition and the power of Google to find obscure information, the possibility of damage to reputation is obvious. Anyone photographed (accidentally or intentionally) near an adult bookstore could be identified by name and made subject to ridicule by his peers. Anyone photographed entering a family planning clinic could be located and subjected to pillory by anti-abortion activists. Anyone photographed near a gay bar is at risk of being named and having his sexual orientation falsely reported or accurately revealed to his employer and peers, especially in less-tolerant areas of the country. Any attempt to explain away any of the photos"I was going to the business next door" or "it isn't me" is likely to be lost in the clutter. Other Internet applications endanger reputations by aggregating a vast amount of data that was once scattered across the Internet. These applications are often "neat" or interesting but create real risks to reputation. To take just one example, there is a website that attempts to find random personal photos scattered across the Internet The photos found by the site are often very personal, and many appear to have never been meant for a public audience. The application can find such photos because it searches for the default filenames used by digital cameras and is thus able to find photos uploaded to all kinds of personal sites that were never meant to be revealed to the browsing public as a whole. This site could have already found photos that you, a friend, a relative, or even an acquaintance uploadedand it could be broadcasting these private photos to the Internet as a whole right now.

Notes
1. View one such website at shoppingdowntown.us 2. Andrew Keen, The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet Is Killing Our Culture (New York: Doubleday, ). 3. Noam Cohen, "Cyber Ignorance Not Bliss for Public Servants," New York Times, June 5, Go: shoppingdowntown.us

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4. Center for Responsive Politics, "Money in Politics, " shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us 5. Unnamed Wikipedia contributors, " Boston Red Sox season," via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us 6. The California Coastal Records Project. Go: shoppingdowntown.us 7. National Archives, "Immigration Records (Ship Passenger Arrival Records and Land Border Entries)," via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us go/ 8. Family Watchdog, "National Sex Offender Registry," via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us 9. Federal Bureau of Prisons, "BOP: Inmate Locator Page." Go: shoppingdowntown.us For example, Jefferson County Clerk's Office, "Online Land Records." Go: shoppingdowntown.us CyberInsecure Blog, " Stolen Ebay Logins and Passwords Accidentally Found Online by Security Firm." Go: shoppingdowntown.us Brian Krebs, "A Word of Caution about Google Calendar," SecurityFix (blog). Go: shoppingdowntown.us New York Times, "Affairs of the Nation; Highly Important News from Washington. The Electoral Vote Counted," p. 1. Go: shoppingdowntown.us Ibid. Yale Daily News, "Yale Daily News Historical Archive," via shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us Internet Archive Foundation,"Internet Archive." Go: shoppingdowntown.us go/ Library of Congress,"Library of Congress, Internet Archive, shoppingdowntown.us and the Pew Internet & American Life Project Announce Sept. 11 Web Archive." Go: shoppingdowntown.us Unnamed Wikipedia contributors, "Streisand Effect," shoppingdowntown.us Go: shoppingdowntown.us Brad Stone, "In Web Uproar, Antipiracy Code Spreads Wildly," New York Times, May 3, Go: shoppingdowntown.us Website count estimated via Google search for the text of the code (verified February 1, ).

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Erick Scholfeld, "Who Has the Most Photos of Them All?" TechCrunch, April 7, Go: shoppingdowntown.us One such site is called the "Random Personal Picture Finder." WARNING: the site often shows images that are controversial or R-rated. Go: http:// shoppingdowntown.us

CHAPTER

Anonymous Cowards

The power of online anonymity has turned reputation and privacy on their heads. Before the Internet, everyday conversations were held face-to-face. Natural social cues guided conversation, reducing the risk of misunderstanding and limiting hostility. Gossipers and attackers could be identified and ostracized if they went too far. Social norms deterred people from prying too deep into each others' affairs. People who spread wrong information could be located and corrected. And the threat of libel lawsuits deterred the mass media from spreading outrageous lies to large audiences. But, online, anonymity rules. Thanks to the technology of the Internet, most people don a veil of anonymity when they go online. People post, read, share, talk, link, and sometimes even buy and sell anonymously. Online, it is often impossible to know if the person you're chatting with is half a block or half a world away. The owner of a website might be your neighbor, or it might be someone in Azer61

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baijan. The person spreading company secrets through a blog could be the mailroom clerk, the CEO's child, or even the CEO herself and, lest you think it unlikely for a CEO to be posting anonymously, the CEO of a major supermarket chain was recently caught writing anonymous comments online in an attempt to lower the stock price of a rival.1

Anonymity Is Limited in the Physical World


The ability to interact anonymously online is a sharp break from the "offline," face-to-face world. Most people walk around with their faces uncovered. They drive in cars with visible license plate numbers and pay with credit cards embossed with their names. They go to school, show up to work, and attend church alongside other people who know their real names. In social settings, the vast majority of people identify themselves truthfully by giving their real namesthe use of pseudonyms is rare enough as to seem absurd in all but the most privacy-sensitive settings, such as in therapy or support groups for stigmatizing conditions. Even if some of everyday life seems anonymous, it is anonymous only as long as it is inconsequential. Many everyday interactions have an illusion of anonymity, especially in urban areas: a cash purchase from a retail shop does not leave a paper trail, and the participants are unlikely to know each others' names. But the transaction is anonymous only because it is routine. If the transaction were to ever become important (for example, if the buyer passed counterfeit currency or tried to rob the store), the illusion of anonymity would quickly disappear. The police could quickly use fingerprints, DNA, and security camera footage to try to track down the individual responsible. Even a simple "WANTED" poster with a sketch of the perpetrator might be enough to lead to an arrest. And there is always the chance that a friend or neighbor might see any transaction, instantly destroying the illusion of anonymityfor example, the risk that the title character in

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Ferris Bueller's Day Off was going to get caught at a Cubs baseball game when he had claimed to be at home sick. Conscious attempts to remain anonymous during face-to-face interactions are frowned upon and often ineffective. Some protestors attempt to remain anonymous, but they are able to do so only as long as they don't break the law in front of the police. For example, members of the Ku Klux Klan are infamous for wearing face-covering hoods while marching, but they can still be de-hooded by police if they commit any crimes. And, of course, counterdemonstrators can follow them to see if they ever remove their hoods in view of the public. A recent wave of protestors against the Church of Scientology made a statement by wearing masks resembling the British conspirator Guy Fawkes, but these mask-wearing protestors were often discounted by passersby because of their unusual form of protest. And, of course, anyone bold enough to wear a ski mask into a bank would quickly discover the limit on tolerance for anonymity in the real world.

Online Anonymity Blows Away Social Norms


Online anonymity also empowers lonely, troubled, and spiteful attackers to say things they would never say in person. It allows attackers to smear a victim (or even impersonate the victim) and then to retreat into the shadows without any accountability for their actions. And, because these anonymous and untraceable attackers can reach a massive audience once reserved for the "professional" media, the threat of libel lawsuits no longer deters outrageous lies. Even simple misunderstandings are harder to clear up in an age of anonymity: how do you track down the source of even an innocent mistake if it is being spread anonymously? The same powerful anonymity also allows everyday people to pry far deeper into the lives of acquaintances, friends, and strangers than

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ets from point to point on the Internet and does not even consider user authentication. When you view a web page, your computer sends a request for that web page to the webserver that "hosts" the website you are viewing. A webserver or webhost is just a computer that responds to requests for website files. A popular website like shoppingdowntown.us may use thousands of webservers, while a smaller site like shoppingdowntown.us is likely to share a webserver with other websites. After getting your request, the webserver returns the files that make up the website or sends back an error message if the page cannot be found. When your computer sends such a request for a web page, it uses Internet Protocol to transmit the message across the Internet.3 The packet contains only minimal informationno more than the web page you are requesting, the IP address where your computer can be reached, and some technical routing information. This is true even if you are uploading a file, making a forum post, or using a Web-based e-mail service like Gmail; unless you have disclosed some identifying information (or your computer has been configured or hacked to do so automatically), you are effectively anonymous online.

Internet Protocol Allows and Encourages Anonymity


Often, the only fingerprint Web users leave behind is their IP address. But an IP address does not necessarily correspond to a particular human user. The IP address does not contain any information about the individual user or computer that sent a message; it is, as we noted, just a number. There are Web-based databases that allow an IP address to be linked to a particular ISP (so that you can tell whether your attacker gets his Internet service from Verizon or Comcast), but no publicly accessible database connects individual users to individual IP addresses. Even if it were possible to know that a particular person was using a particular IP address one day, that does not mean that the same

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person was using that address some other day. Dial-up Internet connections often assign a different IP address to a user each time the person connects. Cable modem and DSL operators often periodically reassign IP addresses for the security of their users, so one user's IP address today may be another's tomorrow. One IP address may not even uniquely identify one computer: Many corporate LANs have only one externally visible IP address and use "Network Address Translation" ("NAT") technology to mediate requests between many internal computers and the outside Internet. Any user in such a corporate system will appear to have the same address as any other user. Many home cable modem routers do the same; if there are multiple computers inside a house (or apartment, or college dorm room), they may appear to share one IP address. The same goes again for coffee shops and other open wireless connections; all of the users at the shop might share one IP address for most purposes. Only an ISP will be able to even try to determine who was using an IP address at a given time. Most reputable ISPs keep logs for a period of time (often ninety days to one year) that correlate IP address assignments with real subscriber data. But, most major ISPs will not give out subscriber information without legal process. And understandably so: ISPs don't want to risk a lawsuit for violating the privacy expectations of their subscribers. If these problems trying to identify users based on IP address weren't enough, many users take steps to intentionally break the link between their identity and their IP address. There are some legitimate reasons to increase anonymity: an activist's fear of an oppressive government or a whistleblower's fear of corporate retaliation. But these same methods are also abused by malicious attackers, hackers, child pornographers, and gossipers. Some forms of anonymity are simple. Using a neighbor's unsecured wireless network is often sufficient to hide one's identity. Of course, that method requires a neighbor with an unsecured wireless network within range. The effectiveness of that method is also limited: The source of a message can still be located to within the short

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range of a WiFi connection, and other hints (such as the type of computer being used or the Internet browser software version) may be sufficient to identify an attacker when combined with a rough physical location. Similarly, logging on at a public library may be sufficient if the library doesn't reliably check ID (some do, some don't), or one can use any other insecure connection like that at a coffee shop. Other technological means also exist to break the connection between Internet-visible IP address and identity when using one's own Internet connection. These methods are generally regarded as legal under current U.S. law. This, too, has a root in the history of the Internet: basic "anonymous remailers" date back to the early days of online discussions. Such remailers allowed users to send messages to the primitive "Usenet" discussion system, without their names, email addresses, or IP addresses being revealed. These were used when discussing controversial or illegal content but were limited in that they worked only for Usenet. Today, an Internet user can utilize a "proxy server" to hide her identity. There are both free and paid proxy servers that allow users to perform many Internet tasksincluding Web browsingwithout revealing their real IP address to the destination website.4 Instead of sending a message directly to the website they wish to view, users send a message to a proxy server. The proxy server then passes the message along but substitutes the proxy server's IP address as the "source." The website then sends the requested material back to the proxy server, which relays it (without the webserver's knowledge) to the original requester. Newer proxy systems, such as "TOR,"5 take the concept of anonymous proxy servers even further."TOR" stands for"The Onion Router," and it is a free software package that was developed in large part by the Electronic Frontier Foundation for the purpose of providing a robustly anonymous system to political activists protesting against oppressive regimes. But nothing about the system limits its use to political activists; it is equally available to hackers, child pornographers, paranoids, and others. Once installed, the program

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encrypts a user's Internet traffic and forwards it along a chain of several proxy servers. The data are wrapped in layers of encryption; as the data hop from one proxy server to another, each proxy server has only the decryption key required to remove one layer of encryption from the packet. The last proxy server removes the last layer of encryption and sends the packet to its destination. (Hence the "onion" name: the packet of data is wrapped in layers of encryption like the layers of an onion.) Responses are handled in the reverse order; each proxy server adds a layer of encryption as the packet is passed back toward the user. Each link can decrypt no more than is required in order to find the next link in the chain. No single person or computer knows both the sender and the destination because each link can"see" only the link immediately preceding and following it. The first link knows the sender, and the last link knows the destination, but these links are separate computers on opposite sides of the world that are unaware of each other's existence. Intermediate proxy servers cannot access the underlying message and have no clue as to the identity of the sender or recipient. Only the last proxy server has access to the message contents, but it does not know the source of the message or have any way to find out. This complex system reduces the risk that one proxy server could be wiretapped; even if one proxy server were compromised, it would not have enough information to connect a user to a message. The TOR system also prevents an ISP from being able to effectively monitor or track what activities a user is conducting online. In effect, TOR creates a system of technological anonymity that cannot be broken, even by law enforcement.

The Legal System Supports Anonymity


The current legal system supports anonymity online. At least in the United States, there is no requirement that websites, webhosts, ISPs, or anybody else collect or store any information that could be used to connect online activity to a real human being, whether directly (such as storing a name) or indirectly (such as storing an IP address).6

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Some sites do keep logs of the IP addresses of visitors; by default, several popular webserver software packages create basic IP address logs. After proper legal process, it is sometimes possible to use these logs to determine who uploaded illegal content: One subpoena is issued to the website to find the IP address of the miscreant, and a second subpoena is issued to an ISP to identify a real user based on that IP address. But IP logs are often deleted automatically after a few weeks, and many websites turn off logging entirely. Most ISPs almost never keep track of what sites are visited by their users, let alone what actions their users have taken on those sites; they would have to store large (but not impossible) amounts of data, and ISPs may be hesitant to even appear as if they are monitoring the activities of their users, no matter what technical and legal restrictions they put on use of the data they collect. What is truly odd about current law is that there is no duty on websites or ISPs to deal with harmful anonymous content. If a website does not keep IP address logs (or any other form of logs), then it has no way to know who uploaded or created harmful content. But, even if a website has kept no information about the user who created offensive content, it will often refuse to remove it if asked by the victim and presented with irrefutable evidence that the content is wrong. The website will often point to Section of the Communications Decency Act of (CDA), which provides immunity for user-created content, no matter how false or offensive. Even if given absolute proof that the content is libelous, false, or otherwise inaccurate, many websites will still continue to claim to have no duty to remove or alter it. What's even stranger is that harmful attacks on individuals are treated worse by the law than the copyrights owned by major corporations. A different law, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of (DMCA), creates a "notice-and-takedown" system for alleged copyright violations. If a user has uploaded a copyrighted film, song, or photograph, then the copyright owner (usually a movie studio or record label) can force the website to remove the copyrighted mate-

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rial by just sending a letter. The website must remove the allegedly copyrighted material immediately or become subject to claims for money damages for copyright infringement. The DMCA has been used to remove vast swaths of content. Viacom (the owner of MTV, VH1, and Comedy Central) once sent a letter to the video-sharing website YouTube identifying more than , instances of alleged copyright infringement.7 When there was not a satisfactory response, Viacom sued YouTube's parent company, Google, seeking billions of dollars in damages.8 The lawsuit alleges that YouTube is responsible for the copyright infringements of its users because YouTube encouraged and promoted copyright infringement. There is no allegation that YouTube itself uploaded or edited videos that violated Viacom's copyrights; the only allegation is that YouTube failed to adequately police the actions of its users. But nobody has been successful in claiming that a website is responsible for the libel or personal attacks of its users because it promoted or encouraged libel or other forms of personal attack. Even the foulest dens of inequity havethus farbeen able to escape liability by simply pointing to Section of the Communications Decency Act.

The Result: A Culture of Anonymity


Because of the technical limitations of IP and the lack of a legal requirement to verify identity or remove harmful anonymous content, there is no custom of online disclosure of real identities. Most websites that allow user-created content either don't ask for a real name at any point in the "signup" process or do absolutely no verification of the name submitted by a user ("John Doe" usually is accepted with- out question). The result is that it is possible for users to surf the Web, search for information, e-mail each other, post comments, upload photos, blog, and create websitesall while staying completely anonymous.

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The only trace left behind by most users is an IP address, but even that footprint can be removed by use of proxy servers. This anonymity can be liberating if it is used for goodto explore new ideas or identities. But it can also be evil: It is possible for anonymous attackers to slander the good name of innocent victims without fear of being traced, for credit card scammers to peddle their wares online without fear of prosecution, for child pornographers to trade smut in anonymous back alleys of the Internet. And everyone is at risk from anonymous hackers. This culture of anonymity has even reached pop cultureas the saying goes,"On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog."9 Or, as one Wikipedia editor expounded to ironic excess,"cyberspace will be liberatory because gender, race, age, looks, or even 'dogness' are poten- tially absent or alternatively fabricated or exaggerated with unchecked creative license for a multitude of purposes both legal and illegal."10

Internet Anonymity Destroys Accountability


As a result of online anonymity, often nobody claims responsibility for malicious or damaging Internet content. Websites and blogs can be started anonymously and often leave no way to track down the creator. Google claims that it is not responsible for the results produced by its search engine. ISPs claim they are not responsible for the sites created or viewed by their customers. Video- and photosharing sites may respond to requests to remove content because of copyright violations but often refuse to do so in response to claims of privacy violations or libel. Even reputable blogs run by major publishers often claim that they are not responsible for content submitted by other users and refuse to remove harmful comments. Some site owners even encourage misuseowners know that they can profit by creating virtual tabloid newspapers where users compete to sling the most scandalous rumors with no holds barred. The direct impact of anonymity on many Internet users is obvious. Freed from the social constraints of direct accountability for

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their actions, users feel free to attack other users at will. In a world with no consequences, many users think there is little reason to avoid profane or malicious behavior. A hypothetical Web user contemplating a malicious attack knows that he is unlikely to be found by the victim, so he does not fear the risk of a lawsuit for defamation (or even more rough forms of justice). And he is also anonymous to his real-world friends and colleagues who would otherwise apply social pressure to prevent socially unacceptable behaviors like malicious attacks and mean-spirited gossip. The stereotype of the Internet user working alone in his parents' basement is probably outdated, but it remains true that most Internet users surf alone and therefore lack many of the social pressures that limit offline behavior. There are also other, less direct impacts of anonymity. Anonymity creates a form of social isolation from the victim that allows many otherwise normal people to engage in behavior that would seem cruel if performed face-to-face. Because the victim cannot be seen or heard, a form of social distance is created between attacker and victim that empowers behavior that would not otherwise be possible. There is a long history of study of anonymity and social distance. Starting in , the psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a famous series of experiments. Participants were told that they were administering a test to a volunteer test-taker. Each participant was shown a large machine and instructed to use the machine to administer electrical shocks to the test-taker after every wrong answer. Unknown to the participants, the test-taker was actually an actor, and the machine did not deliver any shocks; instead, the machine just made a buzzing noise and the actor pretended to receive an increasingly painful shock each time the participant pressed the "electric shock" button. Famously, Milgram found that only gentle coaxing was required to get many participants to administer shocks that were labeled as " volts" and described as potentially deadly, even while the actor was howling in apparent pain. Among his more detailed findings, Milgram found that increasing

Anonymous Cowards

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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

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