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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Hi Samuel,

Give this a link a look:

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It has a fix that looks to have helped some. Give it a shot and let me know!
- C

2 people found this reply helpful

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Hi Samuel,

Sorry for the inconvenience caused to you and thank you for your valuable question please, I would suggest you to see Meghmala 's methods in the below mentioned article and see if it helps. If the issue persists kindly do let me know, waiting for your kind reply please.

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Secondly kindly see the below mentioned useful article also

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Note: This is a non-Microsoft website. The page appears to be providing accurate, safe information. Watch out for ads on the site that may advertise products frequently classified as a PUP (Potentially Unwanted Products). Thoroughly research any product advertised on the site before you decide to download and install it.

Please let me know, if that helps and feel free to ask back any question.

Kind Regards:
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2 people found this reply helpful

·

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

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History of IBM

Evolution of the American computer company

Logos of IBM
IBM Logo svg
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International Business Machines (IBM), nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM originated from the bringing together of several companies that worked to automate routine business transactions, including the first companies to build punched card based data tabulating machines and to build time clocks. In , these companies were amalgamated into the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR).

Thomas J. Watson (–) joined the company in as General Manager and became its President in In the company changed its name to "International Business Machines." IBM expanded into electric typewriters and other office machines. Watson was a salesman and concentrated on building a highly motivated, very well paid sales force that could craft solutions for clients unfamiliar with the latest technology. His motto was "THINK". Customers were advised to not "fold, spindle, or mutilate" the cardboard cards. IBM's first experiments with computers in the s and s were modest advances on the card-based system. Its great breakthrough came in the s with its System/ family of mainframe computers. IBM offered a full range of hardware, software, and service agreements, so that users, as their needs grew, would stay with "Big Blue." Since most software was custom-written by in-house programmers and would run on only one brand of computers, it was too expensive to switch brands. Brushing off clone makers, and facing down a federal anti-trust suit, the giant sold reputation and security as well as hardware and was the most admired American corporation of the s and s.

The late s and early s were difficult for IBM&#;&#; losses in exceeded $8 billion&#;&#; as the mainframe giant failed to adjust quickly enough to the personal computer revolution.[1] Desktop machines had the power needed and were vastly easier for both users and managers than multi-million-dollar mainframes. IBM did introduce a popular line of microcomputers&#;&#; but it was too popular. Clone makers undersold IBM, while the profits went to chip makers like Intel or software houses like Microsoft.

After a series of reorganizations, IBM remains one of the world's largest computer companies and systems integrators.[2] With over , employees worldwide as of ,[3] IBM holds more patents than any other U.S. based technology company and has twelve research laboratories worldwide.[4][5] The company has scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals in over countries.[6] IBM employees have earned five Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, five National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.[7]

Chronology[edit]

s– The origin of IBM[edit]

Main article: Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
41,
142,
133,
Hollerith's plant in

The roots of IBM date back to the s, tracing from four predecessor companies:[8][9][10][11]

On June 16, , these four companies were amalgamated into a new holding company named the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), based in Endicott.[12][13][14][15] The amalgamation was engineered by noted financier Charles Flint. Flint remained a member of the board of CTR until his retirement in [16] At the time of the amalgamation, CTR had 1, employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto, Ontario.

After amalgamation, the individual companies continued to operate using their established names, as subsidiaries of CTR, until the holding company was eliminated in [17] The divisions manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, coffee grinders, and punched card equipment. The product lines were very different; Flint stated that the "allied" consolidation:

instead of being dependent for earnings upon a single industry, would own three separate and distinct lines of business, so that in normal times the interest and sinking funds on its bonds could be earned by any one of these independent lines, while in abnormal times the consolidation would have three chances instead of one to meet its obligations and pay dividends.[18]

Of the companies amalgamated to form CTR, the most technologically significant was The Tabulating Machine Company, founded by Herman Hollerith, and specialized in the development of punched card data processing equipment. Hollerith's series of patents on tabulating machine technology, first applied for in , drew on his work at the U.S. Census Bureau from – Hollerith was initially trying to reduce the time and complexity needed to tabulate the Census. His development of punched cards in set the industry standard for the next 80 years of tabulating and computing data input.[19]

In , The Tabulating Machine Company leased some machines to a railway company[20] but quickly focused on the challenges of the largest statistical endeavor of its day – the US Census. After winning the government contract, and completing the project, Hollerith was faced with the challenge of sustaining the company in non-Census years. He returned to targeting private businesses in the United States and abroad, attempting to identify industry applications for his automatic punching, tabulating and sorting machines. In , Hollerith, now 51 and in failing health sold the business to Flint for $ million (of which Hollerith got $ million), who then founded CTR. When the diversified businesses of CTR proved difficult to manage, Flint turned for help to the former No. 2 executive at the National Cash Register Company (NCR), Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Watson became General Manager of CTR in and President in By drawing upon his managerial experience at NCR, Watson quickly implemented a series of effective business tactics: generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen, and an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker. As the sales force grew into a highly professional and knowledgeable arm of the company, Watson focused their attention on providing large-scale tabulating solutions for businesses, leaving the market for small office products to others. He also stressed the importance of the customer, a lasting IBM tenet. The strategy proved successful, as, during Watson's first four years, revenues doubled to $2 million, and company operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia, and Australia.

At the helm during this period, Watson played a central role in establishing what would become the IBM organization and culture. He launched a number of initiatives that demonstrated an unwavering faith in his workers. He hired the company's first disabled worker in , he formed the company's first employee education department in and in he introduced his favorite slogan, "THINK", which quickly became the corporate mantra. Watson boosted company spirit by encouraging any employee with a complaint to approach him or any other company executive – his famed Open Door policy. He also sponsored employee sports teams, family outings, and a company band, believing that employees were most productive when they were supported by healthy and supportive families and communities. These initiatives – each deeply rooted in Watson's personal values system – became core aspects of IBM culture for the remainder of the century.

"Watson had never liked the clumsy hyphenated title of the CTR" and chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines".[21] First as a name for a Canadian subsidiary, then as a line in advertisements. Finally, on February 14, , the name was used for CTR itself.

Key events[edit]

  • – Hollerith's punched cards used for Census. The U.S. Census Bureau contracts to use Herman Hollerith's punched card tabulating technology on the United States Census. That census was completed in 6-years and estimated to have saved the government $5 million.[22] The prior, , census had required 8-years. The years required are not directly comparable; the two differed in: population size, data collected, resources (census bureau headcount, machines, ), and reports prepared. The total population of 62,,, the family, or rough, count, was announced after only six weeks of processing (punched cards were not used for this tabulation).[23][24] Hollerith's punched cards become the tabulating industry standard for input for the next 70 years. Hollerith's The Tabulating Machine Company is later consolidated into what becomes IBM.
  • Hollerith Type I Tabulator. The first tabulator with an automatic card feed and control panel.[25]
  • Formation. Charles Flint, a noted trust organizer, engineers the amalgamation of four companies: The Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, the Computing Scale Company of America, and the Bundy Manufacturing Company. The amalgamated companies manufacture and sell or lease machinery such as commercial scales, industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, tabulators, and punched cards. The new holding company, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, is based in Endicott. Including the amalgamated subsidiaries, CTR had 1, employees with offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; and Washington, D.C.[26][27]
  • Thomas J. Watson arrives. Thomas J. Watson Sr., a one-year jail sentence pending – see NCR – is made general manager of CTR. Less than a year later the court verdict was set aside. A consent decree was drawn up which Watson refused to sign, gambling that there would not be a retrial. He becomes president of the firm Monday, March 15, [28]
  • First disabled employee. CTR companies hire their first disabled employee.[29]
  • "THINK" signs. "THINK" signs, based on the slogan coined by Thomas J. Watson, Sr. while at NCR and promoted by John Henry Patterson (NCR owner) are used in the companies for the first time.[30]
  • Employee education. CTR invests in its subsidiary's employees, creating an education program. Over the next two decades, the program would expand to include management education, volunteer study clubs, and the construction of the IBM Schoolhouse in [31]
  • CTR in Brazil. Premiered in Brazil in , invited by the Brazilian Government to conduct the census, CTR opened an office in Brazil[32]
  • First Tabulating Machine Co. printing tabulator. With prior tabulators the results were displayed and had to be copied by hand.[33]
  • CTR Germany. CTR acquires majority ownership of the German tabulating firm Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Groupe (Dehomag).
  • International Business Machines Corporation. "Watson had never liked the clumsy hyphenated title of Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and chose the new name both for its aspirations and to escape the confines of "office appliance". The new name was first used for the company's Canadian subsidiary in On February 14, , CTR's name was formally changed to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).[21] The subsidiaries' names did not change; there would be no IBM labeled products until (below) when the subsidiaries are merged into IBM.

– IBM's early growth[edit]

Our products are known in every zone. Our reputation sparkles like a gem. We've fought our way through and new fields we're sure to conquer too. For the ever-onward IBM

—&#;"Ever Onward", IBM employee songbook[34]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
133,

Watson mandated strict rules for employees, including a dress code of dark suits, white shirts and striped ties, and no alcohol, whether working or not. He led the singing at meetings of songs such as "Ever Onward" from the official IBM songbook.[34] The company launched an employee newspaper, Business Machines, which unified coverage of all of IBM's businesses under one publication.[35] IBM introduced the Quarter Century Club,[36] to honor employees with 25 years of service to the company, and launched the Hundred Percent Club, to reward sales personnel who met their annual quotas.[37] In , the Suggestion Plan program – which granted cash rewards to employees who contributed viable ideas on how to improve IBM products and procedures – made its debut.[38]

IBM International Daily Dial Attendance Recorder. s time clock made by IBM's International Time Recording division. The face shows employee numbers which would be dialed up by employees entering and leaving the factory. The day and time of entry and exit was punched onto cards inside the box.[39]

IBM and its predecessor companies made clocks and other time recording products for 70 years, culminating in the sale of the IBM Time Equipment Division to Simplex Time Recorder Company.[40] IBM manufactured and sold such equipment as dial recorders, job recorders, recording door locks, time stamps and traffic recorders.[41][42]

The company also expanded its product line through innovative engineering. Behind a core group of inventors – James W. Bryce, Clair Lake,[43] Fred Carroll,[44] and Royden Pierce[45] – IBM produced a series of significant product innovations. In the optimistic years following World War I, CTR's engineering and research staff developed new and improved mechanisms to meet the broadening needs of its customers. In , the company introduced the first complete school time control system,[46] and launched its first printing tabulator.[47] Three years later the company introduced the first electric keypunch,[48] and 's Carroll Rotary Press produced punched cards at previously unheard of speeds.[35] In , the company held its first customer engineering education class, demonstrating an early recognition of the importance of tailoring solutions to fit customer needs.[49] It also introduced the column punched card in , which doubled its information capacity.[49] This new format, soon dubbed the "IBM Card", became and remained an industry standard until the s.

Key events[edit]

  • First tabulator sold to Japan. In May , Morimura-Brothers entered into a sole agency agreement with IBM to import Hollerith tabulators into Japan. The first Hollerith tabulator in Japan was installed at Nippon Pottery (now Noritake) in September , making it IBM customer #1 in Japan.[50][51][52]
  • IBM Italy. IBM opens its first office in Italy in Milan, and starts selling and operating with National Insurance and Banks.
  • A Tabulator that can subtract, Columbia University, column card. The first Hollerith tabulator that could subtract, the Hollerith Type IV tabulator.[53] IBM begins its collaboration with Benjamin Wood, Wallace John Eckert and the Statistical Bureau at Columbia University.[54][55] The Hollerith column punched card is introduced. Its rectangular holes are patented, ending vendor compatibility (of the prior 45 column card; Remington Rand would soon introduce a 90 column card).[56]

– The Great Depression[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
196,
218,

The Great Depression of the s presented an unprecedented economic challenge, and Watson met the challenge head-on, continuing to invest in people, manufacturing, and technological innovation despite the difficult economic times. Rather than reduce staff, he hired additional employees in support of President Franklin Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration plan – not just salesmen, which he joked that he had a lifelong weakness for, but engineers too. Watson not only kept his workforce employed, but he also increased their benefits. IBM was among the first corporations to provide group life insurance (), survivor benefits (), and paid vacations (). He upped his ante on his workforce by opening the IBM Schoolhouse in Endicott to provide education and training for IBM employees. And he greatly increased IBM's research capabilities by building a modern research laboratory on the Endicott manufacturing site.

With all this internal investment, Watson was, in essence, gambling on the future. It was IBM's first ‘Bet the Company’ gamble, but the risk paid off handsomely. Watson's factories, running full tilt for six years with no market to sell to, created a huge inventory of unused tabulating equipment, straining IBM's resources. To reduce the cash drain, the struggling Dayton Scale Division (the food services equipment business) was sold in to Hobart Manufacturing for stock.[57][58] When the Social Security Act of – labeled as "the biggest accounting operation of all time"[59] – came up for bid, IBM was the only bidder that could quickly provide the necessary equipment. Watson's gamble brought the company a landmark government contract to maintain employment records for 26 million people. IBM's successful performance on the contract soon led to other government orders, and by the end of the decade, IBM had not only safely negotiated the Depression but risen to the forefront of the industry. Watson's Depression-era decision to invest heavily in technical development and sales capabilities, education to expand the breadth of those capabilities, and his commitment to the data processing product line laid the foundation for 50 years of IBM growth and successes.

His avowed focus on international expansion proved an equally key component of the company's 20th-century growth and success. Watson, having witnessed the havoc the First World War wrought on society and business, envisioned commerce as an obstacle to war. He saw business interests and peace as being mutually compatible. In fact, he felt so strongly about the connection between the two that he had his slogan "World Peace Through World Trade" carved into the exterior of IBM's new World Headquarters () in New York City.[60] The slogan became an IBM business mantra, and Watson campaigned tirelessly for the concept with global business and government leaders. He served as an informal, unofficial government host for world leaders when they visited New York, and received numerous awards from foreign governments for his efforts to improve international relations through the formation of business ties.

Key events[edit]

  • The first Hollerith punched card machine that could multiply, the first Hollerith alphabetical accounting machine. The Hollerith Multiplying Punch.[61] The first Hollerith alphabetical accounting machine – although not a complete alphabet, the Alphabetic Tabulator Model B was quickly followed by the full alphabet ATC.[56]
  • Super Computing Machine. The term Super Computing Machine is used by the New York World newspaper to describe the Columbia Difference Tabulator, a one-of-a-kind special purpose tabulator-based machine made for the Columbia Statistical Bureau, a machine so massive it was nicknamed Packard.[62][63] The Packard attracted users from across the country: "the Carnegie Foundation, Yale, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Ohio State, Harvard, California and Princeton."[64]
  • Subsidiary companies are merged into IBM. The Tabulating Machine Company name, and others, disappear as subsidiary companies are merged into IBM.[65][66]
  • Removable control panels. IBM introduces removable control panels.[67]
  • hour week. IBM introduces the hour week for both manufacturing and office locations.
  • Electromatic Typewriter Co. purchased. Purchased primarily to get important patents safely into IBM hands, electric typewriters would become one of IBM's most widely known products.[68] By IBM was deriving 8% of its revenue from the sale of electric typewriters.[69]
  • – Group life insurance. IBM creates a group life insurance plan for all employees with at least one year of service.[70]
  • Elimination of piece work. Watson, Sr., places IBM's factory employees on salary, eliminating piece work and providing employees and their families with an added degree of economic stability.[71]
  • IBM . The IBM Bank Proof machine to clear bank checks is introduced. A new type of proof machine, the lists and separates checks, endorses them, and records totals. It dramatically improves the efficiency of the check clearing process.[72]
  • Social Security Administration. During the Great Depression, IBM keeps its factories producing new machines even while demand is slack. When Congress passes the Social Security Act in , IBM – with its overstocked inventory – is consequently positioned to win the landmark government contract, which is called "the biggest accounting operation of all time."[73]
  • Supreme Court rules IBM can only set punched card specifications. IBM initially required that its customers use only IBM manufactured cards with IBM machines, which were leased, not sold. IBM viewed its business as providing a service and that the cards were part of the machine. In the government took IBM to court on this issue. IBM fought all the way to the Supreme Court and lost in ; the court ruling that IBM could only set card specifications.[74]
  • Scientific computing. The tabulating machine data center established at Columbia University, dedicated to scientific research, is named the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau.[75]
  • The first collator, the IBM Collator.[76]
  • IBM produces 5 to 10 million punched cards every day. By IBM had 32 presses at work in Endicott, N.Y., printing, cutting and stacking five to 10 million punched cards every day.[77]
  • IBM test scoring machine. IBM's Rey Johnson designs the IBM Test Scoring Machine to greatly speed the process of test scoring. The 's innovative pencil-mark sensing technology gives rise to the ubiquitous phrase, "Please completely fill in the oval".[78]
  • Berlin conference. As president of the International Chamber of Commerce, Watson Sr., presides over the ICC's 9th Congress in Berlin. While there he accepts a Merit Cross of the German Eagle with Star medal from the Nazi government honoring his activities on behalf of world peace and international trade (he later returned it).[79][80]
  • Paid holidays, paid vacation. IBM announces a policy of paying employees for six annual holidays and becomes one of the first U.S. companies to grant holiday pay. Paid vacations also begin."[81]
  • IBM Japan. Japan Wattoson Statistics Accounting Machinery Co., Ltd. (日本ワットソン統計会計機械株式会社, now IBM Japan) was established.[51]
  • New headquarters. When IBM dedicates its new World Headquarters on Madison Avenue, New York, New York, in January , the company has operations in 79 countries.[60]

– World War II[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
4512,
18,

Main article: IBM during World War II

In the decades leading up to the onset of WW2 IBM had operations in many countries that would be involved in the war, on both the side of the Allies and the Axis. IBM had a lucrative subsidiary in Germany, which it was the majority owner of, as well as operations in Poland, Switzerland, and other countries in Europe. As with most other enemy-owned businesses in Axis countries, these subsidiaries were taken over by the Nazis and other Axis governments early on in the war. The headquarters in New York meanwhile worked to help the American war effort.

IBM in America[edit]

IBM's product line[82] shifted from tabulating equipment and time recording devices to Sperry and Norden bombsights, Browning Automatic Rifle and the M1 Carbine, and engine parts – in all, more than three dozen major ordnance items and 70 products overall. Watson set a nominal one percent profit on those products and used the profits to establish a fund for widows and orphans of IBM war casualties.[83]

Allied military forces widely utilized IBM's tabulating equipment for mobile records units, ballistics, accounting and logistics, and other war-related purposes. There was extensive use of IBM punched-card machines for calculations made at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project for developing the first atomic bombs.[84] During the War, IBM also built the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, also known as the Harvard Mark I for the U.S. Navy – the first large-scale electromechanical calculator in the U.S..

In IBM had acquired the rights to Radiotype, an IBM Electric typewriter attached to a radio transmitter.[85] "In Admiral Richard E. Byrd successfully sent a test Radiotype message 11, miles from Antarctica to an IBM receiving station in Ridgewood, New Jersey"[86] Selected by the Signal Corps for use during the war, Radiotype installations handled up to 50,, words a day.[87]

To meet wartime product demands, IBM greatly expanded its manufacturing capacity. IBM added new buildings at its Endicott, New York plant (), and opened new facilities in Poughkeepsie, New York (), Washington, D.C. (),[88] and San Jose, California ().[89] IBM's decision to establish a presence on the West Coast took advantage of the growing base of electronics research and other high technology innovation in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area, an area that came to be known many decades later as Silicon Valley.

IBM was, at the request of the government, the subcontractor for the Japanese internment camps' punched card project.[90]

IBM equipment was used for cryptography by US Army and Navy organizations, Arlington Hall and OPG and similar Allied organizations using Hollerith punched cards (Central Bureau and the Far East Combined Bureau).

IBM in Germany and Nazi Occupied Europe[edit]

The Nazis made extensive use of Hollerith equipment and IBM's majority-owned German subsidiary, Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen GmbH (Dehomag), supplied this equipment from the early s. This equipment was critical to Nazi efforts to categorize citizens of both Germany and other nations that fell under Nazi control through ongoing censuses. This census data was used to facilitate the round-up of Jews and other targeted groups, and to catalog their movements through the machinery of the Holocaust, including internment in the concentration camps.

As with hundreds of foreign-owned companies that did business in Germany at that time, Dehomag came under the control of Nazi authorities prior to and during World War II. A Nazi, Hermann Fellinger, was appointed by the Germans as an enemy-property custodian and placed at the head of the Dehomag subsidiary.

Historian and author Edwin Black, in his best selling book on the topic, IBM and the Holocaust, maintains that the seizure of the German subsidiary was a ruse. He writes: "The company was not looted, its leased machines were not seized, and [IBM] continued to receive money funneled through its subsidiary in Geneva."[91] In his book he argues that IBM was an active and enthusiastic supplier to the Nazi regime long after they should have stopped dealing with them. Even after the invasion of Poland, IBM continued to service and expand services to the Third Reich in Poland and Germany.[91] The seizure of IBM came after Pearl Harbor and the US Declaration of War, in

IBM responded that the book was based upon "well-known" facts and documents that it had previously made publicly available and that there were no new facts or findings.[92] IBM also denied withholding any relevant documents.[93] Writing in the New York Times, Richard Bernstein argued that Black overstates IBM's culpability.[94]

Key events[edit]

  • Training for the disabled. IBM launches a program to train and employ disabled people in Topeka, Kansas. The next year classes begin in New York City, and soon the company is asked to join the President's Committee for Employment of the Handicapped.[95]
  • First female vice president. IBM appoints its first female vice president.[96]
  • ASCC. IBM introduces the world's first large-scale calculating computer, the Automatic Sequence Control Calculator (ASCC). Designed in collaboration with Harvard University, the ASCC, also known as the Mark I, uses electromechanical relays to solve addition problems in less than a second, multiplication in six seconds, and division in 12 seconds.[97]
  • United Negro College Fund. IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Sr., joins the Advisory Committee of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF), and IBM contributes to the UNCF's fund-raising efforts.[98]
  • IBM's first research lab. IBM's first research facility, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, opens in a renovated fraternity house near Columbia University in Manhattan. In , IBM moves its research headquarters to the T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York.[99]

– Postwar recovery, rise of business computing, space exploration, the Cold War[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
30,
56,
1,,

IBM had expanded so much by the end of the War that the company faced a potentially difficult situation – what would happen if military spending dropped sharply? One way IBM addressed that concern was to accelerate its international growth in the years after the war, culminating with the formation of the World Trade Corporation in to manage and grow its foreign operations. Under the leadership of Watson's youngest son, Arthur K. ‘Dick’ Watson, the WTC would eventually produce half of IBM's bottom line by the s.

Despite introducing its first computer a year after Remington Rand's UNIVAC in , within five years IBM had 85% of the market. A UNIVAC executive complained that "It doesn't do much good to build a better mousetrap if the other guy selling mousetraps has five times as many salesmen".[34] With the death of Founding Father Thomas J. Watson, Sr. on June 19, at age 82, IBM experienced its first leadership change in more than four decades. The mantle of chief executive fell to his eldest son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., IBM's president since

The new chief executive faced a daunting task. The company was in the midst of a period of rapid technological change, with nascent computer technologies – electronic computers, magnetic tape storage, disk drives, programming – creating new competitors and market uncertainties. Internally, the company was growing by leaps and bounds, creating organizational pressures and significant management challenges. Lacking the force of personality that Watson Sr. had long used to bind IBM together, Watson Jr. and his senior executives privately wondered if the new generation of leadership was up to challenge of managing a company through this tumultuous period.[] "We are," wrote one longtime IBM executive in , "in grave danger of losing our "eternal" values that are as valid in electronic days as in mechanical counter days."

Watson Jr. responded by drastically restructuring the organization mere months after his father died, creating a modern management structure that enabled him to more effectively oversee the fast-moving company.[] He codified well known but unwritten IBM practices and philosophy into formal corporate policies and programs – such as IBM's Three Basic Beliefs, and Open Door and Speak Up! Perhaps the most significant of which was his shepherding of the company's first equal opportunity policy letter into existence in , one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of [] He continued to expand the company's physical capabilities – in IBM San Jose launched a storage development laboratory that pioneered disk drives. Major facilities would later follow in Rochester, Minnesota; Greencastle, Indiana; Kingston, New York; and Lexington, Kentucky. Concerned that IBM was too slow in adapting transistor technology Watson requested a corporate policy regarding their use, resulting in this unambiguous product development policy statement: "It shall be the policy of IBM to use solid-state circuitry in all machine developments. Furthermore, no new commercial machines or devices shall be announced which make primary use of tube circuitry."[]

Watson Jr. also continued to partner with the United States government to drive computational innovation. The emergence of the Cold War accelerated the government's growing awareness of the significance of digital computing and drove major Department of Defense supported computer development projects in the s. Of these, none was more important than the SAGEinterceptor early detection air defense system.

In , IBM began working with MIT's Lincoln Laboratory to finalize the design of an air defense computer. The merger of academic and business engineering cultures proved troublesome, but the two organizations finally hammered out a design by the summer of , and IBM was awarded the contract to build two prototypes in September.[] In , IBM was named as the primary computer hardware contractor for developing SAGE for the United States Air Force. Working on this massive computing and communications system, IBM gained access to pioneering research being done at Massachusetts Institute of Technology on the first real-time, digital computer. This included working on many other computer technology advancements such as magnetic core memory, a large real-time operating system, an integrated video display, light guns, the first effective algebraic computer language, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, digital data transmission over telephone lines, duplexing, multiprocessing, and geographically distributed networks. IBM built fifty-six SAGE computers at the price of US$30 million each, and at the peak of the project devoted more than 7, employees (20% of its then workforce) to the project. SAGE had the largest computer footprint ever and continued in service until []

More valuable to IBM in the long run than the profits from governmental projects, however, was the access to cutting-edge research into digital computers being done under military auspices. IBM neglected, however, to gain an even more dominant role in the nascent industry by allowing the RAND Corporation to take over the job of programming the new computers, because, according to one project participant, Robert P. Crago, "we couldn't imagine where we could absorb two thousand programmers at IBM when this job would be over someday, which shows how well we were understanding the future at that time."[] IBM would use its experience designing massive, integrated real-time networks with SAGE to design its SABRE airline reservation system, which met with much success.

These government partnerships, combined with pioneering computer technology research and a series of commercially successful products (IBM's series of computer systems, the IBM , the IBM RAMAC (with disk drive memory), and the IBM ) enabled IBM to emerge from the s as the world's leading technology firm. Watson Jr. had answered his self-doubt. In the five years since the passing of Watson Sr., IBM was two and a half times bigger, its stock had quintupled, and of the computers in operation in the United States, more than were IBM machines.[]

Key events[edit]

  • IBM . IBM announces the IBM Electronic Multiplier, the first commercial product to incorporate electronic arithmetic circuits. The used vacuum tubes to perform multiplication far more rapidly than earlier electromechanical devices. It had begun its development as part of a program to make a "super calculator" that would perform faster than 's IBM ASCC by using electronics.[]
  • Chinese character typewriter. IBM introduces an electric Chinese ideographic character typewriter, which allowed an experienced user to type at a rate of 40 to 45 Chinese words a minute. The machine utilizes a cylinder on which 5, ideographic type faces are engraved.[]
  • First black salesman. IBM hires its first black salesman, 18 years before the Civil Rights Act of []
  • IBM SSEC. IBM's first large-scale digital calculating machine, the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator, is announced. The SSEC is the first computer that can modify a stored program and featured 12, vacuum tubes and 21, electromechanical relays.[]
  • s: Space exploration. From developing ballistics tables during World War II to the design and development of intercontinental missiles to the launching and tracking of satellites to manned lunar and shuttle space flights, IBM has been a contractor to NASA and the aerospace industry.[]
  • IBM . IBM throws its hat into the computer business ring by introducing the , its first large-scale electronic computer to be manufactured in quantity. The , IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Jr., later recalled, is "the machine that carried us into the electronics business."[]
  • Magnetic tape vacuum column. IBM introduces the magnetic tape drive vacuum column, making it possible for fragile magnetic tape to become a viable data storage medium. The use of the vacuum column in the IBM system signals the beginning of the era of magnetic storage, as the technology becomes widely adopted throughout the industry.[]
  • First California research lab. IBM opens its first West Coast lab in San Jose, California: the area that decades later will come to be known as "Silicon Valley." Within four years, the lab begins to make its mark by inventing the hard disk drive.[]
  • Equal opportunity policy letter. Thomas J. Watson, Jr., publishes the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter: one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of []
  • IBM . IBM announces the IBM Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine, an intermediate size electronic computer, to handle both business and scientific computations. A hit with both universities and businesses, it was the most popular computer of the s. Nearly 2, IBM s were marketed by []
  • NORC. IBM develops and builds the fastest, most powerful electronic computer of its time: the Naval Ordnance Research Computer (NORC): for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance.[]
  • First magnetic Hard disk drive. IBM introduces the world's first magnetic hard disk for data storage. The IBM RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) offers an unprecedented performance by permitting random access to any of the million characters distributed over both sides of 50 two-foot-diameter disks. Produced in California, IBM's first hard disk stored about 2, bits of data per square inch and cost about $10, per megabyte. By , the cost of storing a megabyte had dropped to around ten cents.[]
  • Consent decree. The United States Justice Department enters a consent decree against IBM in to prevent the company from becoming a monopoly in the market for punched-card tabulating and, later, electronic data-processing machines. The decree requires IBM to sell its computers as well as lease them and to service and sell parts for computers that IBM no longer owned.[]
  • Corporate design. In the mids, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., was struck by how poorly IBM was handling corporate design. He hired design consultant Eliot Noyes to oversee the creation of a formal Corporate Design Program and charged Noyes with creating a consistent, world-class look and feel at IBM. Over the next two decades, Noyes hired a host of influential architects, designers, and artists to design IBM products, structures, exhibits, and graphics. The list of Noyes contacts includes such iconic figures as Eero Saarinen, Marcel Breuer, Mies van der Rohe, John Bolles, Paul Rand, Isamu Noguchi and Alexander Calder.[]
  • First European research lab. IBM opens its first research lab outside the United States, in the Swiss city of Zurich.[]
  • Changing hands. Watson Sr. retires and hands IBM to his son, Watson Jr. Senior dies soon after.[]
  • Williamsburg conference. Watson Jr. gathered some senior IBM executives together for a special three-day meeting in Williamsburg, Virginia. The meeting resulted in a new organizational structure that featured a six-member corporate management committee and delegated more authority to business unit leadership. It was the first major meeting IBM had ever held without Thomas J. Watson Sr., and it marked the emergence of the second generation of IBM leadership.[]
  • Artificial intelligence. Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programs an IBM to play checkers (English draughts) using a method in which the machine can "learn" from its own experience. It is believed to be the first "self-learning" program, a demonstration of the concept of artificial intelligence.[]
  • FORTRAN. IBM revolutionizes programming with the introduction of FORTRAN (Formula Translator), which soon becomes the most widely used computer programming language for technical work. FORTRAN is still the basis for many important numerical analysis programs.[]
  • SAGEAN/FSQ-7. The SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) AN/FSQ-7 computer is built under contract to MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the North American Air Defense System.[]
  • IBM domestic Time Equipment Division sold to Simplex. IBM announces the sale of the domestic Time Equipment Division (clocks et al.) business to Simplex Time Recorder Company. The IBM time equipment service force will be transferred to the Electric Typewriter Division.[]
  • Open Door program. First implemented by Watson, Sr., in the s, the Open Door was a traditional company practice that granted employees with complaints hearings with senior executives, up to and including Watson Sr. IBM formalized this practice into policy in with the creation of the Open Door Program.[]
  • Speak up! A further example of IBM's willingness to solicit and act upon employee feedback, the Speak Up! Program was first created in San Jose.[]
  • IBM . IBM introduces , the first high-volume, stored-program, core-memory, transistorized computer. Its versatility in running enterprise applications of all kinds helped it become the most popular computer model in the world in the early s.[]
  • IBM . IBM introduces the chain printer, which launches the era of high-speed, high-volume impact printing. The will not be surpassed for print quality until the advent of laser printing in the s.[]

– The System/ era, Unbundling software and services[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
56,
1,,
3,,
7,,

On April 7, , IBM introduced the revolutionary System/, the first large "family" of computers to use interchangeable software and peripheral equipment, a departure from IBM's existing product line of incompatible machines, each of which was designed to solve specific customer requirements.[] The idea of a general-purpose machine was considered a gamble at the time.[]

See also: History of CP/CMS

Within two years, the System/ became the dominant mainframe computer in the marketplace and its architecture became a de facto industry standard. During this time, IBM transformed from a medium-sized maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters into the world's largest computer company.[]

In IBM "unbundled" software and services from hardware sales. Until this time customers did not pay for software or services separately from the very high price for the hardware. Software was provided at no additional charge, generally in source code form. Services (systems engineering, education and training, system installation) were provided free of charge at the discretion of the IBM Branch office. This practice existed throughout the industry. IBM's unbundling is widely credited with leading to the growth of the software industry.[][][][] After the unbundling, IBM software was divided into two main categories: System Control Programming (SCP), which remained free to customers, and Program Products (PP), which were charged for. This transformed the customer's value proposition for computer solutions, giving a significant monetary value to something that had hitherto essentially been free. This helped enable the creation of the software industry. Similarly, IBM services were divided into two categories: general information, which remained free and provided at the discretion of IBM, and on-the-job assistance and training of customer personnel, which were subject to a separate charge and were open to non-IBM customers. This decision vastly expanded the market for independent computing services companies.

The company began four decades of Olympic sponsorship with the Winter Games in Squaw Valley, California. It became a recognized leader in corporate social responsibility, joining federal equal opportunity programs in , opening an inner-city manufacturing plant in , and creating a minority supplier program. It led efforts to improve data security and protect privacy. It set environmental air/water emissions standards that exceeded those dictated by law and brought all its facilities into compliance with those standards. It opened one of the world's most advanced research centers in Yorktown, New York. Its international operations grew rapidly, producing more than half of IBM's revenues by the early s and through technology transfer shaping the way governments and businesses operated around the world. Its personnel and technology played an integral role in the space program and landing the first men on the moon in In that same year, it changed the way it marketed its technology to customers, unbundling hardware from software and services, effectively launching today's multibillion-dollar software and services industry. See unbundling of software and services, below. It was massively profitable, with a nearly fivefold increase in revenues and earnings during the s.

In Thomas John Watson, Jr., who had succeeded his father as chairman, announced that IBM would open a large-scale manufacturing plant at Boca Raton to produce its System/ Model 20 midsized computer. On March 16, , a headline in the Boca Raton News[] announced “IBM to hire by year’s end.” The plan was for IBM to lease facilities to start making computers until the new site could be developed. A few months later, hiring began for assembly and production control trainees. IBM's Juan Rianda moved from Poughkeepsie, New York, to become the first plant manager at IBM's new Boca operations. To design its new campus, IBM commissioned internationally renowned architect Marcel Breuer (–), who worked closely with American architect Robert Gatje (–). In September , the Boca team celebrated a milestone, shipping its first IBM System/ Model 20 to the City of Clearwater – the first computer in its production run. A year later, IBM Computing Systems were being produced and shipped from the building. By , IBM's Boca workforce had reached 1, That employment number grew to around 1, in the next year as a Systems Development Engineering Laboratory was added to the division's operations.

Key events[edit]

  • IBM Stretch. IBM delivers its first Stretch supercomputer. Stretch falls short of its original design objectives, and is not a commercial success. But it is a visionary product that pioneers numerous revolutionary computing technologies which are soon widely adopted by the computer industry.[][]
  • Thomas J. Watson Research Center. IBM moves its research headquarters from Poughkeepsie, NY to Westchester County, NY, opening the Thomas J. Watson Research Center which remains IBM's largest research facility, centering on semiconductors, computer science, physical science, and mathematics. The lab which IBM established at Columbia University in was closed and moved to the Yorktown Heights laboratory in []
  • IBM Selectric typewriter. IBM introduces the Selectric typewriter product line. Later Selectric models feature memory, giving rise to the concepts of word processing and desktop publishing. The machine won numerous awards for its design and functionality. Selectrics and their descendants eventually captured 75 percent of the United States market for electric typewriters used in business.[] IBM replaced the Selectric line with the IBM Wheelwriter in and transferred its typewriter business to the newly formed Lexmark in []
  • Report Program Generator. IBM offers its Report Program Generator, an application that allows IBM users to produce reports. This capability was widely adopted throughout the industry, becoming a feature offered in subsequent generations of computers. It played an important role in the successful introduction of computers into small businesses.[]
  • Basic beliefs. Drawing on established IBM policies, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., codifies three IBM basic beliefs: respect for the individual, customer service, and excellence.[]
  • SABRE. Two IBM mainframes formed the backbone of the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines. As the first airline reservation system to work live over phone lines, SABRE linked high-speed computers and data communications to handle seat inventory and passenger records.[]
  • IBM System/. In the most important product announcement in company history to date, IBM introduces the IBM System/ a new concept in computers which creates a "family" of small to large computers, incorporating IBM Solid Logic Technology (SLT) microelectronics and using the same programming instructions. The concept of a compatible "family" of computers transforms the industry.[]
  • Word processing. IBM introduces the IBM Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter, a product that pioneered the application of magnetic recording devices to typewriting, and gave rise to desktop word processing. Referred to then as "power typing," the feature of revising stored text improved office efficiency by allowing typists to type at "rough draft" speed without the pressure of worrying about mistakes.[]
  • New corporate headquarters. IBM moves its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York.[]
  • Gemini space flights. A pound onboard IBM guidance computer is used on all Gemini space flights, including the first spaceship rendezvous. IBM scientists complete the most precise computation of the Moon's orbit and develop a fabrication technique to connect hundreds of circuits on a silicon wafer.[]
  • New York World's Fair. The IBM Pavilion at the New York World's Fair closes, having hosted more than 10 million visitors during its two-year existence.[]
  • Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM). IBM invents one-transistor DRAM cells which permit major increases in memory capacity. DRAM chips become the mainstay of modern computer memory systems: the "crude oil" of the information age is born.[]
  • IBM System/4 Pi. IBM ships its first System/4Pi computer, designed to meet U.S. Department of Defense and NASA requirements. More than units of the 4Pi systems are delivered by the s for use in the air, sea, and space.[]
  • IBM Information Management System (IMS). IBM designed the Information Management System (IMS) with Rockwell and Caterpillar starting in for the Apollo program, where it was used to inventory the very large bill of materials (BOM) for the Saturn V moon rocket and Apollo space vehicle.
  • Fractal geometry. IBM researcher Benoit Mandelbrot conceives fractal geometry – the concept that seemingly irregular shapes can have identical structure at all scales. This new geometry makes it possible to mathematically describe the kinds of irregularities existing in nature. The concept greatly impacts the fields of engineering, economics, metallurgy, art, health sciences, and computer graphics and animation.[]
  • IBM Customer Information Control System (CICS). IBM introduces the CICS transaction monitor. CICS remains to this day the industry's most popular transactions monitor.[]
  • Antitrust. The United States government launches what would become a year-long antitrust suit against IBM. The suit becomes a draining war of attrition, and is eventually dropped in ,[] after IBM's share of the mainframe market declined from 70% to 62%.[]
  • Unbundling. IBM adopts a new marketing policy that charges separately for most systems engineering activities, future computer programs, and customer education courses. This "unbundling" gives rise to a multibillion-dollar software and services industry.[]
  • Magnetic stripe cards. The American National Standards Institute makes the IBM-developed magnetic stripe technology a national standard, jump starting the credit card industry. Two years later, the International Organization for Standardization adopts the IBM design, making it a world standard.[]
  • First moon landing. IBM personnel and computers help NASA land the first men on the Moon.

– The challenges of success[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
3,,
7,,
14,,

The Golden Decade of the s was a hard act to follow, and the s got off to a troubling start when CEO Thomas J. Watson Jr. suffered a heart attack and retired in For the first time since – nearly six decades – IBM would not have a Watson at the helm. Moreover, after just one leadership change over those nearly 60 years, IBM would endure two in two years. T. Vincent Learson succeeded Watson as CEO, then quickly retired upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 60 in Following Learson in the CEO office was Frank T. Cary, a year IBMer[] who had run the very successful data processing division in the s.

Datamation in stated that "the perpetual, ominous force called IBM rolls on".[] The company's dominance let it keep prices high and rarely update products,[] all built with only IBM components.[] During Cary's tenure as CEO, the IBM System/ was introduced in as IBM's new mainframe. The S/ did not prove as technologically revolutionary as its predecessor, the System/ From a revenue perspective, it more than sustained the cash cow status of the [] A less successful effort to replicate the mainframe revolution was the Future Systems project. Between and , IBM investigated the feasibility of a new revolutionary line of products designed to make obsolete all existing products in order to re-establish its technical supremacy. This effort was terminated by IBM's top management in But by then it had consumed most of the high-level technical planning and design resources, thus jeopardizing progress of the existing product lines (although some elements of FS were later incorporated into actual products).[] Other IBM innovations during the early s included the IBM disk unit – introduced in and known as "Winchester" after IBM's internal project name – was an advanced storage technology which more than doubled the information density on disk surfaces. Winchester technology was adopted by the industry and used for the next two decades.

Some s-era IBM technologies emerged to become familiar facets of everyday life. IBM developed magnetic stripe technology in the s, and it became a credit card industry standard in The IBM-invented floppy disk, also introduced in , became the standard for storing personal computer data during the first decades of the PC era. IBM Research scientist Edgar 'Ted' Codd wrote a seminal paper describing the relational database, an invention that Forbes magazine described as one of the most important innovations of the 20th century. The IBM , 50&#;lbs. and $ of personal mobility, was introduced in and presaged – at least in function if not size or price or units sold – the Personal Computer of the s. IBM's supermarket checkout station, introduced in , used holographic technology to scan product prices from the now-ubiquitous UPC bar code, which itself was based a IBM patent that became a grocery industry standard. Also in , bank customers began making withdrawals, transfers and other account inquiries via the IBM Consumer Transaction Facility, an early form of today's Automatic Teller Machines.

IBM had an innovator's role in pervasive technologies that were less visible as well. In , IBM announced Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol for computing systems. SNA is a uniform set of rules and procedures for computer communications to free computer users from the technical complexities of communicating through local, national, and international computer networks. SNA became the most widely used system for data processing until more open architecture standards were approved in the s. In , IBM researcher Benoit Mandelbrot conceived fractal geometry – a new geometrical concept that made it possible to describe mathematically the kinds of irregularities existing in nature. Fractals had a great impact on engineering, economics, metallurgy, art and health sciences, and are integral to the field of computer graphics and animation.

A less successful business endeavor for IBM was its entry into the office copier market in the s, after turning down the opportunity to purchase the xerography technology.[34] The company was immediately sued by Xerox Corporation for patent infringement. Although Xerox held the patents for the use of selenium as a photoconductor, IBM researchers perfected the use of organic photoconductors which avoided the Xerox patents. The litigation lasted until the late s and was ultimately settled. Despite this victory, IBM never gained traction in the copier market and withdrew from the marketplace in the s. Organic photoconductors are now widely used in copiers.

Throughout this period, IBM was litigating the antitrust suit filed by the Justice Department in But in a related bit of case law, the landmark Honeywell v. Sperry Rand U.S. federal court case was concluded in April The patent for the ENIAC, the world's first general-purpose electronic digital computer, was found both invalid and unenforceable for a variety of reasons thus putting the invention of the electronic digital computer into the public domain. Further, IBM was ruled to have created a monopoly via its patent-sharing agreement with Sperry-Rand.

American antitrust laws did not affect IBM in Europe, where as of [update] it had fewer competitors and more than 50% market share in almost every country[citation needed]. Customers preferred IBM because it was, Datamation said, "the only truly international computer company", able to serve clients almost anywhere. Rivals such as ICL, CII, and Siemens began to cooperate to preserve a European computer industry.[]

Key events[edit]

  • System/. IBM announces System/ as successor to System/
  • Relational databases. IBM introduces relational databases which call for information stored within a computer to be arranged in easy-to-interpret tables to access and manage large amounts of data. Today, nearly all database structures are based on the IBM concept of relational databases.
  • Office copiers. IBM introduces its first of three models of xerographic copiers. These machines mark the first commercial use of organic photoconductors which since grew to become the dominant technology.
  • Speech recognition. IBM achieves its first operational application of speech recognition, which enables engineers servicing equipment to talk to and receive spoken answers from a computer that can recognize about 5, words. Today, IBM's ViaVoice recognition technology has a vocabulary of 64, words and a ,word back-up dictionary.[]
  • Floppy disk. IBM introduces the floppy disk. Convenient and highly portable, the floppy becomes a personal computer industry standard for storing data.[]
  • Winchester storage technology. The IBM disk unit – known as "Winchester" after IBM's internal project name – is introduced, an advanced technology which more than doubled the information density on disk surfaces. It featured a smaller, lighter read/write head that was designed to ride on an air film only 18 millionths of an inch thick. Winchester technology was adopted by the industry and used for the next two decades.[]
  • Nobel Prize. Dr. Leo Esaki, an IBM Fellow who joined the company in , shares the Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling. His discovery of the semiconductor junction called the Esaki diode finds wide use in electronics applications. More importantly, his work in the field of semiconductors lays a foundation for further exploration in the electronic transport of solids.[]
  • SNA. IBM announces Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol for computing systems. SNA is a uniform set of rules and procedures for computer communications to free computer users from the technical complexities of communicating through local, national, and international computer networks. SNA becomes the most widely used system for data processing until more open architecture standards were approved in the s.[]

– Information revolution, rise of software and PC industries[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
14,,
26,,
50,,
69,,
71,,

President of IBM John R. Opel became CEO in [] His company was one of the world's largest and had a 62% share of the mainframe computer market that year.[] While frequently relocated employees and families still joked that IBM stood for "I've Been Moved", and employees of acquisitions feared that hordes of formal IBM employees would invade their more casual offices,[] IBM no longer required white shirts for male employees, who still wore conservative suits when meeting customers. Former employees such as Gene Amdahl used their training to found and lead many competitors[34] and suppliers.[]

Expecting Japanese competition, IBM in the late s began investing in manufacturing to lower costs, offering volume discounts and lower prices to large customers, and introducing new products more frequently.[] The company also sometimes used non-IBM components in products,[] and sometimes resold others' products as its own.[] In it introduced its first computer terminal compatible with non-IBM equipment,[] and Displaywriter was the first new product less expensive than the competition.[] IBM's share of the overall computer market, however, declined from 60% in to 32% in [] Perhaps distracted by the long-running antitrust lawsuit,[34] the "Colossus of Armonk" completely missed the fast-growing minicomputer market during the s,[][][][] and was behind rivals such as Wang, Hewlett-Packard (HP), and Control Data in other areas.[]

In BusinessWeek asked, "Is IBM just another stodgy, mature company?" By its stock price had declined by 22%.[] IBM's earnings for the first half the year grew by % – one third of the inflation rate – while those of minicomputer maker Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) grew by more than 35%.[] The company began selling minicomputers,[] but in January the Justice Department ended the antitrust suit because, The New York Times reported, the government "recognized what computer experts and securities analysts had long since concluded: I.B.M. no longer dominates the computer business".[]

IBM wished to avoid the same outcome with the new personal computer industry.[] The company studied the market for years and, as with UNIVAC, others like Apple Computer entered it first;[34] IBM did not want a product with a rival's logo on corporate customers' desks.[] The company opened its first retail store in November ,[] and a team in the Boca Raton, Florida office built the IBM PC using commercial off-the-shelf components. The new computer debuted on August 12, [] from the Entry Systems Division led by Don Estridge. IBM immediately became more of a presence in the consumer marketplace, thanks to the memorable Little Tramp advertising campaign. Though not a spectacular machine by technological standards of the day, the IBM PC brought together all of the most desirable features of a computer into one small machine. It had kilobytes of memory (expandable to kilobytes), one or two floppy disks and an optional color monitor. And it had the prestige of the IBM brand. It was not cheap, but with a base price of US$1, it was affordable for businesses – and many businesses purchased PCs. Reassured by the IBM name, they began buying microcomputers on their own budgets aimed at numerous applications that corporate computer departments did not, and in many cases could not, accommodate. Typically, these purchases were not by corporate computer departments, as the PC was not seen as a "proper" computer. Purchases were often instigated by middle managers and senior staff who saw the potential – once the revolutionary VisiCalc spreadsheet, the killer app, had been surpassed by a far more powerful and stable product, Lotus

Boca Corporate Center & Campus was originally one of IBM's research labs where the IBM PCwas created.

IBM's dominance of the mainframe market in Europe and the US encouraged existing customers to buy the PC,[][] and vice versa; as sales of what had been an experiment in a new market became a substantial part of IBM's financials, the company found that customers also bought larger IBM computers.[][][] Unlike the BUNCH and other rivals IBM quickly adjusted to the retail market,[][] with its own sales force competing with outside retailers for the first time.[] By IBM was the world's most profitable industrial company,[] and its sales of personal computers were larger than that of minicomputers despite having been in the latter market since the early s.[]

By industry analyst Gideon Gartner warned that IBM "is creating a dangerous situation for competitors in the marketplace".[34] The company helped others by defining technical standards and creating large new software markets,[][][] but the new aggressiveness that began in the late s helped it dominate areas like computer leasing and computer-aided design.[] Free from the antitrust case, IBM was present in every computer market other than supercomputers, and entered communications[] by purchasing Rolm – the first acquisition in 18 years – and 18% of MCI.[] The company was so important to component suppliers that it urged them to diversify. When IBM (61% of revenue) abruptly reduced orders from Miniscribe shares of not only Miniscribe but that of uninvolved companies that sold to IBM fell, as investors feared their vulnerability.[] IBM was also vulnerable when suppliers could not fulfill orders;[] customers and dealers also feared becoming overdependent.[][]

The IBM PC AT's debut startled the industry. Rivals admitted that they did not expect the low price of the sophisticated product. IBM's attack on every area of the computer industry and entry into communications caused competitors, analysts, and the press to speculate that it would again be sued for antitrust.[][][]Datamation and others said that the company's continued growth might hurt the United States, by suppressing startups with new technology.[]Gartner Group estimated in that of the largest data-processing companies, IBM had 41% of all revenue and 69% of profit. Its computer revenue was about nine times that of second-place DEC, and larger than that of IBM's six largest Japanese competitors combined. The 22% profit margin was three times the % average for the other 99 companies. Competitors complained to Congress, ADAPSO discussed the company with the Justice Department, and European governments worried about IBM's influence but feared affecting its more than , employees there at 19 facilities.[]

However, the company soon lost its lead in both PC hardware and software, thanks in part to its unprecedented (for IBM) decision to contract PC components to outside companies like Microsoft and Intel. Up to this point in its history, IBM relied on a vertically integrated strategy, building most key components of its systems itself, including processors, operating systems, peripherals, databases and the like. In an attempt to accelerate the time-to-market for the PC, IBM chose not to build a proprietary operating system and microprocessor. Instead, it sourced these vital components from Microsoft and Intel respectively. Ironically, in a decade which marked the end of IBM's monopoly, it was this fateful decision by IBM that passed the sources of its monopolistic power (operating system and processor architecture) to Microsoft and Intel, paving the way for rise of PC compatibles and the creation of hundreds of billions of dollars of market value outside of IBM.

John Akers became IBM's CEO in During the s, IBM's significant investment in building a world class research organization produced four Nobel Prize winners in physics, achieved breakthroughs in mathematics, memory storage and telecommunications, and made great strides in expanding computing capabilities. In , IBM Research legend John Cocke introduced Reduced Instruction Set Technology (RISC). Cocke received both the National Medal of Technology and the National Medal of Science for his innovation, but IBM itself failed to recognize the importance of RISC, and lost the lead in RISC technology to Sun Microsystems. In the company partnered with Sears to develop a pioneering online home banking and shopping service for home PCs that launched in as Prodigy. Despite a strong reputation and anticipating many of the features, functions, and technology that characterize the online experience of today, the venture was plagued by extremely conservative management decisions, and was eventually sold in the mids. The IBM token-ring local area network, introduced in , permitted personal computer users to exchange information and share printers and files within a building or complex. In , IBM partnered with the University of Michigan and MCI Communications to create the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet), an important step in the creation of the Internet. But within five years the company backed away from this early lead in Internet protocols and router technologies in order to support its existing SNA cash cow, thereby missing a boom market of the s. Still, IBM investments and advances in microprocessors, disk drives, network technologies, software applications, and online commerce in the s set the stage for the emergence of the connected world in the s.

But by the end of the decade, IBM was clearly in trouble. It was a bloated organization of some , employees that was heavily invested in low margin, transactional, commodity businesses. Technologies IBM invented and or commercialized – DRAM, hard disk drives, the PC, electric typewriters – were starting to erode. The company had a massive international organization characterized by redundant processes and functions – its cost structure couldn't compete with smaller, less diversified competitors. And then the back-to-back revolutions – the PC and the client-server – did the unthinkable. They combined to dramatically undermine IBM's core mainframe business. The PC revolution placed computers directly in the hands of millions of people. It was followed by the client/server revolution, which sought to link all of those PCs (the "clients") with larger computers that labored in the background (the "servers" that served data and applications to client machines). Both revolutions transformed the way customers viewed, used and bought technology. And both fundamentally rocked IBM. Businesses' purchasing decisions were put in the hands of individuals and departments – not the places where IBM had long-standing customer relationships. Piece-part technologies took precedence over integrated solutions. The focus was on the desktop and personal productivity, not on business applications across the enterprise. As a result, earnings – which had been at or above US$5 billion since the early s, dropped by more than a third to US$3 billion in A brief spike in earnings in proved illusory as corporate spending continued to shift from high-profit margin mainframes to lower margin microprocessor-based systems. In addition, corporate downsizing was in full swing.

Akers tried to stop the bleeding – desperate moves and radical changes were considered and implemented. As IBM assessed the situation, it was clear that competition and innovation in the computer industry were now taking place along segmented, versus vertically integrated lines, where leaders emerged in their respective domains. Examples included Intel in microprocessors, Microsoft in desktop software, Novell in networking, HP in printers, Seagate in disk drives and Oracle Corporation in database software. IBM's dominance in personal computers was challenged by the likes of Compaq and later Dell. Recognizing this trend, management, with the support of the Board of Directors, began to implement a plan to split IBM into increasingly autonomous business units (e.g. processors, storage, software, services, printers, etc.) to compete more effectively with competitors that were more focused and nimble and had lower cost structures.

IBM also began shedding businesses that it felt were no longer core. It sold its typewriter, keyboard, and printer business – the organization that created the popular "Selectric" typewriter with its floating "golf ball" type element in the s – to the investment firm of Clayton, Dubilier & Rice Inc. and became an independent company, Lexmark Inc.

These efforts failed to halt the slide. A decade of steady acceptance and widening corporate growth of local area networking technology, a trend headed by Novell Inc. and other vendors, and its logical counterpart, the ensuing decline of mainframe sales, brought about a wake-up call for IBM. After two consecutive years of reporting losses in excess of $1 billion, on January 19, , IBM announced a US$ billion loss for the financial year, which was then the largest single-year corporate loss in U.S. history.[] All told, between and , the company posted net losses of nearly $16 billion. IBM's three-decade-long Golden Age, triggered by Watson Jr. in the s, was over. The computer industry now viewed IBM as no longer relevant, an organizational dinosaur. And hundreds of thousands of IBMers lost their jobs, including CEO John Akers.

Key events[edit]

  • mids: IBM VNET. VNET was an international computer networking system deployed in the mids, providing email and file-transfer for IBM. By September , the network had grown to include mainframe nodes in Europe, Asia, and North America.
  • Fractals. IBM researcher Benoit Mandelbrot conceives fractal geometry – the concept that seemingly irregular shapes can have identical structure at all scales. This new geometry makes it possible to describe mathematically the kinds of irregularities existing in nature. Fractals later make a great impact on engineering, economics, metallurgy, art, and health sciences, and are also applied in the field of computer graphics and animation.[]
  • IBM Portable computer. IBM introduces the Portable Computer, a 50&#;lb. desktop machine that put computer capabilities at the fingertips of engineers, analysts, statisticians, and other problem-solvers. More "luggable" than portable, the can serve as a terminal for the System/ and costs from $ to $20,[]
  • Space Shuttle. The Enterprise, the first vehicle in the U.S. Space Shuttle program, makes its debut at Palmdale, California, carrying IBM AP flight computers and special hardware built by IBM.
  • Laser printer. The first IBM printer is installed. The is the first commercial printer to combine laser technology and electrophotography. The technology speeds the printing of bank statements, premium notices, and other high-volume documents, and remains a workhorse for billing and accounts receivable departments.[]
  • Data Encryption Standard. IBM-developed Data Encryption Standard (DES), a cryptographic algorithm, is adopted by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as a national standard.[]
  • Retail checkout. IBM develops the Universal Product Code (UPC) in the s as a method for embedding pricing and identification information on individual retail items. In , IBM applies holographic scanner technology in IBM's supermarket checkout station to read the UPC stripes on merchandise, one of the first major commercial uses of holography. IBM's support of the UPC concept helps lead to its widespread acceptance by retail and other industries around the world.[]
  • Thin film recording heads. Instead of using hand-wound wire structures as coils for inductive elements, IBM researchers substitute thin film "wires" patterned by optical lithography. This leads to higher performance recording heads at a reduced cost and establishes IBM's leadership in "areal density": storing the most data in the least space. The result is higher-capacity and higher-performance disk drives.[]
  • Overcoming barriers to technology use. Since , with its announcement of Chinese and Arabic ideographic character typewriters, IBM has worked to overcome cultural and physical barriers to the use of technology. As part of these ongoing efforts, IBM introduces the Kanji Display Terminal; the System/34 Kanji System with an ideographic feature, which processes more than 11, Japanese and Chinese characters; and the Audio Typing Unit for sight-impaired typists.
  • First multi-function copier/printer. A communication-enabled laser printer and photocopier combination was introduced, the IBM Information Distributor. This was the first multi-function (copier/printer) device for the office market.
  • Thermal conduction modules. IBM introduces the processor, the company's most powerful to date, which features Thermal Conduction Modules. In , the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., awards its Corporate Innovation Recognition to IBM for the development of the Multilayer Ceramic Thermal Conduction Module for high performance computers.[]
  • Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architecture. IBM successfully builds the first prototype computer employing IBM Fellow John Cocke's RISC architecture. RISC simplified the instructions given to computers, making them faster and more powerful. Today, RISC architecture is the basis of most workstations and widely viewed as the dominant computing architecture.[]
  • IBM PC. The IBM Personal Computer goes mass market and helps revolutionize the way the world does business. A year later, Time Magazine gives its "Person of the Year" award to the Personal Computer.[]
  • LASIK surgery. Three IBM scientists invent the excimer laser surgical procedure that later forms the basis of LASIK and PRK corrective eye surgeries.[]
  • Antitrust suit. The United States antitrust suit against IBM, filed in , is dismissed as being "without merit."[]
  • Trellis-coded modulation. Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) is first used in voice-band modems to send data at higher rates over telephone channels. Today, TCM is applied in a large variety of terrestrial and satellite-based transmission systems as a key technique for achieving faster and more reliable digital transmission.[]
  • IBM PCjr. IBM announces the widely anticipated PCjr., IBM's attempt to enter the home computing marketplace. The product, however, fails to capture the fancy of consumers due to its lack of compatibility with IBM PC software, its higher price point, and its unfortunate ‘chiclet’ keyboard design. IBM terminates the product after 18 months of disappointing sales.[]
  • IBM magnetic tape system. The industry's most advanced magnetic tape system, the IBM , introduces a new generation of tape drives that replace the familiar reel of tape with an easy-to-handle cartridge. The was the industry's first tape system to use "thin-film" recording head technology.
  • Sexual discrimination. IBM adds sexual orientation to the company's non-discrimination policy. IBM becomes one of the first major companies to make this change.[]
  • ROLM partnership/acquisition. IBM acquires ROLM Corporation for $ billion.[] Based in Santa Clara, CA (subsequent to an existing partnership),[] IBM intended to develop digital telephone switches to compete directly with Northern Telecom and AT&T.[] Two of the most popular systems were the large scale PABX coined ROLM CBX and the smaller PABX coined ROLM Redwood. ROLM is later acquired by Siemens AG in –[][]
  • MCI. IBM acquires 18% of MCI Communications, the United States's second-largest long-distance carrier, in June []
  • RP3. Sparked in part by national concerns over losing its technology leadership crown in the early s, IBM re-enters the supercomputing field with the RP3 (IBM Research Parallel Processor Prototype). IBM researchers worked with scientists from the New York University's Courant Institute of Mathematical Science to design RP3, an experimental computer consisting of up to processors, linked in parallel and connected to as many as two billion characters of main memory. Over the next five years, IBM provides more than $30 million in products and support to a supercomputer facility established at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.[]
  • Token Ring Network. IBM's Token Ring technology brings a new level of control to local area networks and quickly becomes an industry standard for networks that connect printers, workstations and servers.[]
  • IBM Almaden Research Center. IBM Research dedicates the Almaden Research Center in California. Today, Almaden is IBM's second-largest laboratory focused on storage systems, technology and computer science.[]
  • Nobel Prize: Scanning tunneling microscopy. IBM FellowsGerd K. Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory win the Nobel Prize in physics for their work in scanning tunneling microscopy. Drs. Binnig and Rohrer are recognized for developing a powerful microscopy technique which permits scientists to make images of surfaces so detailed that individual atoms may be seen.[]
  • Nobel Prize: High-Temperature Superconductivity. J. Georg Bednorz and IBM FellowAlex Müller of the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory receive the Nobel Prize for physics for their breakthrough discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in a new class of materials. They discover superconductivity in ceramic oxides that carry electricity without loss of energy at much higher temperatures than any other superconductor.[]
  • Antivirus tools. As personal computers become vulnerable to attack from viruses, a small research group at IBM develops, practically overnight, a suite of antivirus tools. The effort leads to the establishment of the High Integrity Computing Laboratory (HICL) at IBM. HICL goes on to pioneer the science of theoretical and observational computer virus epidemiology.[]
  • Special needs access. IBM Researchers demonstrate the feasibility for blind computer users to read information directly from computer screens with the aid of an experimental mouse. And in the IBM Personal System/2 Screen Reader is announced, permitting blind or visually impaired people to hear the text as it is displayed on the screen in the same way a sighted person would see it. This is the first in the IBM Independence Series of products for computer users with special needs.[]
  • IBM AS/. IBM introduces the IBM Application System/, a new family of easy-to-use computers designed for small and intermediate-sized companies. As part of the introduction, IBM and IBM Business Partners worldwide announce more than 1, software packages in the biggest simultaneous applications announcement in computer history. The AS/ quickly becomes one of the world's most popular business computing systems.[]
  • National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET). IBM collaborates with the Merit Network, MCI Communications, the State of Michigan, and the National Science Foundation to upgrade and expand the 56K bit per second NSFNET to M bps (T1) and later 45M bps (T3). This partnership provides the network infrastructure and lays the groundwork for the explosive growth of the Internet in the s. The NSFNET upgrade boosts network capacity, not only making it faster, but also allowing more intensive forms of data, such as the graphics now common on the World Wide Web, to travel across the Internet.[]
  • Silicon germanium transistors. The replacing of expensive and exotic materials like gallium arsenide with silicon germanium (known as SiGe), championed by IBM Fellow Bernie Meyerson, creates faster chips at lower costs. Introducing germanium into the base layer of an otherwise all-silicon bipolar transistor allows for significant improvements in operating frequency, current, noise and power capabilities.[]
  • System/. IBM makes its most comprehensive product announcement in 25 years by introducing the System/ family. IBM incorporates complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) based processors into System/ Parallel Enterprise Server in , and in the System/ G5 Parallel Enterprise Server way Turbo model smashed the 1, MIPS barrier, making it the world's most powerful mainframe.[]
  • RISC System/. IBM announces the RISC System/, a family of nine workstations that are among the fastest and most powerful in the industry. The RISC System/ uses Reduced instruction set computing technology, an innovative computer design pioneered by IBM that simplifies processing steps to speed the execution of commands.[]
  • Moving individual atoms. Donald M. Eigler, a physicist and IBM Fellow at the IBM Almaden Research Center demonstrated the ability to manipulate individual atoms using a scanning tunneling microscope, writing I-B-M using 35 individual xenon atoms.[]
  • Environmental programs'. IBM joins 14 other leading U.S. corporations in April to establish a worldwide program designed to achieve environmental, health and safety goals by continuously improving environmental management practices and performance. IBM has invested more than $1 billion since to provide environmental protection for the communities in which IBM facilities are located.[]
  • Services business. IBM reenters the computer services business through the formation of the Integrated Systems Solution Corporation. Still in compliance with the provisions of the Consent Decree, in just four ISSC becomes the second largest provider of computer services. The new business becomes one of IBM's primary revenue streams.[]
  • Thinkpad. IBM introduces a new line of notebook computers. Housed in a distinctive black case and featuring the innovative TrackPoint device nestled in the middle of the keyboard, the ThinkPad is an immediate hit and goes on to collect more than awards for design and quality.[]

– IBM's near disaster and rebirth[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
50,,
69,,
71,,
85,,
91,,
99,,

In April , IBM hired Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. as its new CEO. For the first time since IBM had recruited a leader from outside its ranks. Gerstner had been chairman and CEO of RJR Nabisco for four years, and had previously spent 11 years as a top executive at American Express. Gerstner brought with him a customer-oriented sensibility and the strategic-thinking expertise that he had honed through years as a management consultant at McKinsey & Co. Recognizing that his first priority was to stabilize the company, he adopted a triage mindset and took quick, dramatic action. His early decisions included recommitting to the mainframe, selling the Federal Systems Division to Loral in order to replenish the company's cash coffers, continuing to shrink the workforce (reaching a low of , employees in ), and driving significant cost reductions within the company. Most importantly, Gerstner decided to reverse the move to spin off IBM business units into separate companies. He recognized that one of IBM's enduring strengths was its ability to provide integrated solutions for customers – someone who could represent more than piece parts or components. Splitting the company would have destroyed that unique IBM advantage.[]

These initial steps worked. IBM was in the black by , turning a profit of $3 billion. Stabilization was not Gerstner's endgame – the restoration of IBM's once great reputation was. To do that, he needed to devise a winning business strategy.[] Over the next decade, Gerstner crafted a business model that shed commodity businesses and focused on high-margin opportunities. IBM divested itself of low margin industries (DRAM, IBM Network, personal printers, and hard drives). The company regained the business initiative by building upon the decision to keep the company whole – it unleashed a global services business that rapidly rose to become a leading technology integrator. Crucial to this success was the decision to become brand agnostic – IBM integrated whatever technologies the client required, even if they were from an IBM competitor.[] IBM augmented this services business with the acquisition of the consultancy division of PricewaterhouseCoopers for $ billion US.[]

Another high margin opportunity IBM invested heavily in was software, a strategic move that proved equally visionary. Starting in with its acquisition of Lotus Development Corp., IBM built up its software portfolio from one brand, DB2, to five: DB2, Lotus, WebSphere, Tivoli, and Rational. Content to leave the consumer applications business to other firms, IBM's software strategy focused on middleware – the vital software that connects operating systems to applications. The middleware business played to IBM's strengths, and its higher margins improved the company's bottom line significantly as the century came to an end.[]

Not all software that IBM developed was successful. While OS/2 was arguably technically superior to Microsoft Windows 95, OS/2 sales were largely concentrated in networked computing used by corporate professionals. OS/2 failed to develop much penetration in the consumer and stand-alone desktop PC segments. There were reports that it could not be installed properly on IBM's own Aptiva series of home PCs.[] Microsoft made an offer in where if IBM ended development of OS/2 completely, then it would receive the same terms as Compaq for a license of Windows IBM refused and instead went with an "IBM First" strategy of promoting OS/2 Warp and disparaging Windows, as IBM aimed to drive sales of its own software and hardware. By , Windows 95 negotiations between IBM and Microsoft, which were difficult, stalled when IBM purchased Lotus Development whose Lotus SmartSuite would have directly competed with Microsoft Office. As a result, IBM received their license later than their competitors which hurt sales of IBM PCs. IBM officials later conceded that OS/2 would not have been a viable operating system to keep them in the PC business.[][]

While IBM hardware and technologies were relatively de-emphasized in Gerstner's three-legged business model, they were not relegated to secondary status. The company brought its world-class research organization to bear more closely on its existing product lines and development processes. While Internet applications and deep computing overtook client servers as key business technology priorities, mainframes returned to relevance. IBM reinvigorated their mainframe line with CMOS technologies, which made them among the most powerful and cost-efficient in the marketplace.[] Investments in microelectronics research and manufacturing made IBM a world leader in specialized, high margin chip production – it developed &#;mm wafer processes in , and &#;mm wafers within the decade.[] IBM-designed chips were used in PlayStation 3, Xbox , and Wii game consoles. IBM also regained the lead in supercomputing with high-end machines based upon scalable parallel processor technology.

Equally significant in IBM's revival was its successful reentry into the popular mindset. Part of this revival was based on IBM technology. On October 5, , at the COMDEXcomputer expo, IBM announced the first ThinkPad laptop computer, the C. The ThinkPad, a premium machine which then cost US$, included a 25&#;MHz Intel SL processor, a inch active matrix display, removable MB hard drive, 4 MB RAM (expandable to 16 MB) and a TrackPoint II pointing device.[] The striking black design by noted designer Richard Sapper made the ThinkPad an immediate hit with the digerati, and the cool factor of the ThinkPad brought back some of the cachet to the IBM brand that was lost in the PC wars of the s. Instrumental to this popular resurgence was the chess match between IBM's chess-playing computer system Deep Blue and reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov. Deep Blue's victory was a historic first for a computer over a reigning world champion. Also helping the company reclaim its position as a technology leader was its annual domination of supercomputer rankings[] and patent leadership statistics.[] Ironically, a serendipitous contributor in reviving the company's reputation was the Dot-com bubble collapse in , where many of the edgy technology high flyers of the s failed to survive the downturn. These collapses discredited some of the more fashionable Internet-driven business models that stodgy IBM was previously compared against.

Another part of the successful reentry into the popular mindset was the company's revival of the IBM brand. The company's marketing during the economic downturn was chaotic, presenting many different, sometimes discordant voices in the marketplace. This brand chaos was attributable in part to the company having 70 different advertising agencies in its employ. In , IBM eliminated this chaos by consolidating its advertising in one agency. The result was a coherent, consistent message to the marketplace.[]

As IBM recovered its financial footing and its industry leadership position, the company remained aggressive in preaching to the industry that it was not the Old IBM, that it had learned from its near-death experiences, and that it had been fundamentally changed by them. It sought to redefine the Internet age in ways that played to traditional IBM strengths, couching the discussion in business-centric manners with initiatives like e-commerce and On Demand.[] And it supported open source initiatives, forming collaborative ventures with partners and competitors alike.[]

Change was manifested in IBM in other ways as well. The company revamped its varied philanthropic practices to bring a sharp focus on improving K education. It ended its year technology partnership with the International Olympic Committee after a successful engagement at the Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. On the human resources front, IBM's adoption and integration of diversity principles and practices was cutting edge. It added sexual orientation to its non-discrimination practices in , in created executive diversity task forces, and in offered domestic partner benefits to its employees. The company is routinely listed as among the best places for employees, employees of color, and women to work.[] And in , the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame inducted three IBMers as part of its inaugural class of 10 women: Ruth Leach Amonette, the first woman to hold an executive position at IBM; Barbara Grant, PhD, first woman to be named an IBM site general manager; and Linda Sanford, the highest – placed technical woman in IBM. Fran Allen – an early software pioneer and another IBM hero for her innovative work in compilers over the decades – was inducted in []

Gerstner retired at the end of , and was replaced by long-time IBMer Samuel J. Palmisano.

Key events[edit]

  • Billion-dollar losses. IBM misreads two significant trends in the computer industry: personal computers and client-server computing: and as a result loses more than $8 billion in , its third straight year of billion-dollar losses. Since , the company has lost $16 billion, and many feel IBM is no longer a viable player in the industry.[]
  • Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.. Gerstner arrives as IBM's chairman and CEO on April 1, For the first time since the arrival of Thomas J. Watson, Sr., in , IBM has a leader pulled from outside its ranks. Gerstner had been chairman and CEO of RJR Nabisco for four years and had previously spent 11 years as a top executive at American Express.[]
  • IBM Scalable POWERparallel system. IBM introduces the Scalable POWERparallel System, the first in a family of microprocessor-based supercomputers using RISC System/ technology. IBM pioneers the breakthrough scalable parallel system technology of joining smaller, mass-produced computer processors rather than relying on one larger, custom-designed processor. Complex queries could then be broken down into a series of smaller jobs that are run concurrently ("in parallel") to speed their completion.[]
  • Turnaround. IBM reports a profit for the year, its first since Over the next few years, the company successfully charts a new business course, one that focuses less on its traditional strengths in hardware, and more on services, software, and its ability to craft technology solutions.[]
  • IBM RAMAC Array Storage Family. The IBM RAMAC Array Family is announced. With features like highly parallel processing, multi-level cache, RAID 5, and redundant components, RAMAC represents a major advance in information storage technology. Consisting of the RAMAC Array Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) and the RAMAC Array Subsystem, the products become one of IBM's most successful storage product launches ever, with almost 2, systems shipped to customers in its first three months of availability.[]
  • Speech recognition. IBM releases the IBM Personal Dictation System (IPDS), the first wave of speech recognition products for the personal computer. It is later renamed VoiceType, and its capabilities are expanded to include control of computer applications and desktops simply by talking to them, without touching a keyboard. In IBM announces ViaVoice Gold, software that gives people a hands-free way to dictate text and navigate the desktop with the power of natural, continuous speech.[]
  • Lotus Development Corporation acquisition. IBM acquires all of the outstanding shares of the Lotus Development Corporation, whose pioneering Notes software enables greater collaboration across an enterprise and whose acquisition makes IBM the world's largest software company.[]
  • Glueball calculation. IBM scientists complete a two-year calculation – the largest single numerical calculation in the history of computing – to pin down the properties of an elusive elementary particle called a "glueball." The calculation was carried out on GF11, a massively parallel computer at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.[]
  • IBM Austin Research Laboratory opens. Based in Austin, Texas, the lab is focused on advanced circuit design as well as new design techniques and tools for very high performance microprocessors.[]
  • Atlanta Olympics. IBM suffers a highly public embarrassment when its IT support of the Olympic Games in Atlanta experiences technical difficulties.[]
  • Domestic partner benefits. IBM announces Domestic Partner Benefits for gay and lesbian employees.[]
  • Deep Blue. The node IBM RS/ SP supercomputer, Deep Blue, defeats World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov in the first known instance of a computer vanquishing a reigning world champion chess player in a tournament-style competition.[]
  • eBusiness. IBM coins the term and defined an enormous new industry by using the Internet as a medium for real business and institutional transformation. e-business becomes synonymous with doing business in the Internet age.[]
  • CMOS Gigaprocessor. IBM unveils the first microprocessor that runs at 1 billion cycles per second. IBM scientists develop new Silicon on insulator chips to be used in the construction of a mainstream processor. The breakthrough ushers in new circuit designs and product groups.[]
  • Blue Gene. IBM Research starts a computer architecture cooperative project with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the United States Department of Energy (which is partially funding the project), and academia to build new supercomputers (4) capable of more than one quadrillion operations per second (one petaflop). Nicknamed "Blue Gene," the new supercomputers perform times faster than other powerful supercomputers and can simulate folding complex proteins.[]
  • Quantum mirage nanotechnology. IBM scientists discover a way to transport information on the atomic scale that uses electrons instead of conventional wiring. This new phenomenon, called the Quantum mirage effect, enables data transfer within future nanoscale electronic circuits too small to use wires. The quantum mirage technique is a unique way of sending information through solid forms and could do away with wiring that connects nanocircuit components.[]
  • IBM ASCI White – Fastest supercomputer. IBM delivers the world's most powerful computer to the US Department of Energy, powerful enough to process an Internet transaction for every person on Earth in less than a minute. IBM built the supercomputer to accurately test the safety and effectiveness of the nation's aging nuclear weapons stockpile. This computer is 1, times more powerful than Deep Blue, the supercomputer that beat Garry Kasparov in chess in []
  • Flexible transistors. IBM created flexible transistors, combining organic and inorganic materials as a medium for semiconductors. This technology enables things like an "electronic newspaper", so lightweight and inexpensive that leaving one behind on the airplane or in a hotel lobby is no big deal. By eliminating the limitations of etching computer circuits in silicon, flexible transistors make it possible to create a new generation of inexpensive computer displays that can be embedded into curved plastic or other materials.[]
  • Sydney Olympics. After a successful engagement at the Olympic games in Sydney, IBM ends its year technology partnership with the International Olympic Committee.[]
  • Holocaust controversy. A controversial book, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black, accuses IBM of having knowingly assisted Nazi authorities in the perpetuation of the Holocaust through the provision of tabulating products and services. Several lawsuits are filed against IBM by Holocaust victims seeking restitution for their suffering and losses. All lawsuits related to this issue were eventually dropped without recovery.[]
  • Carbon nanotube transistors. IBM researchers build the world's first transistors out of carbon nanotubes – tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that are times smaller than silicon-based transistors and 1, times stronger than steel. The breakthrough is an important step in finding materials that can be used to build computer chips when silicon-based chips can't be made any smaller.[]
  • Low power initiative. IBM launches its low-power initiative to improve the energy efficiency of IT and accelerates the development of ultra-low power components and power-efficient servers, storage systems, personal computers and ThinkPad notebook computers.[]
  • Greater density & chip speeds. IBM is first to mass-produce computer hard disk drives using a revolutionary new type of magnetic coating – "pixie dust" – that eventually quadruples data density of current hard disk drive products. IBM also unveils "strained silicon," a breakthrough that alters silicon to boost chip speeds by up to 35 percent.[][]
  • The Hard disk drive business is sold to Hitachi.[]
  • Blue Gene/L. The BLUE GENE team unveils a proto-type of its Blue Gene/L computer roughly the size of a standard dishwasher that ranks as the 73rd most powerful supercomputer in the world. This cubic meter machine is a small scale model of the full Blue Gene/L built for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, which will be times larger when it's unveiled two years later.[]
  • Crusade Against Cancer. IBM joins forces with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Molecular Profiling Institute and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center to collaborate on cancer research by building state-of-the-art integrated information management systems.[]
  • The PC division is sold. The PC division (including Thinkpads) is sold to Chinese manufacturer, Lenovo.[]
  • Translation software. IBM delivers an advanced speech-to-speech translation system to U.S. forces in Iraq using bidirectional English to Arabic translation software that improves communication between military personnel and Iraqi forces and citizens. The breakthrough software offsets the current shortage of military linguists.[]
  • Renewable energy. IBM is recognized by the US EPA for its leading green power purchases in the US and for its support and participation in EPA's Fortune Green Power Challenge. IBM ranked 12th on the EPA's list of Green Power Partners for IBM purchased enough renewable energy in to meet 4% of its US electricity use and 9% of its global electricity purchases. IBM's commitment to green power helps cut greenhouse gas emissions.[]
  • River watch using IBM Stream Computing. In a unique collaboration, The Beacon Institute and IBM created the first technology-based river monitoring network. The River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON) allows for minute-to-minute monitoring of New York's Hudson River via an integrated network of sensors, robotics and computational technology. This first-of-its-kind project is made possible by IBM's "Stream Computing," a fundamentally new computer architecture that can examine thousands of information sources to help scientists better understand what is happening as it happens.[][]
  • Patent power
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My first reaction is to check the time, date (incl. year) and timezone on your machine.  That's step 1.

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This issue could have occurred due to conflict between third party applications\ corrupted system files.

Let us try the following steps, and check if it helps.

Step 1: If you have installed any third party security software, I suggest you to temporarily disable them.

Note: Antivirus software can help protect your computer against viruses and other security threats. In most cases, you shouldn't disable your antivirus software. If you have to temporarily disable it to install other software, you should re-enable it as soon as you're done. If you're connected to the Internet or a network while your antivirus software is disabled, your computer is vulnerable to attacks.

Step 2: Let us to run Windows Update troubleshooter to fix the problem. It makes sure that your computer is connected to the Internet, and checks to see whether your network adapter and Windows Update services are running correctly.

Click this link to download and run the Windows Update Troubleshooter.

If the issue persists, I suggest you to reset the Windows update components manually and check if it helps.

Step 3: Reset the Windows update components

Let us try to reset the Windows update components and check if it helps.

Refer: shoppingdowntown.us

Disclaimer: Follow the steps in this section carefully. Serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Before you modify it, back up the registry for restoration in case problems occur.

Hope it helps.

Let us know the status, we are glad to assist you further.

Thanks & regards,

Abdul Malik

2 people found this reply helpful

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Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

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Thanks for your feedback.

Thanks.

1. I'm not running any other security products other than MS's.

2. The troubleshooter couldn't identify the problem.

3. I have run, as best I can, the instructions for resetting the Windows update components - these are prtty generic, pretty old and some of them can't be actioned (I can't rename catroot2 as access is always denied). However, I have done most of that lot.

No change.

Anything else I can try?

Andrew

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Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

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How satisfied are you with this reply?

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Hello, 

 

Thank you for your reply.

 

Let us try to place the computer in a clean boot state and check if there are any software conflicts.

 

Clean Boot state helps in identifying if any third party applications or startup items are causing the issue.

Follow the article How to perform a clean boot in Windows in the below link and check if it helps:

shoppingdowntown.us

 

Note: Once you perform clean boot do refer to the section How to reset the computer to start normally after clean boot troubleshooting to boot the computer in normal mode.

Do update us with the status, we are glad to assist you further.

Thanks & regards,

Abdul Malik

Was this reply helpful?

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Thanks.

Turned everything off and did a clean boot. No change in the error message.

Thanks again, but any more?

Regards

Andrew

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Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

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Hi,

I would suggest you to perform a SFC Scan and check if it helps.

Refer to the following link given below.
shoppingdowntown.us

Note: While performing SFC Scan I would recommend you to make sure that there are no applications or programs running on the back ground.

 

Hope this information helps. Please let us know if you need any other assistance with Windows in future. We will be happy to assist you.

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

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Thanks.

I ran sfc /scannow and it reported

Windows Resource Protection found corrupt files but was unable to fix some of them. Details are included in the shoppingdowntown.us \Logs\CBS\shoppingdowntown.us

One reason it might not be able to fix them is that it is documented in the link as looking in \System32\dllcache but this folder doesn't exist on the machine or any other Windows 10 machine I have.

After running scannow and inspecting the log, I have four lines saying:

, Info                  CSI    c2 [SR] Cannot repair member file [l]"shoppingdowntown.us" of microsoft-windows-RemoteFX-clientVM-RemoteFXWDDMDriver-WOWC, version , arch Host= amd64 Guest= x86, nonSxS, pkt {l:8 bbfade35} in the store, hash mismatch

I tried: running SFC on another machine (where it said it found corrupt files but had repaired them) then copying shoppingdowntown.us from the good machine to the bad machine; sfc now reports even more errors. I have replaced shoppingdowntown.us with the original.

If this is the file causing the problem, where do I find a working copy? Or what else can I do?

Thanks again.

Andrew

 

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Hi,

Are you connected to a domain network?

 

Please do let us know if you need any other assistance with Windows in future. We will be happy to assist you.

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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Have hit: Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs

Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs
Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs
Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs
ESET NOD32 Antivirus 2021 Crack & License Key

My first reaction is to check the time, date (incl. year) and timezone on your machine.  That's step 1.

4 people found this reply helpful

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Hi,

Thank you for giving us an opportunity to assist you with the query.

I understand the inconvenience caused, now that you have me with you let me take care of this.

  • Have you made any changes to the computer prior to this issue?
  • Have you installed any third party security software on your computer?

This issue could have occurred due to conflict between third party applications\ corrupted system files.

Let us try the following steps, and check if it helps.

Step 1: If you have installed any third party security software, I suggest Nitro Pro 13.49.2.993 Crack Plus Torrent Serial Keygen [2022] to temporarily disable them.

Note: Antivirus software can help protect your computer against viruses and other security threats. In most cases, ptgui mac torrent Archives shouldn't disable your antivirus software. If you have to temporarily disable it to install other software, you should re-enable it as soon as you're done. If you're connected to the Internet or a network while your antivirus software is disabled, your computer is vulnerable to attacks.

Step 2: Let us to run Windows Update troubleshooter to fix the problem. It makes sure that your computer is connected to the Internet, and checks to see whether your network adapter and Windows Update services are running correctly.

Click this link to download and run the Windows Update Troubleshooter.

If the issue persists, I suggest you to reset the Windows update components manually and check if it helps.

Step 3: Reset the Windows update components

Let us try to reset the Windows update components and check if it helps.

Refer: shoppingdowntown.us

Disclaimer: Follow the steps in this section carefully. Serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Before you modify it, back up the registry for restoration in case problems occur.

Hope it helps.

Let us know the status, we are glad to assist you further.

Thanks & regards,

Abdul Malik

2 people found this reply helpful

·

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Thanks.

1. I'm not running any other security products other than MS's.

2. The troubleshooter couldn't identify the problem.

3. I have run, as best I can, the instructions for resetting the Windows update components - these are prtty generic, pretty old and some of them can't be actioned (I can't rename catroot2 as access is always denied). Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, I have done most of that lot.

No change.

Anything else I can try?

Andrew

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Hello, 

 

Thank you for your reply.

 

Let us try to place the computer in a clean boot state and check if there are any software conflicts.

 

Clean Boot state helps in identifying if any third party applications or startup items are causing the issue.

Follow the article How to perform a clean boot in Windows in the below link and check if it helps:

shoppingdowntown.us

 

Note: Once you perform clean boot do refer to the section How to reset the computer to start normally after clean boot troubleshooting to boot the computer in normal mode.

Do update us with the status, we are glad to assist you further.

Thanks & regards,

Abdul Malik

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Thanks.

Turned everything off and did a clean boot. No change in the error message.

Thanks again, but any more?

Regards

Andrew

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Hi,

I would suggest you to perform a SFC Scan and check if it helps.

Refer to the following link given below.
shoppingdowntown.us

Note: While performing SFC Scan I would recommend you to make sure that there are no applications or programs running on the back ground.

 

Hope this information helps. Please let us know if you need any other assistance with Windows in future. We will be happy to assist you.

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Thanks.

I ran sfc /scannow and it reported

Windows Resource Protection found corrupt files but was unable to fix some of them. Details are included in the shoppingdowntown.us \Logs\CBS\shoppingdowntown.us

One reason it might not be able to fix them is that it is documented in Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs link as looking in \System32\dllcache but this folder doesn't exist on the machine or any other Windows 10 machine I have.

After running scannow and inspecting the log, I have four lines saying:

Info                  CSI    c2 [SR] Cannot repair member file [l]"shoppingdowntown.us" of microsoft-windows-RemoteFX-clientVM-RemoteFXWDDMDriver-WOWC, versionPc Game Archives - Malik Softs, arch Host= amd64 Guest= x86, nonSxS, pkt {l:8 bbfade35} in the store, hash mismatch

I tried: running SFC on another machine (where it said it found corrupt files but had repaired them) then copying shoppingdowntown.us from the good machine to the bad machine; sfc now reports even more errors. I have replaced shoppingdowntown.us with the original.

If this is the file causing the problem, where do I find a working copy? Or what else can I do?

Thanks again.

Andrew

 

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

Hi,

Are you connected to a domain network?

 

Please do let us know if you need any other assistance with Windows in future. We will be happy to assist you.

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

History of IBM

Evolution of the American computer company

Logos of IBM
IBM Logo svg
IBM Logo svg
IBM shoppingdowntown.usSince

International Business Machines (IBM), nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM originated from the bringing together of several companies that worked to automate routine business transactions, including the first companies to build punched card based data tabulating machines and to build time clocks. Inthese companies were amalgamated into the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR).

Thomas J. Watson (–) joined the company in as General Manager and became its President in In the company changed its name to "International Business Machines." IBM expanded into electric typewriters and other office machines. Watson was a salesman and concentrated on building a highly motivated, very well paid sales force Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs could craft solutions for clients unfamiliar with the latest technology. His motto was "THINK". Customers were advised to not "fold, spindle, or mutilate" the cardboard cards. IBM's first experiments with computers in the s and s were modest advances on the card-based system. Its great breakthrough came in the s with its System/ family of mainframe computers. IBM offered a full range of hardware, software, and service agreements, so that users, as their needs grew, would stay with "Big Blue." Since most software was custom-written by in-house programmers and would run on only one brand of computers, it was too expensive to switch brands. Brushing off clone makers, and facing down a federal anti-trust suit, the giant sold reputation and security as well as hardware and was the most admired American corporation of the Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs and s.

The Nvivo 2 crack serial keygen s and early s were difficult for IBM&#;&#; losses in exceeded $8 billion&#;&#; as the mainframe giant failed to adjust quickly enough to the personal computer revolution.[1] Desktop machines had the power needed and were vastly easier for both users and managers than multi-million-dollar mainframes. IBM did introduce a popular line of microcomputers&#;&#; but it was too popular. Clone makers undersold IBM, while the profits went to chip makers like Intel or software houses like Microsoft.

After a series of reorganizations, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, IBM remains one of the world's largest computer companies and systems integrators.[2] With overemployees worldwide as of ,[3] IBM holds more patents than any other U.S. based technology company and has twelve research laboratories worldwide.[4][5] The company has scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals in over countries.[6] IBM employees have earned five Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, five National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.[7]

Chronology[edit]

s– The origin of IBM[edit]

Main article: Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
41,
142,
133,
Hollerith's plant in

The roots of IBM date back to the s, tracing from four predecessor companies:[8][9][10][11]

On June 16,these four companies were amalgamated into a new holding company named the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), based in Endicott.[12][13][14][15] The amalgamation was engineered by noted financier Charles Flint. Flint remained a member of the board of CTR until his retirement in [16] At the time of the amalgamation, CTR had 1, employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto, Ontario, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs.

After amalgamation, the individual companies continued to operate using their established names, as subsidiaries of CTR, until the holding company was eliminated in [17] The divisions manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, coffee grinders, and punched card equipment. The product lines were very different; Flint stated that the "allied" consolidation:

instead of being dependent for earnings upon a single industry, would own three separate and distinct lines of business, so that in normal times the interest and sinking funds on its bonds could be earned by any one of these independent lines, while in abnormal times the consolidation would have three chances instead of one to meet its obligations and pay dividends.[18]

Of the companies amalgamated to form CTR, the most technologically significant was The Tabulating Machine Company, founded by Herman Hollerith, and specialized in the development of punched card data processing equipment. Hollerith's series of patents on tabulating machine technology, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, first applied for inPc Game Archives - Malik Softs, drew on his work at the U.S. Census Bureau from – Hollerith was initially trying to reduce the time and complexity needed to tabulate the Census. His development of punched cards in set the industry standard for the next 80 years of tabulating and computing data input.[19]

InThe Tabulating Machine Company leased some machines to a railway company[20] but quickly focused on the challenges of the largest statistical endeavor of its day – the US Census. After winning the government contract, and completing the project, Hollerith was faced with the challenge of sustaining the company in non-Census years. He returned to targeting private businesses in the United States and abroad, attempting to identify industry applications for his automatic punching, tabulating and sorting machines. InHollerith, now 51 and in failing health sold the business to Flint for $ million (of which Hollerith got $ million), who then founded CTR. When the diversified businesses of CTR proved difficult to manage, Flint turned for help to the former No. 2 executive at the National Cash Register Company (NCR), Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Watson became General Manager of CTR in and President in By drawing upon his managerial experience at NCR, Watson quickly implemented a series of effective business tactics: generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen, and an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker. As the sales force grew into a highly professional and knowledgeable arm of the company, Watson focused their attention on providing large-scale tabulating solutions for businesses, leaving the market for small office products to others. He also stressed the importance Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs the customer, a lasting IBM tenet. The strategy proved successful, as, during Watson's first four years, revenues doubled to $2 million, and company operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia, and Australia.

At the helm during this period, Watson played a central role in establishing what would Y!Tunnel Pro pro 372 crack serial keygen the IBM organization and culture. He launched a number of initiatives that demonstrated an unwavering faith in his workers. He hired the company's first disabled worker inhe formed the company's first employee education department in and in he introduced his favorite slogan, "THINK", which quickly became the corporate mantra. Watson boosted company spirit by encouraging any employee with a complaint to approach him or any other company executive – his famed Open Door policy. He also sponsored employee sports teams, family outings, and a company band, believing that employees were most productive when they were supported by healthy and supportive families and communities, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. These initiatives – each deeply rooted in Watson's personal values system – became core aspects of IBM culture for the remainder of the century.

"Watson had never liked the clumsy hyphenated title of the CTR" and chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines".[21] First as a name for a Canadian subsidiary, then as a line in advertisements. Finally, on February 14,the name was used for CTR itself.

Key events[edit]

  • – Hollerith's punched cards used for Census. The U.S. Census Bureau contracts to use Herman Hollerith's punched card tabulating technology on the United States Census. That census was completed in 6-years and estimated to have saved the government $5 million.[22] The prior,census had required 8-years. The years required are not directly comparable; the two differed in: population size, data collected, resources (census bureau headcount, machines, ), and reports prepared. The total population of 62,, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, the family, or rough, count, was announced after only six weeks of processing (punched cards were not used for this tabulation).[23][24] Hollerith's punched cards become the tabulating industry standard for input for the next 70 years. Hollerith's The Tabulating Machine Company is later consolidated into what becomes IBM.
  • Hollerith Type I Tabulator. The first tabulator with an automatic card feed and control panel.[25]
  • Formation. Charles Flint, a noted trust organizer, engineers the amalgamation of four companies: The Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, the Computing Scale Company of America, and the Bundy Manufacturing Company. The amalgamated companies manufacture and sell or lease machinery such as commercial scales, industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, tabulators, and punched cards. The new holding company, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, is based in Endicott. Including the amalgamated subsidiaries, CTR had 1, employees with offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; and Washington, D.C.[26][27]
  • Thomas J. Watson arrives. Thomas J. Watson Sr., a one-year jail sentence pending – see NCR – is made general manager of CTR. Less than a year later the court verdict was set aside. A consent decree was drawn up which Watson refused to sign, gambling that there would not be a retrial. He becomes president of the firm Monday, March 15, [28]
  • First disabled employee. CTR companies hire their first disabled employee.[29]
  • "THINK" signs. "THINK" signs, based on the slogan coined by Thomas J. Watson, Sr. while at NCR and promoted by John Henry Patterson (NCR owner) are used in the companies for the first time.[30]
  • Employee education. CTR invests in its subsidiary's employees, creating an education program. Over the next two decades, the program would expand to include management education, volunteer study clubs, and the construction of the IBM Schoolhouse in [31]
  • CTR in Brazil. Premiered in Brazil inPc Game Archives - Malik Softs, invited by the Brazilian Government to conduct the census, CTR opened an Stata 15 torrent Archives in Brazil[32]
  • First Tabulating Machine Co. printing tabulator. With prior tabulators the results were displayed and had to be copied by hand.[33]
  • CTR Germany. CTR acquires majority ownership of the German tabulating firm Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Groupe (Dehomag).
  • International Business Machines Corporation. "Watson had never liked the clumsy hyphenated title of Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and chose the new name both for its aspirations and to escape the confines of "office appliance". The new name was first used for the company's Canadian subsidiary in On February 14,CTR's name was formally changed to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).[21] The subsidiaries' names did not change; there would be Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs IBM labeled products until (below) when the subsidiaries are merged into IBM.

– IBM's early growth[edit]

Our products are known in every zone. Our reputation sparkles like a gem. We've fought our way through and new fields we're sure to conquer too. For the ever-onward IBM

—&#;"Ever Onward", IBM employee songbook[34]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
133,

Watson mandated strict rules for employees, including a dress code of dark suits, white shirts and striped ties, and no alcohol, whether working or not. He led the singing at meetings of songs such as "Ever Onward" from the official IBM songbook.[34] The company launched an employee newspaper, Business Machines, which unified coverage of all of IBM's businesses under one publication.[35] IBM introduced the Quarter Century Club,[36] to honor employees with 25 years of service to the company, and launched the Hundred Percent Club, to reward sales personnel who met their annual quotas.[37] Inthe Suggestion Plan program – which granted cash rewards to employees who contributed viable ideas on how to improve IBM products and procedures – made its debut.[38]

Wondershare Dr.Fone 10.3.1 Crack Archives International Daily Dial Attendance Recorder. s time clock made by IBM's International Time Recording division. The face shows employee numbers which would be dialed up by employees entering and leaving the factory. The day and time of entry and exit was punched onto cards inside Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs box.[39]

IBM and its predecessor companies made clocks and other time recording products for 70 years, culminating in the sale of the IBM Time Equipment Division to Simplex Time Recorder Company.[40] IBM manufactured and sold such equipment as dial recorders, job recorders, recording door locks, time stamps and traffic recorders.[41][42]

The company also expanded its product line through innovative engineering. Behind a core group of inventors – James W. Bryce, Clair Lake,[43] Fred Carroll,[44] and Royden Pierce[45] – IBM produced a series of significant product innovations. In the optimistic years following World War I, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs engineering and research staff developed new and improved mechanisms to meet the broadening needs of its customers. Inthe company introduced the first complete school time control system,[46] and launched its first printing tabulator.[47] Three years later the company introduced the first electric keypunch,[48] and 's Carroll Rotary Press produced punched cards at previously unheard of speeds.[35] Inthe company held its first customer engineering education class, demonstrating an early recognition of the importance of tailoring solutions to fit customer needs.[49] It also introduced the column punched card inwhich doubled its information capacity.[49] This new format, soon dubbed the "IBM Card", became and remained an industry standard until the s. Halo Infinite key Archives - Crack Pc games rar events[edit]

  • First tabulator sold to Japan. In MayMorimura-Brothers entered into a sole agency agreement with IBM to import Hollerith tabulators into Japan. The first Hollerith tabulator in Japan was installed at Nippon Pottery (now Noritake) in Septembermaking it IBM customer #1 in Japan.[50][51][52]
  • IBM Italy. IBM opens its first office in Italy in Milan, and starts selling and operating with National Insurance and Banks.
  • A Tabulator that can subtract, Columbia University, column card. The first Hollerith tabulator that could subtract, the Hollerith Type IV tabulator.[53] IBM begins its collaboration with Benjamin Wood, Wallace John Eckert and the Statistical Bureau at Columbia University.[54][55] The Hollerith column punched card is introduced. Its rectangular holes are patented, ending vendor compatibility (of the prior 45 column card; Remington Rand would soon introduce a 90 column card).[56]

– The Great Depression[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
196,
218,

The Great Depression of the s presented an unprecedented economic challenge, and Watson met the challenge head-on, continuing to invest in people, manufacturing, and technological innovation despite the difficult economic times. Rather than reduce staff, he hired additional employees in support of President Franklin Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration plan – not just salesmen, which he joked that he had a lifelong weakness for, but engineers too. Watson not only kept his workforce employed, but he also increased their benefits. IBM was among the first corporations to provide group life insurance (), survivor benefits (), and paid vacations (), Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. He upped his ante on his workforce by opening the IBM Schoolhouse in Endicott to provide education and training for IBM employees. And he greatly increased IBM's research capabilities by building a modern research laboratory on the Endicott manufacturing site.

With all this internal investment, Watson was, in essence, gambling on the future. It was Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs first ‘Bet the Company’ gamble, but the risk paid off handsomely. Watson's factories, running full tilt for six years with no market to sell to, created a huge inventory of unused tabulating equipment, straining IBM's resources. Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs reduce the cash drain, the struggling Dayton Scale Division (the food services equipment business) was sold in to Hobart Manufacturing for stock.[57][58] When the Social Security Act of – labeled as "the biggest accounting operation of all time"[59] – came up for bid, IBM was the only bidder that could quickly provide the necessary equipment. Watson's gamble brought the company a landmark government contract Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs maintain employment records for 26 million people. IBM's successful performance on the contract soon led to other government orders, and by the end of the decade, IBM had not only safely negotiated the Depression but risen to the forefront of the industry. Watson's Depression-era decision to invest heavily in technical development and sales capabilities, education to expand the breadth of those capabilities, and his commitment to the data processing product line laid the foundation for 50 years of IBM growth and successes.

His avowed focus on international expansion proved an equally key component of the company's 20th-century growth and success. Watson, having witnessed the havoc the First World War wrought on society and business, envisioned commerce as an obstacle to war. He saw business interests and peace as being mutually compatible. In fact, he felt so strongly about the connection between the two that he had his slogan "World Peace Through World Trade" carved into the exterior of IBM's new World Headquarters () in New York City.[60] The slogan became an IBM business mantra, and Watson campaigned tirelessly for the concept with global business and government leaders. He served as an informal, unofficial government host for world leaders when they visited New York, and received numerous awards from foreign governments for his efforts to improve international relations through the formation of business ties.

Key events[edit]

  • The first Hollerith punched card machine that could multiply, the first Hollerith alphabetical accounting Dc Unlocker 1.00.1422 free download Archives. The Hollerith Multiplying Punch.[61] The first Hollerith alphabetical accounting machine – although not a complete alphabet, the Alphabetic Tabulator Model B was quickly followed by the full alphabet ATC.[56]
  • Super Computing Machine. The term Super Computing Machine is used by the New York World newspaper to describe the Columbia Difference Tabulator, a one-of-a-kind special purpose tabulator-based machine made for the Columbia Statistical Bureau, a machine so massive it was nicknamed Packard.[62][63] The Packard attracted users from across the country: "the Carnegie Foundation, Yale, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Ohio State, Harvard, California and Princeton."[64]
  • Subsidiary companies are merged into IBM. The Tabulating Machine Company name, and others, disappear as subsidiary companies are merged into IBM.[65][66]
  • Removable control panels. IBM introduces removable control panels.[67]
  • hour week. IBM introduces the hour week for both manufacturing and office locations.
  • Electromatic Typewriter Co. purchased. Purchased primarily to get important patents safely into IBM hands, electric typewriters would become one of IBM's most widely known products.[68] By IBM was deriving 8% of its revenue from the sale of electric typewriters.[69]
  • – Group life insurance. IBM creates a group life insurance plan for all employees with at least one year of service.[70]
  • Elimination of piece work. Watson, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Sr., places IBM's factory employees on salary, eliminating piece work and providing employees and their families with an added degree of economic stability.[71]
  • IBM . The IBM Bank Proof machine to clear bank checks is introduced. A new type of proof machine, the lists and separates checks, endorses them, and records totals. It dramatically improves the efficiency of the check clearing process.[72]
  • Social Security Administration. During the Great Depression, IBM keeps its factories producing new machines even while demand is slack. When Congress passes the Social Security Act inIBM – with its overstocked inventory – is consequently positioned to win the landmark government contract, which is called "the biggest accounting operation of all time."[73]
  • Supreme Court rules IBM can only set punched card specifications. IBM Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs required that its customers use only IBM manufactured cards with Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs machines, which were leased, not sold. IBM viewed its business as providing a service and that Dragon ball z kakarot crack serial keygen cards were part of the machine, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. In the government took IBM to court on this issue. IBM fought all the way to the Supreme Court and lost in ; the court ruling that IBM could only set card specifications.[74]
  • Scientific computing. The tabulating machine data center established at Columbia University, dedicated to scientific research, is named the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau.[75]
  • The first collator, the IBM Collator.[76]
  • IBM produces 5 to 10 million punched cards every day. By IBM had 32 presses at work in Endicott, N.Y., printing, cutting and stacking five to 10 million punched cards every day.[77]
  • IBM test scoring machine. IBM's Rey Johnson designs the IBM Test Scoring Machine to greatly speed the process of test scoring. The 's innovative pencil-mark sensing technology gives rise to the ubiquitous phrase, "Please completely fill in the oval".[78]
  • Berlin conference. As president of the International Chamber of Commerce, Watson Sr., presides over the ICC's 9th Congress in Berlin. While there he accepts a Merit Cross of the German Eagle with Star medal from the Nazi government honoring his activities on behalf of world peace and international trade (he later returned it).[79][80]
  • Paid holidays, paid vacation. IBM announces a policy of paying employees for six annual Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs and becomes one of the first U.S. companies to grant holiday pay. Paid vacations also begin."[81]
  • IBM Japan. Japan Wattoson Statistics Accounting Machinery Co., Ltd. (日本ワットソン統計会計機械株式会社, now IBM Japan) was established.[51]
  • New headquarters. When IBM dedicates its new World Headquarters on Madison Avenue, New York, New York, in Januarythe company has operations in 79 countries.[60]

– World War II[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
4512,
18,

Main article: IBM during World War II

In the decades leading up to the onset of WW2 IBM had operations in many Registry Fix 2.0 crack serial keygen that would be involved in the war, on both the side of the Allies and the Axis. IBM had a lucrative subsidiary Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs Germany, which it was the majority owner of, as well as operations in Poland, Switzerland, and other countries in Europe. As with most other enemy-owned businesses in Axis countries, these subsidiaries were taken over by the Nazis and other Axis governments early on in the war. The headquarters in New York meanwhile worked to help the American war effort.

IBM in America[edit]

IBM's product line[82] shifted from tabulating equipment and time recording devices to Sperry and Norden bombsights, Browning Automatic Rifle and the M1 Carbine, and engine parts – in all, more than three dozen major ordnance items and 70 products overall. Watson set a nominal one percent profit on those products and used the profits to establish Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs fund for widows and orphans of IBM war casualties.[83]

Allied military forces widely utilized IBM's tabulating equipment for mobile records units, ballistics, accounting Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs logistics, and other war-related purposes. There was extensive use of IBM punched-card machines for calculations made at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project for developing the first atomic bombs.[84] During the War, IBM also built the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, also known as the Harvard Mark I for the U.S. Navy – the first large-scale electromechanical calculator in the U.S.

In IBM had acquired the rights to Radiotype, an IBM Electric typewriter attached to a radio transmitter.[85] "In Admiral Richard E. Byrd successfully sent a test Radiotype message 11, miles from Antarctica to an IBM receiving station in Ridgewood, New Jersey"[86] Selected by the Signal Corps for use during the war, Radiotype installations handled up to 50, words a day.[87]

To meet wartime product demands, IBM greatly expanded its manufacturing capacity. IBM added new buildings at its Endicott, New York plant (), and opened new facilities in Poughkeepsie, New York (), Washington, D.C. (),[88] and San Jose, California ().[89] IBM's decision to establish a presence on the West Coast took advantage of the growing base of electronics research and other high technology innovation in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area, an area that came to be known many decades later as Silicon Valley.

IBM was, at the request of the government, the subcontractor for the Japanese internment camps' punched card project.[90]

IBM equipment was used for cryptography by US Army and Navy organizations, Arlington Hall and OPG and similar Allied organizations using Hollerith punched cards (Central Bureau and the Far East Combined Bureau).

IBM in Germany and Nazi Occupied Europe[edit]

The Nazis made extensive use of Hollerith equipment and IBM's majority-owned German subsidiary, Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen GmbH (Dehomag), supplied this equipment from the early s. This equipment was critical to Nazi efforts to categorize citizens of both Germany and other nations that fell under Nazi control through ongoing censuses. This census data was used to facilitate the round-up of Jews and other Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs groups, and to catalog their movements through the machinery of the Holocaust, including internment in the concentration camps.

As with hundreds of foreign-owned companies that did business in Germany at that time, Dehomag came under the control of Nazi authorities prior to and during World War II. A Nazi, Hermann Fellinger, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, was appointed by the Germans as an enemy-property custodian and placed at the head of the Dehomag subsidiary.

Historian and author Edwin Black, in his best selling book on the topic, IBM and the Holocaust, maintains that the seizure of the German subsidiary was a ruse. He writes: "The company was not looted, its leased machines were not seized, and [IBM] continued to receive money funneled through its subsidiary in Geneva."[91] In his book he argues that IBM was an active and enthusiastic supplier to the Nazi regime long after they should have stopped dealing with them. Even after the invasion of Poland, IBM continued to service and expand services to the Third Reich in Poland and Germany.[91] The seizure of IBM came after Pearl Harbor and the US Declaration of War, in

IBM responded that the book was based upon "well-known" facts and documents that it had previously made publicly available and that there were no new facts or findings.[92] IBM also denied withholding any relevant documents.[93] Writing in the New York Times, Richard Bernstein argued that Black overstates IBM's culpability.[94]

Key events[edit]

  • Training for the disabled. IBM launches a program to train and employ disabled people in Topeka, Kansas. The next year classes begin in New York City, and soon the company is asked to join the President's Committee for Employment of the Handicapped.[95]
  • First female vice president. IBM appoints its first female vice president.[96]
  • ASCC. IBM introduces the world's first large-scale calculating computer, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, the Automatic Sequence Control Calculator (ASCC). Designed in collaboration with Harvard University, the ASCC, also known as the Mark I, uses electromechanical relays to solve addition problems in less than a second, multiplication in six seconds, and division in 12 seconds.[97]
  • United Negro College Fund. IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Sr., joins the Advisory Committee of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF), and IBM contributes to the UNCF's fund-raising efforts.[98]
  • IBM's first research lab. IBM's first research facility, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, opens in a renovated fraternity house near Columbia University in Manhattan. InIBM moves its research headquarters to the T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York.[99]

– Postwar recovery, rise of business computing, space exploration, the Cold War[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
30,
56,
1,,

IBM had expanded so much by the end of the War that the company faced a potentially difficult situation – what would happen if military spending dropped sharply? One way IBM addressed that concern was to accelerate its international growth in the years after the war, culminating with the formation of the World Trade Corporation in to manage and grow its foreign operations. Under the leadership of Watson's youngest son, Arthur K, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. ‘Dick’ Watson, the WTC would eventually produce half of IBM's bottom line by the s.

Despite introducing its first computer a year after Remington Rand's UNIVAC inwithin five years IBM had 85% of the market. A UNIVAC executive complained that "It doesn't do much good to build a better mousetrap if the other guy selling mousetraps has five times as many salesmen".[34] With the death of Founding Father Thomas J. Watson, Sr. on June 19, at age 82, IBM experienced its first leadership change in more than four decades. The mantle of chief executive fell to his eldest son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., IBM's president since

The new chief executive faced a daunting task. The company was in the midst of a period of rapid technological change, with nascent computer technologies – electronic computers, magnetic tape storage, disk drives, programming – creating new competitors and market uncertainties. Internally, the company was growing by leaps and bounds, creating organizational pressures and significant management challenges. Lacking the force of personality that Watson Sr. had long used to bind IBM together, Watson Jr. and his senior executives privately wondered if the new generation of leadership was up to challenge of managing a company through this tumultuous period.[] "We are," wrote one longtime IBM executive in"in grave danger of losing our "eternal" values that are as valid in electronic days as in mechanical counter days."

Watson Jr. responded by drastically restructuring the organization mere months after his father died, creating a modern management structure that enabled him to more effectively oversee the fast-moving company.[] He codified well known but unwritten IBM practices and philosophy into formal corporate policies and programs – such as IBM's Three Basic Beliefs, and Open Door and Speak Up! Perhaps the most significant of which was his shepherding of the company's first equal opportunity policy letter into existence inone year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of [] He continued to expand the company's physical capabilities – in IBM San Jose launched a storage development laboratory that pioneered disk drives. Major facilities would later follow in Rochester, Minnesota; Greencastle, Indiana; Kingston, New York; and Lexington, Kentucky. Concerned that IBM was too slow in adapting transistor technology Watson requested a corporate policy regarding their use, resulting in this unambiguous product development policy statement: "It shall be the policy of IBM to use solid-state circuitry in all machine developments. Furthermore, no new commercial machines or devices shall be announced which make primary use of tube circuitry."[]

Watson Jr. also continued to partner with the United States government to drive computational innovation. The emergence of the Cold War accelerated the government's growing awareness of the significance of digital computing and drove major Department of Defense supported computer development projects in the s. Of these, none was more important than the SAGEinterceptor early detection air defense system.

InIBM began working with MIT's Lincoln Laboratory to finalize the design of an air defense computer. The merger of academic and business engineering cultures proved troublesome, but the two organizations finally hammered out a design by the summer ofand IBM was awarded the contract to build two prototypes in September.[] InIBM was named as the primary computer hardware contractor for developing SAGE for the United States Air Force. Working on this massive computing and communications system, IBM gained access to pioneering research being done at Massachusetts Institute of Technology on the first real-time, digital computer. This included working on many other computer technology advancements such as magnetic core memory, a large real-time operating system, an integrated video display, light guns, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, the first effective algebraic computer language, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, digital data transmission over telephone lines, duplexing, multiprocessing, and geographically distributed networks. IBM built fifty-six SAGE computers at the price of US$30 million each, and at the peak of the project devoted more than 7, employees (20% of its then workforce) to the project. SAGE had the largest computer footprint ever and continued in service until []

More valuable to IBM in the long run than the profits from governmental projects, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, however, was the access to cutting-edge research into digital computers being done under military auspices. IBM neglected, however, to gain an even more dominant role in the nascent industry by allowing the RAND Corporation to take over the job of programming the new computers, because, according to one project participant, Robert P. Crago, "we couldn't imagine where we could absorb two thousand programmers at IBM when this job would be over someday, which shows how well we were understanding the future at that time."[] IBM would use its experience designing massive, integrated real-time networks with SAGE to design its SABRE airline reservation system, which met with much success.

These government partnerships, combined with pioneering computer technology research and a series of commercially successful products (IBM's series of computer systems, the IBMthe IBM RAMAC (with disk drive memory), and the IBM ) enabled IBM to emerge from the s as the world's leading technology firm. Watson Jr. had answered his self-doubt. In the five years WoW 5.00.8 crack serial keygen the passing of Watson Sr., IBM was two and a half times bigger, its stock had quintupled, and of the computers in operation in the United States, more than were IBM machines.[]

Key events[edit]

  • IBM . IBM announces the IBM Electronic Multiplier, the first commercial product to incorporate electronic arithmetic circuits. The used vacuum tubes to perform multiplication far more rapidly than earlier electromechanical devices. It had begun its development as part of a program to make a "super calculator" that would perform faster than 's IBM ASCC by using electronics.[]
  • Chinese character typewriter. IBM introduces an electric Chinese ideographic character typewriter, which allowed an experienced user to type at a rate of 40 to 45 Chinese words a minute. The machine utilizes a cylinder on which 5, ideographic type faces are engraved.[]
  • First black salesman. IBM hires its first black salesman, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, 18 years before the Civil Rights Act of []
  • IBM SSEC. IBM's first large-scale digital calculating machine, the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator, is announced. The SSEC is the first computer that can modify a stored program and featured 12, vacuum tubes and 21, electromechanical relays.[]
  • s: Space exploration. From developing ballistics tables during World War II to the design and development of intercontinental missiles to the launching and tracking of satellites to manned lunar and shuttle space flights, IBM has been a contractor to NASA and the aerospace industry.[]
  • IBM . IBM throws its hat into the computer business ring by introducing theits first large-scale electronic computer to be manufactured in quantity. TheIBM President Thomas J. Watson, Jr., later recalled, is "the machine that carried us into the electronics business."[]
  • Magnetic tape vacuum column. IBM introduces the magnetic tape drive vacuum column, making it possible for fragile magnetic tape to become a viable data storage medium. The use of the vacuum column in the IBM system signals the beginning of the era of magnetic storage, as the technology becomes widely adopted throughout the industry.[]
  • First California research lab. IBM opens its first West Coast lab Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs San Jose, California: the area that decades later will come to be known as "Silicon Valley." Within four years, the lab begins to make its mark by inventing the hard disk drive.[]
  • Equal opportunity policy letter. Thomas J. Watson, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Jr., publishes the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter: one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of []
  • IBM . IBM announces the IBM Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine, an intermediate size electronic computer, to handle both business and scientific computations. A hit with both universities and businesses, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, it was the most popular computer of the s. Nearly 2, IBM Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs were marketed by []
  • NORC. IBM develops and builds the fastest, most powerful electronic computer of its time: the Naval Ordnance Research Computer (NORC): for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance.[]
  • First magnetic Hard disk drive. IBM introduces the world's first magnetic hard disk for data storage. The IBM RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) offers an unprecedented performance by permitting random access to any of the million characters distributed over both sides of 50 two-foot-diameter disks. Produced in Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, IBM's first hard disk stored about 2, bits of data per square inch and cost about $10, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, per megabyte. Bythe cost of storing a megabyte had dropped to around ten cents.[]
  • Consent decree. The United States Justice Department enters a consent decree against IBM in to prevent the company from becoming a monopoly in the market for punched-card tabulating and, later, electronic data-processing machines. The decree requires IBM to sell its computers as well as lease them and to service and sell parts for computers that IBM no longer owned.[]
  • Corporate design. In the mids, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., was struck by how poorly IBM was handling corporate design. He hired design consultant Eliot Noyes to oversee the creation of a formal Corporate Design Program and charged Noyes with creating a consistent, world-class look and feel at IBM. Over the next two decades, Noyes hired a host of influential architects, designers, and artists to Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs IBM products, structures, exhibits, and graphics. The list of Noyes contacts includes such iconic figures as Eero Saarinen, Marcel Breuer, Mies van der Rohe, John Bolles, Paul Rand, Isamu Noguchi and Alexander Calder.[]
  • First European research lab. IBM opens its first research lab outside the United States, in the Swiss city of Zurich.[]
  • Changing hands. Watson Sr. retires and hands IBM to his son, Watson Jr. Senior dies soon after.[]
  • Williamsburg conference. Watson Jr. gathered some senior IBM executives together for a special three-day meeting in Williamsburg, Virginia. The meeting resulted in a new organizational structure that featured a six-member corporate management committee and delegated more authority to business unit leadership. It was the first major meeting IBM had ever held without Thomas J. Watson Sr., and it marked the emergence of the second generation of IBM leadership.[]
  • Artificial intelligence. Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programs an IBM to play checkers (English draughts) using a method in which the machine can "learn" from its own experience. It is believed to be the first "self-learning" program, a demonstration of the concept of artificial intelligence.[]
  • FORTRAN. IBM revolutionizes programming with the introduction of FORTRAN (Formula Translator), which soon becomes the most widely used computer programming language for technical work. FORTRAN is still the basis for many important numerical analysis programs.[]
  • SAGEAN/FSQ-7. The SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) AN/FSQ-7 computer is built under contract to MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the North American Air Defense System.[]
  • IBM domestic Time Equipment Division sold to Simplex. IBM announces the sale of the domestic Time Equipment Division (clocks et al.) business to Simplex Time Recorder Hitfilm Archives. The IBM time equipment service force will be transferred to the Electric Typewriter Division.[]
  • Open Door program. First implemented by Watson, Sr., in the s, the Open Door was a traditional company practice that granted employees with complaints hearings with senior executives, up to and including Watson Sr. IBM formalized this practice into policy in with the creation of the Open Door Program.[]
  • Speak up! A further example of IBM's willingness to solicit and act upon employee feedback, the Speak Up! Program was first created in San Jose.[]
  • IBM . IBM introducesthe first high-volume, stored-program, core-memory, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, transistorized computer. Its versatility in running Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs applications of all kinds helped it become the most popular computer model in the world in the early s.[]
  • IBM . IBM introduces the chain printer, which launches the era of high-speed, high-volume impact printing. The will BSR Screen Recorder 6.1.9 Crack Full Version Download (2021) be surpassed for print quality until the advent of laser printing in the s.[]

– The System/ era, Unbundling software and services[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
56,
1,,
3,,
7,,

On April 7,Adobe Photoshop CC 2020 serial key Archives introduced the revolutionary System/, the first large "family" of computers to use interchangeable software and peripheral equipment, a departure from IBM's existing product line of incompatible machines, each of which was designed to solve specific customer requirements.[] The idea of a general-purpose machine was considered a gamble at the time.[]

See also: History of CP/CMS

Within two years, the System/ became the dominant mainframe computer in the marketplace and its architecture became a de facto industry standard. During this time, IBM transformed from a medium-sized maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters into the world's largest computer company.[]

In IBM "unbundled" software and services from hardware sales. Until this time customers did not pay for software or services separately from the very high price for the hardware. Software was provided at no additional charge, generally in source code form. Services (systems engineering, education and training, system installation) were provided free of charge at the discretion of the IBM Branch office. This practice existed throughout the industry. IBM's unbundling is widely credited with leading to the growth of the software industry.[][][][] After the unbundling, IBM software was divided into two main categories: System Control Programming (SCP), which remained free to customers, and Program Products (PP), which were charged for. This transformed the customer's value proposition for computer solutions, giving a significant monetary value to something that had hitherto essentially been free. This helped enable the creation of the software industry. Similarly, IBM services were divided into two categories: general information, which remained free and provided at the discretion of IBM, and on-the-job assistance and training of customer personnel, which were subject to a separate charge and were open to non-IBM customers. This decision vastly expanded the market for independent computing services companies.

The company began four decades of Olympic sponsorship with the Winter Games in Squaw Valley, California. It became a recognized leader in corporate social responsibility, joining federal equal opportunity programs inopening an inner-city manufacturing plant inand creating a minority supplier program. It led efforts to improve data security and protect privacy. It set environmental air/water emissions standards that exceeded those dictated by law and brought all its facilities into compliance with those standards. It opened one of the world's most advanced research centers in Yorktown, New York. Its international operations grew rapidly, producing more than half of IBM's revenues by the early s and through technology transfer shaping the way governments and businesses operated around the world. Its personnel and technology played an integral role in the space program and landing the first men on the moon in In that same year, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, it changed the way it marketed its technology to customers, unbundling hardware from software and services, effectively launching today's multibillion-dollar software and services industry. See unbundling of software and services, below. It was massively profitable, with a nearly fivefold increase in revenues and earnings during the s.

In Thomas John Watson, Jr., who had succeeded his father as chairman, announced that IBM would open a large-scale manufacturing plant at Boca Raton to produce its System/ Model 20 midsized computer. On March 16,a headline in the Boca Raton News[] announced “IBM to hire by year’s end.” The plan was for IBM to lease facilities to start making computers until the new site could be developed. A few months later, hiring began for assembly and production control trainees. IBM's Juan Rianda moved from Poughkeepsie, New York, to become the first plant manager at IBM's new Boca operations. To design its new campus, IBM commissioned internationally renowned architect Marcel Breuer (–), who worked closely with American architect Robert Gatje (–). In Septemberthe Boca team celebrated a milestone, shipping its first IBM System/ Model 20 to the City of Clearwater – the first computer in its production run. A year later, IBM Computing Systems were being produced and shipped from the building. ByIBM's Boca workforce had reached 1, That employment number grew to around 1, in the next year as a Systems Development Engineering Laboratory was added to the division's operations.

Key events[edit]

  • IBM Stretch. IBM delivers its first Stretch supercomputer. Stretch falls short of its original design objectives, and is not a commercial success. But it is a visionary IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 With Crack Download that pioneers numerous revolutionary computing technologies which are soon widely adopted by the computer industry.[][]
  • Thomas J. Watson Research Center. IBM moves its research headquarters from Poughkeepsie, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, NY to Westchester County, NY, opening the Thomas J. Watson Research Center which remains IBM's largest research facility, centering on semiconductors, computer science, physical science, and mathematics. The lab which IBM established at Columbia University in was closed and moved to the Yorktown Heights laboratory in []
  • IBM Selectric typewriter. IBM introduces the Selectric typewriter product line. Later Selectric models feature memory, giving rise to the concepts of word processing and desktop publishing. The machine won numerous awards for its design and functionality. Selectrics and their descendants eventually captured 75 percent of the United States market for electric typewriters used in business.[] IBM replaced the Selectric line with the IBM Wheelwriter in and transferred its typewriter business to the newly formed Lexmark in []
  • Report Program Generator, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. IBM offers its Report Program Generator, an application that allows IBM users to produce reports. This capability was widely adopted throughout the industry, becoming a feature offered in subsequent generations of computers. It played an important role in the successful introduction of computers into small businesses.[]
  • Basic beliefs. Drawing on established IBM policies, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., codifies three IBM basic beliefs: respect for the individual, customer service, and excellence.[]
  • SABRE. Two IBM mainframes formed the backbone of the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines. As the first airline reservation system to work live over phone lines, SABRE linked high-speed computers and data communications to handle seat inventory and passenger records.[]
  • IBM System/. In the most important product announcement in company history to date, IBM introduces the IBM System/ a new concept in computers which creates a "family" of small to large computers, incorporating IBM Solid Logic Technology (SLT) microelectronics and using the same programming instructions. The concept of a compatible "family" of computers transforms the industry.[]
  • Word processing. IBM introduces the IBM Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter, a product that pioneered the application of magnetic recording devices to typewriting, and gave rise to desktop word processing. Referred to then as "power typing," the feature of revising stored text improved office efficiency by allowing MAGIX Music Maker 17 Premium crack serial keygen to type at "rough draft" speed without the pressure of worrying about mistakes.[]
  • New corporate headquarters. IBM moves its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York.[]
  • Gemini space flights. A pound onboard IBM guidance computer is used on all Gemini space flights, including the first spaceship rendezvous. IBM scientists complete the most precise computation of the Moon's orbit and develop a fabrication technique to connect hundreds of circuits on a silicon wafer.[]
  • New York World's Fair. The IBM Pavilion at the New York World's Fair closes, having hosted more than 10 million visitors during its two-year existence.[]
  • Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM), Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. IBM invents one-transistor DRAM cells which permit major increases in memory capacity. DRAM chips become the mainstay of modern computer memory systems: the "crude oil" of the information age is born.[]
  • IBM System/4 Pi. IBM ships its first System/4Pi computer, designed to meet U.S. Department of Defense and NASA requirements. More than units of the 4Pi systems are delivered by the s for use in the air, sea, and space.[]
  • IBM Information Management System (IMS). IBM designed the Information Management System (IMS) with Rockwell and Caterpillar starting in for the Apollo program, where it was used to inventory the very large bill of materials (BOM) for the Saturn V moon rocket and Apollo space vehicle.
  • Fractal geometry. IBM researcher Benoit Mandelbrot conceives fractal geometry – the concept that seemingly irregular shapes can have identical structure at all scales. This new geometry makes it possible to mathematically describe the kinds of irregularities existing in nature. The concept greatly impacts the fields of engineering, economics, metallurgy, art, health sciences, and computer graphics and animation.[]
  • IBM Customer Information Control System (CICS). IBM introduces the CICS transaction monitor. CICS remains to this day the industry's most popular transactions monitor.[]
  • Antitrust. The United States government launches what would become a year-long antitrust suit against IBM. The suit becomes a draining war of attrition, and is eventually dropped in ,[] after IBM's share of the mainframe market declined from 70% to 62%.[]
  • Unbundling. IBM adopts umt tool crack Archives new marketing policy that charges separately for most systems engineering activities, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, future computer programs, and customer education courses. This "unbundling" gives rise to a multibillion-dollar software and services industry.[]
  • Magnetic stripe cards. The American National Standards Institute makes the IBM-developed magnetic stripe technology a national standard, jump starting the credit card industry. Two years later, the International Organization for Standardization adopts the IBM design, making it a world standard.[]
  • First moon landing. IBM personnel and computers help NASA land the first men on the Moon.

– The challenges of success[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
3,,
7,,
14,,

The Golden Decade of the s was a hard act to follow, and the s got off to a troubling start when CEO Thomas J. Watson Jr. suffered a heart attack and retired in For the first time since – nearly six decades – IBM would not have a Watson at the helm. Moreover, after just one leadership change over those nearly 60 years, IBM would endure two in two years. T. Vincent Learson succeeded Watson as CEO, then quickly retired upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 60 in Following Learson in the CEO office was Frank T. Cary, a year IBMer[] who had run the very successful data processing division in the s.

Datamation in stated that "the perpetual, ominous force called IBM rolls on".[] The company's dominance let it keep prices high and rarely update products,[] all built with only IBM components.[] During Cary's tenure as CEO, the IBM System/ was introduced in as IBM's new mainframe. The S/ did not prove as Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs revolutionary Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs its predecessor, the System/ From a revenue perspective, it more than sustained the cash cow status of the [] A less successful effort to replicate the mainframe revolution was the Future Systems project. Between andIBM investigated the feasibility of a new revolutionary line of products designed to make obsolete all existing products in order to re-establish its technical supremacy. This effort was terminated by IBM's top management in But by then it had consumed most of the high-level technical planning and design resources, thus jeopardizing progress of the existing product lines (although some elements of FS were later incorporated into actual products).[] Other IBM innovations during the early s included the IBM disk unit – introduced in and known as "Winchester" after IBM's internal project name – was an advanced storage technology which more than doubled the information density on disk surfaces. Winchester technology was adopted by the industry and used for the next two decades.

Some s-era IBM technologies emerged to become familiar facets of everyday life. IBM developed magnetic stripe technology in the s, and it became a credit card industry standard in The IBM-invented floppy disk, also introduced inbecame the standard for storing personal computer data during the first decades of the PC era, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. IBM Research scientist Edgar Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs Codd wrote a seminal paper describing the relational database, an invention that Forbes magazine described as one of the most important innovations of the 20th century. The IBM50&#;lbs. and $ of personal mobility, was introduced in and presaged – at least in function if not size or price or units sold – the Personal Computer of the s. IBM's supermarket checkout station, introduced inused holographic technology to scan product prices from the now-ubiquitous UPC bar code, which itself was based a IBM patent that became a grocery industry standard. Also inbank customers began making withdrawals, transfers and other account inquiries via the IBM Consumer Transaction Facility, an early form of today's Automatic Teller Machines.

IBM had an innovator's role in pervasive technologies that were less visible as well. InIBM announced Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol for computing systems. SNA is a uniform set of rules and procedures for computer communications to free computer users from the technical complexities of communicating through local, national, and international computer networks. SNA became the most widely used system for data processing until more open architecture standards were approved in the s. InPc Game Archives - Malik Softs, IBM researcher Benoit Mandelbrot conceived fractal geometry – a new geometrical concept that made it possible to describe mathematically the kinds of irregularities existing in nature. Fractals had a great impact on engineering, economics, metallurgy, art and health sciences, and are integral to the field of computer graphics and animation.

A less successful business endeavor for IBM was its entry into the office copier market in the s, after turning down the opportunity to purchase the xerography technology.[34] The company was immediately sued by Xerox Corporation for patent infringement. Although Xerox held the patents for the use of selenium as a photoconductor, IBM researchers perfected the use of organic photoconductors which avoided the Xerox patents. The litigation lasted until the late s and was ultimately settled. Despite this victory, IBM never gained traction in the copier market and withdrew from the marketplace in the s. Organic photoconductors are now widely used in copiers.

Throughout this period, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, IBM was litigating the antitrust suit filed by the Justice Department in But in a related bit of case law, the landmark Honeywell v. Sperry Rand U.S. federal court case was concluded in April The patent for the ENIAC, the world's first general-purpose electronic digital computer, was found both invalid and unenforceable for a variety of reasons thus putting the invention of the electronic digital computer into the public domain. Further, IBM was ruled to have created a monopoly via its patent-sharing agreement with Sperry-Rand.

American antitrust laws did not affect IBM in Europe, where as of [update] it had fewer competitors and more than 50% market share in almost every country[citation needed]. Customers preferred IBM because it was, Datamation said, "the only truly international computer company", able to serve clients almost anywhere. Rivals such as ICL, CII, and Siemens began to cooperate to preserve a European computer industry.[]

Key events[edit]

  • System/. IBM announces System/ as successor to System/
  • Relational databases. IBM introduces relational databases which call for information stored within a computer to be arranged in easy-to-interpret tables to access and manage large amounts of data, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. Today, nearly all database structures are based on the IBM concept of relational databases.
  • Office copiers. IBM introduces its first of three models of xerographic copiers. These machines mark the first commercial use of organic photoconductors which since grew to become the dominant technology.
  • Speech recognition. IBM achieves its first operational application of speech recognition, which enables engineers servicing equipment to talk to and receive spoken answers from a computer that can recognize about 5, words. Today, IBM's ViaVoice recognition technology has a vocabulary of 64, words and a ,word back-up dictionary.[]
  • Floppy disk. IBM introduces the floppy disk. Convenient and highly portable, the floppy becomes a personal computer industry standard for storing data.[]
  • Winchester storage technology. The IBM disk unit – known as "Winchester" after IBM's internal project name – is introduced, an advanced technology which more than doubled the information density on disk surfaces. It featured a smaller, lighter read/write head that was designed to ride on an air film only 18 millionths of an inch thick. Winchester technology was adopted by the industry and used for the next two decades.[]
  • Nobel Prize. Dr. Leo Esaki, an IBM Fellow who joined the company inshares the Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling. His discovery of the semiconductor junction called Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs Esaki diode finds wide use in electronics applications. More importantly, his work Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs the field of semiconductors lays a foundation for further exploration in the electronic transport of solids.[]
  • SNA. IBM announces Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol for computing systems. SNA is a uniform set of rules and procedures for computer communications to free computer users from the technical complexities of communicating through local, national, and international computer networks. SNA becomes the most widely used system for data processing until more open architecture standards were approved in the s.[]

– Information revolution, rise of software and PC industries[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
14,,
26,,
50,,
69,,
71,,

President of IBM John R. Opel became CEO in [] His company was one of the world's largest and had a 62% share of the mainframe computer market that year.[] While frequently relocated employees and families still joked that IBM stood for "I've Been Kaspersky anti virus 2010 chinese version must download kaspersky chin, and employees of acquisitions feared that hordes of formal IBM employees would invade their more casual offices,[] IBM no longer required white shirts for male employees, who still wore conservative suits when meeting customers. Former employees such as Gene Amdahl used their training to found and lead many competitors[34] and suppliers.[]

Expecting Japanese competition, IBM in the late s began investing in manufacturing MurGee Auto Mouse Mover v1.5 crack serial keygen lower costs, offering volume discounts and lower prices to large customers, and introducing new products more frequently.[] The company also sometimes used non-IBM components in products,[] and sometimes resold others' products as its own.[] In it introduced its first computer terminal compatible with non-IBM equipment,[] and Displaywriter was the first new product less expensive than the competition.[] IBM's share of the overall computer market, however, declined from 60% in to 32% in [] Perhaps distracted by the long-running antitrust lawsuit,[34] the "Colossus of Armonk" completely missed the fast-growing minicomputer market during the s,[][][][] and was behind rivals such as Wang, Hewlett-Packard (HP), and Control Data in other areas.[]

In BusinessWeek asked, "Is IBM just another stodgy, mature company?" By its stock price had declined by 22%.[] IBM's earnings for the first half the year grew by % – one third of the inflation rate – while those of minicomputer maker Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) grew by more than 35%.[] The company began selling minicomputers,[] but in January the Justice Department ended the antitrust suit because, The New York Times reported, the government "recognized what computer experts and securities analysts had long since concluded: I.B.M. no longer dominates the computer business".[]

IBM wished to avoid the same outcome with the new personal computer industry.[] The company studied the market for years and, as with UNIVAC, others like Apple Computer entered it first;[34] IBM did not want a product with a rival's logo on corporate customers' desks.[] The company opened its first retail store in November ,[] and a team in the Boca Raton, Florida office built the IBM PC using commercial off-the-shelf components. The new computer debuted on August 12, [] from the Entry Systems Division led by Don Estridge. IBM immediately became more of a presence in the consumer marketplace, thanks Call Of Duty 1 crack serial keygen the memorable Little Tramp advertising campaign. Though not a spectacular machine by technological standards of the day, the IBM PC brought together all of the most desirable features of a computer into one small machine. It had kilobytes of memory (expandable to kilobytes), one or two floppy disks and an optional color monitor. And it had the prestige of the IBM brand. It was not cheap, but with a base price of US$1, it was affordable for businesses – and many businesses purchased PCs. Reassured by the IBM name, they began buying microcomputers on their own budgets aimed at numerous applications that corporate computer departments did not, and in many cases could not, accommodate. Typically, these purchases were not by corporate computer departments, as the PC was not seen as a "proper" computer. Purchases were often instigated by middle managers and senior staff who saw the potential – once the revolutionary VisiCalc spreadsheet, the killer app, had been surpassed by a far more powerful and stable product, Lotus

Boca Corporate Center & Campus was originally one of IBM's research labs where the IBM PCwas created.

IBM's dominance of the mainframe market in Europe and the US encouraged existing customers to buy the PC,[][] and vice versa; as sales of what had been an experiment in a new market became a substantial part of IBM's financials, the company found that customers also bought larger IBM computers.[][][] Unlike the BUNCH and other rivals IBM quickly adjusted to the retail market,[][] with its own sales force competing with outside retailers for the first time.[] By IBM was the world's most profitable industrial company,[] and its sales of personal computers were larger than that of minicomputers despite having been in the latter market since the early s.[]

By industry analyst Gideon Gartner warned that IBM "is creating a dangerous situation for competitors in the marketplace".[34] The company helped others by defining technical standards and creating large new software markets,[][][] but the new aggressiveness that began in the late s helped it dominate areas like computer leasing and computer-aided design.[] Free from the antitrust case, IBM was present in every computer market other than supercomputers, and entered communications[] by purchasing Rolm – the first acquisition in 18 years – and 18% of MCI.[] The company was so important to component suppliers that it urged them to diversify. When IBM (61% of revenue) abruptly reduced orders from Miniscribe shares of not only Miniscribe but that of uninvolved companies that sold to IBM fell, as investors feared their vulnerability.[] IBM was also vulnerable when suppliers could not fulfill orders;[] customers and dealers also feared becoming overdependent.[][]

The IBM PC AT's debut startled the industry. Rivals admitted that they did not expect the low price of the sophisticated product. IBM's attack on every area of the computer industry and entry into communications caused competitors, analysts, and the press to speculate that it would again be sued for antitrust.[][][]Datamation and others said that the company's continued growth might hurt the United States, by suppressing startups with new technology.[]Gartner Group estimated in that of the largest data-processing companies, IBM had 41% of all revenue and 69% of profit. Its computer revenue was about nine times that of second-place DEC, and larger than that of IBM's six largest Japanese competitors combined. The 22% profit margin was three times the % average for the other 99 companies. Competitors complained to Congress, ADAPSO discussed the company with the Justice Department, and European governments worried about IBM's influence but feared affecting its more thanemployees there at 19 facilities.[]

However, the company soon lost its lead in both PC hardware and software, thanks in part to its unprecedented (for IBM) decision to contract PC components to outside companies like Microsoft and Intel. Up to this point in its history, IBM relied on a vertically integrated strategy, building most key components of its systems itself, including processors, operating systems, peripherals, databases and the like. In an attempt to accelerate the time-to-market for the PC, IBM chose not to build a proprietary operating system and microprocessor. Instead, it sourced these vital components from Microsoft and Intel respectively. Ironically, in a decade which marked the end of IBM's monopoly, it was this fateful decision by IBM that passed the sources of its monopolistic power (operating system and processor architecture) to Microsoft and Intel, paving the way for rise of PC compatibles and the creation of hundreds of billions of dollars of market value outside of IBM.

John Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs became Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs CEO in During the s, IBM's significant investment in building a world class research organization produced four Nobel Prize winners in physics, achieved breakthroughs in mathematics, memory storage and telecommunications, and made great strides in expanding computing capabilities. InIBM Research legend John Cocke introduced Reduced Instruction Set Technology (RISC). Cocke received both the National Medal of Technology and the National Medal of Science for his innovation, but IBM itself failed to recognize the importance of RISC, and lost the lead in RISC technology to Sun Microsystems. In the company partnered with Sears to develop a pioneering online home banking and shopping service for home PCs that launched in as Prodigy. Despite a strong reputation and anticipating many of the features, functions, and technology that characterize the online experience of today, the venture was plagued by extremely conservative management decisions, and was eventually sold in the mids. The IBM token-ring local area network, introduced inpermitted personal computer users to exchange information and share printers and files within a building or complex. InIBM partnered with the University of Michigan and MCI Communications to create the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet), an important step in the creation of the Internet. But within five years the company backed away from this early lead in Internet protocols and router technologies in order to support its existing SNA cash cow, thereby missing a boom market of the s. Still, IBM investments and advances in microprocessors, disk drives, network technologies, software applications, and online commerce in the s set the stage for the emergence of the connected world in the s.

But by the end of the decade, IBM was clearly in trouble. It was a bloated organization of someemployees that was heavily invested in low margin, transactional, commodity businesses. Technologies IBM invented and or commercialized – DRAM, hard disk PowerISO 7.7 Registration Key, the Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, electric typewriters – were starting to erode. The company had a massive international organization characterized by redundant processes and functions – its cost structure couldn't compete with smaller, less diversified competitors. And then the back-to-back revolutions – the PC and the client-server – did the unthinkable. They combined to dramatically undermine IBM's core mainframe business. The PC revolution placed computers directly in the hands of millions of people. It was followed by the client/server revolution, which sought to link all of those PCs (the "clients") with larger computers that labored in the background (the "servers" that served data and applications to client machines). Both revolutions transformed the way customers viewed, used and bought technology. And both fundamentally rocked IBM. Businesses' purchasing decisions were put in the hands of individuals and departments – not the places where IBM had long-standing customer relationships. Piece-part technologies took precedence over integrated solutions. The focus was on the desktop and personal productivity, not on business applications across the enterprise. As a result, earnings – which had been at or above US$5 billion since the early s, dropped by more than a third to US$3 Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs in A brief spike in earnings in proved illusory as corporate spending continued to shift from high-profit margin mainframes to lower margin microprocessor-based systems. In addition, corporate downsizing was in full swing.

Akers tried to stop the bleeding – desperate moves and radical changes were considered and implemented. As IBM assessed the situation, it was clear that competition and innovation in the computer industry were now taking place along segmented, versus vertically integrated lines, where leaders emerged in their respective domains. Examples included Intel in microprocessors, Microsoft in desktop software, Novell in networking, HP in printers, Seagate in disk drives and Oracle Corporation in database software. IBM's dominance in personal computers was challenged by the likes of Compaq and later Dell. Recognizing this trend, management, with the support of the Board of Directors, began to implement a plan to split IBM into increasingly autonomous business units (e.g. processors, storage, software, services, printers, etc.) to compete more effectively with competitors that were more focused Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs nimble and had lower cost structures.

IBM also began shedding businesses that it felt were no longer core. It sold its typewriter, keyboard, and printer business – the organization that created the popular "Selectric" typewriter with its floating "golf ball" type element in the s – to the investment firm of Clayton, Dubilier & Rice Inc. and became an independent company, Lexmark Inc.

These efforts failed to halt the slide. A decade Red Sounds - Vox Engine 3 (KONTAKT) | Download Torrent steady acceptance and widening corporate growth of local area networking technology, a trend headed by Novell Inc. and other vendors, and its logical counterpart, the ensuing decline Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs mainframe sales, brought about a wake-up call for IBM. After two consecutive years of reporting losses in excess of $1 billion, on January 19,IBM announced a US$ billion loss for the financial year, which was then the largest single-year corporate loss in U.S. history.[] All told, between andthe company posted net losses of nearly $16 billion. IBM's three-decade-long Golden Age, triggered by Watson Jr. in the s, was over. The computer industry now viewed IBM as no longer relevant, an organizational dinosaur. And hundreds of thousands of IBMers lost their jobs, including CEO John Akers.

Key events[edit]

  • mids: IBM VNET. VNET was an international computer networking system deployed in the mids, providing email and file-transfer for IBM. By Septemberthe network had grown to include mainframe nodes in Europe, Asia, and North America.
  • Fractals. IBM researcher Benoit Mandelbrot conceives fractal geometry – the concept that seemingly irregular shapes can have identical structure at all scales. This new geometry makes it possible to describe mathematically the Auslogics Driver Updater 1.24.0.3 Crack 2021 Download of irregularities existing in nature. Fractals later make a great impact on engineering, economics, metallurgy, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, and health sciences, and are also applied in the field of computer graphics and animation.[]
  • IBM Portable computer. IBM introduces the Portable Computer, a 50&#;lb. desktop machine that put computer capabilities at the fingertips of engineers, analysts, statisticians, and other problem-solvers. More "luggable" than portable, the can serve as a terminal for the System/ and costs from $ to $20,[]
  • Space Shuttle. The Enterprise, the first vehicle in the U.S. Space Shuttle program, makes its debut at Palmdale, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, California, carrying IBM AP flight computers and special hardware built by IBM.
  • Laser printer. The first IBM printer is installed. The is the first commercial printer to combine laser technology and electrophotography. The technology speeds the printing of bank statements, premium notices, and other high-volume documents, and remains a workhorse for billing and accounts receivable departments.[]
  • Data Encryption Standard. IBM-developed Data Encryption Standard (DES), a cryptographic algorithm, is adopted by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as a national standard.[]
  • Retail checkout. IBM develops the Universal Product Code (UPC) in the s as a method for embedding pricing and identification information on individual retail items. InIBM applies holographic scanner technology in IBM's supermarket checkout station to read the UPC stripes on merchandise, one of the first major commercial uses of holography. IBM's support of the UPC concept helps lead to its widespread acceptance by retail and other industries around the world.[]
  • Thin film recording heads. Instead of using hand-wound wire structures as coils for inductive elements, IBM researchers substitute thin film "wires" patterned by optical lithography. This leads to higher performance recording heads at a reduced cost and establishes IBM's leadership in "areal density": storing the most data in the least space. The result is higher-capacity and higher-performance disk drives.[]
  • Overcoming barriers to technology use. Sincewith its announcement of Chinese and Arabic ideographic character typewriters, IBM has worked to overcome cultural and physical barriers to the use of technology. As part of these ongoing efforts, IBM introduces the Kanji Display Terminal; the System/34 Kanji System with an ideographic feature, which processes more than 11, Japanese and Chinese characters; and the Audio Typing Unit for sight-impaired typists.
  • First multi-function copier/printer. A communication-enabled laser printer and photocopier combination was introduced, the IBM Information Distributor. This was the first multi-function (copier/printer) device for the office market.
  • Thermal conduction modules. IBM introduces the processor, the company's most powerful to date, which features Thermal Conduction Modules. Inthe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Inc., awards its Corporate Innovation Recognition to IBM for the development of the Multilayer Ceramic Thermal Conduction Module for high performance computers.[]
  • Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architecture. IBM successfully builds the first prototype computer employing IBM Fellow John Cocke's RISC architecture. RISC simplified the instructions given to computers, making them faster and more powerful. Today, RISC architecture is the basis of most workstations and widely viewed as the dominant computing architecture.[]
  • IBM PC. The IBM Personal Computer goes mass market and helps revolutionize the way the world does business. A year later, Time Magazine gives its "Person of the Year" award to the Personal Computer.[]
  • LASIK surgery. Three IBM scientists invent the excimer laser surgical procedure that later forms the basis of LASIK and PRK corrective eye surgeries.[]
  • Antitrust suit. The United States antitrust suit against IBM, filed inis dismissed as being "without merit."[]
  • Trellis-coded modulation. Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) is first used in voice-band modems to send data at higher rates over telephone channels. Today, TCM is applied in a large variety of terrestrial and satellite-based transmission systems as a key technique for achieving faster and more reliable digital transmission.[]
  • IBM PCjr. IBM announces the widely anticipated PCjr., IBM's Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs to enter the home computing marketplace. The product, however, fails to capture the fancy of consumers due to its lack of compatibility with IBM PC software, its higher price point, and its unfortunate ‘chiclet’ keyboard design. IBM terminates the product after 18 months of disappointing sales.[]
  • IBM magnetic tape system. The industry's most advanced magnetic tape system, the IBMintroduces a new generation of tape drives that replace the familiar reel of tape with an easy-to-handle cartridge. The was the industry's first tape system to use "thin-film" recording head technology.
  • Sexual discrimination. IBM adds sexual orientation to the company's non-discrimination policy. IBM becomes one of the first major companies to make this change.[]
  • ROLM partnership/acquisition. IBM acquires ROLM Corporation for $ billion.[] Based in Santa Clara, CA (subsequent to an existing partnership),[] IBM intended to develop digital telephone switches to compete directly with Northern Telecom and AT&T.[] Two of the most popular systems were the large scale PABX coined ROLM CBX and the smaller PABX coined ROLM Redwood. ROLM is later acquired by Siemens AG in –[][]
  • MCI. IBM acquires 18% of MCI Communications, the United States's second-largest long-distance carrier, in June []
  • RP3. Sparked in part by national concerns over losing its technology leadership crown in the early s, IBM re-enters the supercomputing field with the RP3 (IBM Research Parallel Processor Prototype). IBM researchers worked with scientists from the New York University's Courant Institute of Mathematical Science to design RP3, an experimental computer consisting of up to processors, linked in parallel and connected to as many as two billion characters of main memory. Over the next five years, IBM provides more than $30 million in products and support to a supercomputer facility established at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.[]
  • Token Ring Network. IBM's Token Ring technology brings a new level of control to local area networks and quickly becomes an industry standard for networks that connect printers, workstations and servers.[]
  • IBM Almaden Research Center. IBM Research dedicates the Almaden Research Center in California. Today, Almaden is IBM's second-largest laboratory focused on storage systems, technology and computer science.[]
  • Nobel Prize: Scanning tunneling microscopy. IBM FellowsGerd K. Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory win the Nobel Prize in physics for their work in scanning tunneling microscopy. Drs. Binnig and Rohrer are recognized for developing a powerful microscopy technique which permits scientists to make images of surfaces so detailed that individual atoms may be seen.[]
  • Nobel Prize: High-Temperature Superconductivity. J. Georg Bednorz and IBM FellowAlex Müller of the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory receive the Nobel Prize for physics for their breakthrough discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in a Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs class of materials. They discover superconductivity in ceramic oxides that carry electricity without loss of energy at much higher temperatures than any other superconductor.[]
  • Antivirus tools. As personal computers become vulnerable to attack from viruses, a small research group at IBM develops, practically overnight, a suite of antivirus tools. The effort leads to the establishment of the High Integrity Computing Laboratory (HICL) at IBM. HICL goes on to pioneer the science of theoretical and observational computer virus epidemiology.[]
  • Special needs access. IBM Researchers demonstrate the feasibility for blind computer users to read information directly from computer screens with the aid of an experimental mouse. And in the IBM Personal System/2 Screen Reader is announced, permitting blind or visually impaired people to hear the text as it is displayed on the screen in the same way a sighted person would see it. This is the first in the IBM Independence Series of products for computer users with special needs.[]
  • IBM AS/. IBM introduces the IBM Application System/, a new family of easy-to-use computers designed for small and intermediate-sized companies. As part of the introduction, IBM and IBM Business Partners worldwide announce more than 1, software packages in the biggest simultaneous applications announcement in computer history. The AS/ quickly becomes one of the world's most popular business computing systems.[]
  • National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET). IBM collaborates with the Merit Network, MCI Communications, the State of Michigan, and the National Science Foundation to upgrade and expand the 56K bit per second NSFNET to M bps (T1) and later 45M bps (T3). This partnership provides the network infrastructure and lays the groundwork for the explosive growth of the Internet in the s. The NSFNET upgrade boosts network capacity, not only making it faster, but also allowing more intensive forms of data, such as the graphics now common on the World Wide Web, to travel across the Internet.[]
  • Silicon germanium transistors. The replacing of expensive and exotic materials like gallium arsenide with silicon germanium (known as SiGe), championed by IBM Fellow Bernie Meyerson, creates faster chips at lower costs. Introducing germanium into the base layer of an otherwise all-silicon bipolar transistor allows for significant improvements in operating frequency, current, noise and power capabilities.[]
  • System/. IBM makes its Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs comprehensive product announcement in 25 years by introducing the System/ family. IBM incorporates complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) based processors into System/ Parallel Enterprise Server inand in the System/ G5 Parallel Enterprise Server way Turbo model smashed the 1, MIPS barrier, making it the world's most powerful mainframe.[]
  • RISC System/. IBM announces the RISC System/, a family of nine workstations that are among the fastest and most powerful in the industry. The RISC System/ uses Reduced instruction set computing technology, an innovative computer design pioneered by IBM that simplifies processing steps to speed the execution of commands.[]
  • Moving individual atoms. Donald M. Eigler, a physicist and IBM Fellow at the IBM Almaden Research Center demonstrated the ability to manipulate individual atoms using a scanning tunneling microscope, writing I-B-M using 35 individual xenon atoms.[]
  • Environmental programs'. IBM joins 14 other leading U.S. corporations in April to establish a worldwide program designed to achieve environmental, health and safety goals by continuously improving environmental management practices and performance. IBM has invested more than $1 billion since to provide environmental Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs for the communities in which IBM facilities are located.[]
  • Services business. IBM reenters the computer services business through the formation of the Integrated Systems Solution Corporation. Still in compliance with the provisions of the Consent Decree, in just four ISSC becomes the second largest provider of computer services. The new business becomes one of IBM's primary revenue streams.[]
  • Thinkpad. IBM introduces a new line of notebook computers. Housed in a distinctive black case and featuring the innovative TrackPoint device nestled in the middle of the keyboard, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, the ThinkPad is an immediate hit and goes on to collect more than awards for design and quality.[]

– IBM's near disaster and rebirth[edit]

YearGross income (in $m)Employees
50,,
69,,
71,,
85,,
91,,
99,,

In AprilIBM hired Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. as its new CEO. For the first time since IBM had recruited a leader from Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs its ranks. Gerstner had been chairman and CEO of RJR Nabisco for four years, and had previously spent 11 years as a top executive at American Express. Gerstner brought with him a customer-oriented sensibility and the strategic-thinking expertise that he had honed through years as a management consultant at McKinsey & Co. Recognizing that his first priority was to stabilize the company, he adopted a triage mindset and took quick, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, dramatic action. His early decisions included recommitting to the mainframe, selling the Federal Systems Division to Loral in order to replenish the company's cash coffers, continuing to shrink the workforce (reaching a low ofemployees in ), and driving significant cost reductions within the company. Most importantly, Gerstner decided to reverse the move to spin off IBM business units into separate companies. He recognized that one of IBM's enduring strengths was its ability to provide integrated solutions for customers – someone who could represent more than piece parts or components. Splitting the company would have destroyed that unique IBM advantage.[]

These initial steps worked, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. IBM was in the black byturning a profit of $3 billion. Stabilization was not Gerstner's endgame – the restoration of IBM's once great reputation was. To do that, he needed to devise a winning business strategy.[] Over the next decade, Gerstner crafted a business model that shed commodity businesses and focused on high-margin opportunities. IBM divested itself of low margin industries (DRAM, IBM Network, personal printers, and hard drives). The company regained the business initiative by building upon the decision to keep the company whole – it unleashed a global services business that rapidly rose to become a leading technology integrator. Crucial to this success was the decision to become brand agnostic – IBM integrated whatever technologies the client required, even if they were from an IBM competitor.[] IBM augmented this services business with the acquisition of the consultancy division of PricewaterhouseCoopers for $ billion US.[]

Another high margin opportunity IBM invested heavily in was software, a strategic move that proved equally visionary. Starting in with its acquisition of Lotus Development Corp., IBM built up its software portfolio from one brand, DB2, to five: DB2, Lotus, WebSphere, Tivoli, and Rational. Content to leave the consumer applications business to other firms, IBM's software strategy focused on middleware – the vital software that connects operating systems to applications. The middleware business played to IBM's strengths, and its higher margins improved the company's bottom line significantly as the century came to an end.[]

Not all software that IBM developed was successful. While OS/2 was arguably technically superior to Microsoft Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs 95, OS/2 sales were largely concentrated in networked computing used by corporate professionals. OS/2 failed to develop much penetration in the consumer and stand-alone desktop PC segments. There were reports that it could not be installed properly on IBM's own Aptiva series of home PCs.[] Microsoft made an offer in where if IBM ended development of OS/2 completely, then it would receive the same terms as Compaq for a license of Windows IBM refused and instead went with an "IBM First" strategy of promoting OS/2 Warp and disparaging Windows, as IBM aimed to drive sales of its own software and hardware. ByWindows 95 negotiations between IBM and Microsoft, which were difficult, stalled when IBM purchased Lotus Development whose Lotus SmartSuite would have directly competed with Microsoft Office. As a result, IBM received their license later than their competitors which hurt sales of IBM Dr.Fone windows Archives. IBM officials later conceded that OS/2 would not have been a viable operating system to keep them in the PC business.[][]

While IBM Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs and technologies were relatively de-emphasized in Gerstner's three-legged business model, they were not relegated to secondary status. The company brought its world-class research organization to bear more closely on its existing product lines and development processes. While Internet applications and deep computing overtook client servers as key business technology priorities, mainframes returned to relevance. IBM reinvigorated their mainframe line with CMOS technologies, which made them among the most powerful and cost-efficient in the marketplace.[] Investments in microelectronics research and manufacturing made IBM a world leader in specialized, high margin chip production – it developed &#;mm wafer processes inand &#;mm wafers within the decade.[] IBM-designed chips were used in PlayStation 3, Xbox Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, and Wii game consoles. IBM also regained the lead in supercomputing with high-end machines based upon scalable parallel processor technology.

Equally significant in IBM's revival was its successful reentry into the popular mindset. Part of this revival was based on IBM technology. On October 5,at the COMDEXcomputer expo, IBM announced the first ThinkPad laptop computer, the C. The ThinkPad, a premium machine which then cost US$, included a 25&#;MHz Intel SL processor, a inch active matrix display, removable Microsoft Office 2021 Crack + Product Key Free Download hard drive, 4 MB RAM (expandable to 16 MB) and a TrackPoint II pointing device.[] The striking black design by noted designer Richard Sapper made the ThinkPad an immediate hit with the digerati, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, and the cool factor of the ThinkPad brought back some of the cachet to the IBM brand that was lost in the PC wars of the s. Instrumental to this popular resurgence was the chess match between IBM's chess-playing computer system Deep Blue and reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov. Deep Blue's victory was a historic advanced systemcare 13 for a computer over a reigning world champion. Also helping the company reclaim its position as a technology leader was its annual domination of supercomputer rankings[] and patent leadership statistics.[] Ironically, a serendipitous contributor in reviving the company's reputation was the Dot-com bubble collapse inwhere many of the edgy technology high flyers of the s failed to survive the downturn. These collapses discredited some of the more fashionable Internet-driven business models that stodgy IBM was previously compared against.

Another part of the successful reentry into the popular mindset was the company's revival of the IBM brand. The company's marketing during the economic downturn was chaotic, presenting many different, sometimes discordant voices in the marketplace. This brand chaos was attributable in part to the company having 70 different advertising agencies in its employ. InIBM eliminated this chaos by consolidating its advertising in one agency. The result was a coherent, consistent message to the marketplace.[]

As IBM recovered its financial footing and its industry leadership position, the company remained aggressive in preaching to the industry that it was not the Old IBM, that it had learned from its near-death experiences, and that it had been fundamentally changed by them. It sought to redefine the Internet age in ways that played to traditional IBM strengths, couching the discussion in business-centric manners with initiatives like e-commerce and On Demand.[] And it supported open source initiatives, forming collaborative ventures with partners and competitors alike.[]

Change was manifested in IBM in other ways as well. The company revamped its varied philanthropic practices to bring a sharp focus on Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs K education. It ended its year technology partnership with the International Olympic Committee after a successful engagement at the Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. On the human resources front, IBM's adoption and integration of diversity principles and practices was cutting edge. It added sexual orientation to its non-discrimination practices inin created executive diversity task forces, and in offered domestic partner benefits to its employees. The company is routinely listed as among the best places for employees, employees of color, and women to work.[] And inthe Women in Technology International Hall of Fame inducted three IBMers as part of its inaugural class of 10 women: Ruth Leach Amonette, the first woman to hold an executive position at IBM; Barbara Grant, PhD, first woman to be named an IBM site general manager; and Linda Sanford, the highest – placed technical woman in IBM. Fran Allen – an early software pioneer and another IBM hero for her innovative work in compilers over the decades – was inducted in []

Gerstner retired at the end ofand was replaced by long-time IBMer Samuel J. Palmisano.

Key events[edit]

  • Billion-dollar losses. IBM misreads two significant trends in the computer industry: personal computers and client-server computing: and as a result loses more than $8 billion inits third straight year of billion-dollar losses. Sincethe company has lost $16 billion, and many feel IBM is no longer a viable player in the industry.[]
  • Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.. Gerstner arrives as IBM's chairman and CEO on April 1, For the first time since the arrival of Thomas J. Watson, Sr., Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, inIBM has a leader pulled from outside its ranks. Gerstner had been chairman and CEO of RJR Nabisco for four years and had previously eviews 11 years as a top executive at American Express.[]
  • IBM Scalable POWERparallel system. IBM introduces the Scalable POWERparallel System, the first in a family of microprocessor-based supercomputers using RISC System/ technology. IBM pioneers the breakthrough scalable parallel system technology of joining smaller, mass-produced computer processors rather than relying on one larger, custom-designed processor, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. Complex queries could then be broken down into a series of smaller jobs that are run concurrently ("in parallel") to speed their completion.[]
  • Turnaround. IBM reports a profit for the year, its first since Over the next few years, the company successfully charts a new business course, one that focuses less on its traditional strengths in hardware, and more on services, software, and its ability to craft technology solutions.[]
  • IBM RAMAC Array Storage Family. The IBM RAMAC Array Family is announced. With features like highly parallel processing, multi-level cache, RAID 5, and redundant components, RAMAC represents a major advance in information storage technology. Consisting of the RAMAC Array Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) and the RAMAC Array Subsystem, the products become one of IBM's most successful storage product launches ever, with almost 2, systems shipped to customers in its first three months 1 year xbox live availability.[]
  • Speech recognition. IBM releases the IBM Personal Dictation System (IPDS), the first wave of speech recognition products for the personal computer. It is later renamed VoiceType, and its capabilities are expanded to include control Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs computer applications and desktops simply by talking to them, without touching a keyboard. In IBM announces ViaVoice Gold, software that gives people a hands-free way to dictate text and navigate the desktop with the power of natural, continuous speech.[]
  • Lotus Development Corporation acquisition. IBM acquires all of the outstanding shares of the Lotus Development Corporation, whose pioneering Notes software enables greater collaboration across an enterprise and whose acquisition makes IBM the world's largest software company.[]
  • Glueball calculation. IBM scientists complete a two-year calculation – the largest single numerical calculation in the history of computing – to pin down the properties of an elusive elementary particle called a "glueball." The calculation was carried out on GF11, a massively parallel computer at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.[]
  • IBM Austin Research Laboratory opens. Based in Austin, Texas, the lab is focused on advanced circuit design as well as new design techniques and tools for very high performance microprocessors.[]
  • Atlanta Olympics. IBM suffers a highly public embarrassment when its IT support of the Olympic Games in Atlanta experiences technical difficulties.[]
  • Domestic partner benefits. IBM announces Domestic Partner Benefits for gay and lesbian employees.[]
  • Deep Blue. The node IBM RS/ SP supercomputer, Deep Blue, defeats World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov in the first known instance of a computer vanquishing a reigning world champion chess player in a tournament-style competition.[]
  • eBusiness. IBM coins the term and defined an enormous new industry by using the Internet as a medium for real business and institutional transformation. e-business becomes Microsoft Office 2013 Crack + Product Key 2021 [Latest] with doing business in the Internet age.[]
  • CMOS Gigaprocessor, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. IBM unveils the first microprocessor that runs at 1 billion cycles per second. IBM scientists develop new Silicon on insulator chips to be used in the construction of a mainstream processor. The breakthrough ushers in new circuit designs and product groups.[]
  • Blue Gene. IBM Research starts a computer architecture cooperative project with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the United States Department of Energy (which is partially funding the project), and academia to build new supercomputers (4) capable of more than one quadrillion operations per second (one petaflop). Nicknamed "Blue Gene," the new supercomputers perform times faster than other powerful supercomputers and can simulate folding complex proteins.[]
  • Quantum mirage nanotechnology. IBM scientists discover a way to transport information on the atomic scale that uses electrons instead of conventional wiring. This new phenomenon, called the Quantum mirage effect, enables data transfer within future nanoscale electronic circuits too small to use wires. The quantum mirage technique is a unique way of sending information through solid forms and could do away with wiring that connects nanocircuit components.[]
  • IBM ASCI White – Fastest supercomputer. IBM delivers the world's most powerful computer to the US Department of Energy, powerful enough to process an Internet transaction for every person on Earth in less than a minute. IBM built the supercomputer to accurately test the safety and effectiveness of the nation's aging nuclear weapons stockpile. This computer is 1, times more powerful than Deep Blue, the supercomputer that beat Garry Kasparov in chess in []
  • Flexible transistors. IBM created flexible transistors, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, combining organic and inorganic materials as a medium for semiconductors. This technology enables things like an "electronic newspaper", so lightweight and inexpensive that leaving one behind on the airplane or in a hotel lobby is no big deal. By eliminating the limitations of etching computer circuits in silicon, flexible transistors make it possible to create a new generation of inexpensive computer displays that can be embedded into curved plastic or other materials.[]
  • Sydney Olympics. After a successful engagement at the Olympic games in Sydney, IBM ends its year technology partnership with the International Olympic Committee.[]
  • Holocaust controversy. A controversial book, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black, accuses IBM of having knowingly assisted Nazi authorities in the perpetuation of the Holocaust through the provision of tabulating products and services. Several lawsuits are filed against IBM by Holocaust victims seeking restitution for their suffering and losses. All lawsuits related to this issue were eventually dropped without recovery.[]
  • Carbon nanotube transistors. IBM researchers build the world's first transistors out of carbon nanotubes – tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that are times smaller than silicon-based transistors and 1, times stronger than steel. The breakthrough is an important step in finding materials that can be used to build computer chips when silicon-based chips can't be made any smaller.[]
  • Low power initiative. IBM launches its low-power initiative to improve the energy efficiency of IT and accelerates the development of ultra-low power components and power-efficient servers, storage systems, personal computers and ThinkPad notebook computers.[]
  • Greater density & chip speeds. IBM is first to mass-produce computer hard disk drives using a revolutionary new type of magnetic coating – "pixie dust" – that eventually quadruples data density of current hard disk drive products. IBM also unveils "strained silicon," a breakthrough that alters silicon to boost chip speeds by up to 35 percent.[][]
  • The Hard disk drive business is sold to Hitachi.[]
  • Blue Gene/L, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. The BLUE GENE team unveils a proto-type of its Blue Gene/L computer roughly the size of a standard dishwasher that ranks as the 73rd most powerful supercomputer in the world. This cubic meter machine is a small scale model of the full Blue Gene/L built for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, which will be times larger when it's unveiled two years later.[]
  • Crusade Against Cancer. IBM joins forces with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Molecular Profiling Institute and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center to collaborate on cancer research by building state-of-the-art integrated information management systems.[]
  • The PC division is sold. The PC division (including Thinkpads) is sold to Chinese manufacturer, Lenovo.[]
  • Translation software. IBM delivers an advanced speech-to-speech translation system to U.S. forces in Iraq using bidirectional English to Arabic translation software that improves communication between military personnel and Iraqi forces and citizens. The breakthrough software offsets the current shortage of military linguists.[]
  • Renewable energy. IBM is recognized by the US EPA for its leading green power purchases in the US and for its support and participation in EPA's Fortune Green Power Challenge. IBM ranked 12th on the EPA's list of Green Power Partners for IBM purchased enough renewable energy in to meet 4% of its US electricity use and 9% of its global electricity purchases. IBM's commitment to green power helps cut greenhouse gas emissions.[]
  • River watch using IBM Stream Computing. In a unique collaboration, The Beacon Institute and IBM created the first technology-based river monitoring network. The River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON) allows for minute-to-minute monitoring of New York's Hudson River via an integrated network of sensors, robotics and computational technology. This first-of-its-kind project is made possible by IBM's "Stream Computing," a fundamentally new computer architecture that can examine thousands of information sources to help scientists better understand what is happening as it happens.[][]
  • Patent power
Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Microsoft

American multinational technology company

Microsoft Corporation is an American multinationaltechnology corporation which produces computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, the Microsoft Officesuite, and the Internet Explorer and Edgeweb browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xboxvideo game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. Microsoft ranked No. 21 in the Fortune rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue;[3] Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs was the world's largest software maker by revenue as of [4] It is considered one of the Big Five companies in the U.S. information technology industry, along with Amazon, Google (Alphabet), Apple, and Facebook (Meta).

Microsoft (the word being a portmanteau of "microcomputer software"[5]) was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4,to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mids, followed by Microsoft Windows. The company's initial public offering (IPO), and subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,&#;millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $&#;billion in December ,[6] followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $&#;billion in May [7]

As of [update], Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC compatible operating system market and the office software Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android.[8] The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops, laptops, tabs, gadgets, and servers, including Internet search (with Bing), the digital services market (through MSN), mixed reality (HoloLens), cloud computing (Azure), and software development (Visual Studio).

Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO inand later envisioned a "devices and services" strategy.[9] This unfolded with Microsoft acquiring Danger Inc. in ,[10] entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers, and later forming Microsoft Mobile through the acquisition of Nokia's devices and services division. Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO inthe company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December [11][12]

Earlier dethroned by Apple inin Microsoft reclaimed its position as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world.[13] In AprilMicrosoft reached the trillion-dollarmarket cap, becoming the third U.S. public company to be valued at over $1&#;trillion after Apple and Amazon respectively.[14] As of [update], Microsoft has the third-highest global brand valuation.[15]

Contents

  • 1History
    • – Founding
    • – Windows and Office
    • – Foray into the Web, Windows 95, Windows XP, and Xbox
    • – Microsoft Azure, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Microsoft Stores
    • – Windows 8/, Xbox One, shoppingdowntown.us, and Surface devices
    • – Windows 10, Microsoft Edge, and HoloLens
    • –present: Acquisitions, Xbox Series X/S, and Windows 11
  • 2Corporate affairs
  • 3Corporate identity
  • 4See also
  • 5References
  • 6External links

History

Further information: History of Microsoft and Timeline of Microsoft

See also: Microsoft Windows version history

– Founding

An Altair computer (left) with the popular Model 33 ASR Teletype as terminal, paper tape reader, and paper tape punch.

Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business using their skills in computer programming.[17] Inthey founded Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. Gates enrolled at Harvard University while Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he later dropped out to work at Honeywell.[18] The January issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's (MITS) Altair microcomputer,[19] which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. Gates called MITS and claimed that he had a working interpreter, and MITS requested a demonstration. Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter, and it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated it to MITS in March in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC.[16]:&#;,&#;–&#; Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4,with Gates as CEO,[20] and Allen suggested the name "Micro-Soft", short for micro-computer software.[21][22] In Augustthe company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office of ASCII Microsoft.[23] Microsoft moved its headquarters to Bellevue, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Washington, in January [20]

Microsoft entered the operating system (OS) business in with its own version of Unix called Xenix,[24] but it was MS-DOS that solidified the company's dominance. IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November to provide a version of the CP/M OS to be used in the IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC).[25] For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called DOS from Seattle Computer Products which it branded as MS-DOS, although IBM rebranded it to IBM PC DOS. Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS following the release of the IBM PC in August IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, so other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Microsoft eventually became the leading PC operating systems vendor.[26][27]:&#;&#; The company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse inas well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press.[16]:&#;&#; Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in after developing Hodgkin's disease.[28] Allen claimed in Idea Man: A Memoir by the Co-founder of Microsoft that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he did not think that he was working hard enough.[29] Allen later invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate, neuroscience, private space flight, and more.[30]

– Windows and Office

Windows was released on November 20,as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line

Microsoft released Microsoft Windows on November 20,as a graphical extension for MS-DOS,[16]:&#;–,&#;&#; despite having begun jointly developing OS/2 with IBM the previous August.[31] Microsoft moved its headquarters from Bellevue to Redmond, Washington, on February 26,and went public on March Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs with the resulting rise in stock making an estimated four billionaires and 12,&#;millionaires from Microsoft employees.[33] Microsoft released its version of OS/2 to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) on April 2, [16] Inthe Federal Trade Commission examined Microsoft for possible collusion due to the partnership with IBM, marking the beginning of more than a decade of legal clashes with the government.[34]:&#;–&#; Meanwhile, the company was at work on Microsoft Windows NT, which was heavily based on their copy of the OS/2 code. It shipped on July 21,with a new modular kernel and the bitWin32 application programming Mirillis Action 4.0.3 torrent Archives (API), making it easier to port from bit (MS-DOS-based) Windows. Microsoft informed IBM Spotify premium crack serial keygen Windows NT, and the OS/2 partnership deteriorated.[35]

InMicrosoft introduced the Microsoft Office suite Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs bundled separate applications such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel.[16]:&#;&#; On May 22, Microsoft launched Windowsfeaturing streamlined user interface graphics and improved protected mode capability for the Intel processor,[36] and both Office and Windows became dominant in their respective areas.[37][38]

On July 27,the Department of Justice's Antitrust Division filed a competitive impact statement which said: "Beginning inand continuing until July 15,Microsoft induced many OEMs to execute anti-competitive 'per processor' licenses. Under a per-processor license, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, an OEM pays Microsoft a royalty for each computer it sells containing a particular microprocessor, whether the OEM sells the computer with a Microsoft operating system or a non-Microsoft operating system. In effect, the royalty payment to Microsoft when no Microsoft product is being used acts as a penalty, or tax, on the OEM's use of a competing PC operating system. SinceMicrosoft's use of per processor licenses has increased."[39]

– Foray into the Web, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Windows 95, Windows XP, and Xbox

InMicrosoft released Windows CE, a version of the operating system meant for personal digital assistants and other tiny computers.

Following Bill Gates' internal "Internet Tidal Wave memo" on May 26,Microsoft began to redefine its offerings and expand its product line into computer networking and the World Wide Web.[40] With a few exceptions of new companies, like Netscape, Microsoft was the only major and established company that Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs fast enough to be a part of the World Wide Web practically from the start. Other companies like Borland, WordPerfect, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Novell, IBM and Lotus, being much slower to adapt to the new situation, would give Microsoft a market dominance.[41] The company released Windows 95 on August 24, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs,featuring pre-emptive multitasking, a completely new user interface with a novel ProShow Gold v2.0.1524 crack serial keygen button, and bit compatibility; similar to NT, it provided the Win32 API.[42][43]:&#;20&#; Windows 95 came bundled with the online serviceMSN, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, which was at first intended to be a competitor to the Internet,[dubious &#; discuss] and (for OEMs) Internet Explorer, a Web browser. Internet Explorer was not bundled with the retail Windows 95 boxes, because the boxes were printed before the team finished the Web browser, and instead was included in the Windows 95 Plus! pack.[44] Backed by a high-profile marketing campaign[45] and what The New York Times called "the splashiest, most frenzied, most expensive introduction of a computer product Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs the industry's history,"[46] Windows 95 quickly became a success.[47] Branching out into new markets inMicrosoft and General Electric's NBC unit created a new 24/7 cable news channel, MSNBC.[48] Microsoft created Windows CEa new OS designed for devices with low memory and other constraints, such as personal digital assistants.[49] In Octoberthe Justice Department filed a motion in the Federal District Court, stating that Microsoft violated an agreement signed in and asked the court to stop the bundling of Internet Explorer with Windows.[16]:&#;–&#;

mathcad full crack Archives src="shoppingdowntown.us" Zamzom Wireless Network Tool v1.0 crack serial keygen height="">
Microsoft released the first installment in the Xboxseries of consoles in The Xbox, graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featured a standard PC's &#;MHz Intel Pentium III processor.

On January 13,Bill Gates handed over the CEO position to Steve Ballmer, an old college friend of Gates and employee of the company sincewhile creating a new position for himself as Chief Software Architect.[16]:&#;,&#;&#;[20] Various companies including Microsoft formed the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance in October to (among other things) increase security and protect intellectual property through identifying changes in hardware and software. Critics decried the alliance as a way to enforce indiscriminate restrictions over how consumers use software, and over how computers behave, and as a form of digital rights management: for example the scenario where a computer is not only secured for its owner, but also secured against its owner as well.[50][51] On April 3,a judgment was handed down in the case of United States v. Microsoft Corp.,[52] calling the company an "abusive monopoly."[53] Microsoft later settled with the U.S. Department of Justice in [32] On October 25,Microsoft released Windows XP, unifying the mainstream and NT lines of OS under the NT codebase.[54] The company released the Xbox later that year, entering the video game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo.[55] In March the European Union brought antitrust legal action against the company, citing it abused its dominance with the Windows OS, resulting in a judgment of €&#;million ($&#;million) and requiring Microsoft to produce new versions of Windows XP without Windows Media Player: Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N.[56][57] In Novemberthe company's second video game console, the Xboxwas released. There were two versions, a basic version for $ and a deluxe version for $[58]

Increasingly present in the hardware business following Xbox, Microsoft in released the Zune series of digital media players, a successor of its previous software platform Portable Media Center. These expanded on previous hardware commitments from Microsoft following its original Microsoft Mouse in ; as of the company sold the best-selling wired keyboard (Natural Ergonomic Keyboard ), mouse (IntelliMouse), and desktop webcam (LifeCam) in the United States. That year the company also launched the Surface "digital table", Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, later renamed PixelSense.[59]

– Microsoft Azure, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Microsoft Stores

CEO Steve Ballmerat the MIXevent in In an interview about his management style inhe mentioned that his first priority was to get the people he delegates to in order. Ballmer also emphasized the need to continue pursuing new technologies even if initial attempts fail, citing the original attempts with Windows as an example.[60]
Headquarters of the European Commission, which has imposed several fines on Microsoft

Released in Januarythe next version of Windows, Vista, focused on features, security and a redesigned user interface dubbed Aero.[61][62]Microsoft Officereleased at the same Bandicut 2021 Crack + Torrent Full Version Windows Free Download, featured a "Ribbon" user interface which was a significant departure from its predecessors. Relatively strong sales of both products helped to produce a record profit in [63] The European Union imposed another fine of €&#;million ($&#;billion) for Microsoft's lack of compliance with the March judgment on February 27,saying that the company charged rivals unreasonable prices for key information about its workgroup and backoffice servers. Microsoft stated that it was in compliance and that "these fines are about the past issues that have been resolved".[64] also saw the creation of a multi-core unit at Microsoft, following the steps of server companies such as Sun and IBM.[65]

Gates retired from his role as Chief Software Architect on June 27, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs,a decision announced in June Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, while retaining other positions related to the company in addition to being an advisor for the company on key projects.[66][67]Azure Services Platform, the company's entry into the cloud computing market for Windows, launched on October 27, [68] On February 12,Microsoft announced its intent to open a chain of Microsoft-branded retail stores, and on October 22,the Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs retail Microsoft Store opened in Scottsdale, Arizona; the same day Windows 7 was officially released to the public. Windows 7's focus was on refining Vista with ease-of-use features and performance enhancements, rather than an extensive reworking of Windows.[69][70][71]

As the smartphone industry boomed in the late s, Microsoft had struggled to keep up with its rivals in providing a modern smartphone operating system, falling behind Apple and Google-sponsored Android in the United States.[72] As a result, in Microsoft revamped their aging flagship mobile operating system, Windows Mobile, replacing it with the new Windows Phone OS that was released in October that year. It used a new user interface design language, codenamed "Metro", which prominently used simple shapes, typography and iconography, utilizing the concept of minimalism, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. Microsoft implemented a new strategy for the software industry, providing a consistent user experience across all smartphones using the Windows Phone OS. It launched an alliance with Nokia in and Microsoft worked closely with the company to co-develop Windows Phone,[73] but remained partners with long-time Windows Mobile OEM HTC.[74] Microsoft is a founding member of the Open Networking Foundation started on March 23, Fellow founders were Google, HP Networking, Yahoo!, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Verizon Communications, Deutsche Telekom and 17 other companies. This nonprofit organization is focused on providing support for a cloud computing initiative called Software-Defined Networking.[75] The initiative is meant to speed innovation through simple software changes in telecommunications networks, wireless networks, data centers and other networking Microsoft Office 2018 Product Key + Crack 2022 Free Download Windows 8/, Xbox One, shoppingdowntown.us, and Surface devices

Following the release of Windows Phone, Microsoft undertook a gradual rebranding of its product range throughout andwith the corporation's logos, products, services and websites adopting the principles and concepts of the Metro design language.[77] Microsoft unveiled Windows 8, an operating system designed to power both personal computers and tablet computers, in Taipei in June [78] A developer preview was released on September 13, which was subsequently replaced by a consumer preview on February 29,and released to the public in May.[79] The Surface was unveiled on June 18, becoming the first computer in the company's history to have its hardware made by Microsoft.[80][81] On June 25, Microsoft paid US$&#;billion to buy the social network Yammer.[82] On July 31, they launched the shoppingdowntown.usmail service to compete with Gmail.[83] On September 4,Microsoft released Windows Server [84]

In JulyMicrosoft sold its 50% stake in MSNBC, which it had run as a joint venture with NBC since [85] On October 1, Microsoft announced its intention to launch a news operation, part Video strip poker supreme crack serial keygen a new-look MSN, with Windows 8 later in the month.[86] On October 26,Microsoft launched Windows 8 and the Microsoft Surface.[81][87] Three days later, Windows Phone 8 was launched.[88] To cope with the potential for an increase in demand for products and services, Microsoft opened a number of "holiday stores" across the U.S. to complement the increasing number of "bricks-and-mortar" Microsoft Stores that opened in [89] On March 29,Microsoft launched a Patent Tracker.[90]

In Augustthe New York City Police Department announced a partnership with Microsoft for the development of the Domain Awareness System which is used for Police surveillance in 4U Download YouTube Video v4.8.0 crack serial keygen York City.[91]

The Kinect, a motion-sensing input device made by Microsoft and designed as a video game controller, first introduced in Novemberwas upgraded for the release of the Xbox One video game console. Kinect's capabilities were revealed in May an ultra-wide p camera, function in the dark due to an infrared sensor, higher-end processing power and new software, the ability to distinguish between fine movements (such as a thumb movement), and determining a user's heart rate by looking at their face.[92] Microsoft filed a patent application in that suggests that the corporation may use the Kinect camera system to monitor the behavior of television viewers as part of a plan to make the viewing experience more interactive. On July Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs,Microsoft stocks suffered their biggest one-day percentage sell-off since the yearafter its fourth-quarter report raised concerns among the investors on the poor showings of both Windows 8 and the Surface tablet. Microsoft suffered a loss of more than US$32&#;billion.[93]

In line with the maturing PC business, in JulyMicrosoft announced that it would reorganize the business into four new business divisions, namely Operating System, Apps, Cloud, and Devices. All previous divisions will be dissolved into new divisions without any workforce cuts.[94] On September 3,Microsoft agreed to buy Nokia's mobile unit for $7&#;billion,[95] following Amy Hood taking the role of CFO.[96]

– Windows 10, Microsoft Edge, and HoloLens

On February 4,Steve Ballmer stepped down as CEO of Microsoft and was succeeded by Satya Nadella, who previously led Microsoft's Cloud and Enterprise division.[97] On the same day, John W. Thompson took Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs the role of chairman, in place of Bill Gates, who continued to participate as a technology advisor.[98] Thompson became the second chairman in Microsoft's history.[99] On April 25,Microsoft acquired Nokia Devices and Services for $&#;billion.[] This new subsidiary was renamed Microsoft Mobile Oy.[] On September 15,Microsoft acquired the video game development company Mojang, best known for Minecraft, for $&#;billion.[] On June 8,Microsoft acquired Hexadite, an Israeli security firm, for $&#;million.[][]

On January 21,Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Microsoft announced the release of their first Interactive whiteboard, Microsoft Surface Hub.[] On July 29,Windows 10 was released,[] with its server sibling, Windows Serverreleased in September In Q1Microsoft was the third largest maker of mobile phones, selling 33&#;million units (% of all). While a large majority (at least 75%) of them do not run any version of Windows Phone— those other phones are not categorized as smartphones by Gartner&#;&#; in the same time frame 8&#;million Windows smartphones (% of all smartphones) were made by all manufacturers (but mostly by Microsoft).[] Microsoft's share of the U.S. smartphone market in January was %.[] During the summer of the company lost $&#;billion related to its mobile-phone business, firing 7, employees.[]

On March 1,Microsoft announced the merger of its PC and Xbox divisions, with Phil Spencer announcing that Universal Windows Platform (UWP) apps would be the focus for Microsoft's gaming in the future.[] On January 24, Buildbox 3.3.5 Crack Archives, Microsoft showcased Intune for Education at the BETT education technology conference in London.[] Intune for Education is a new cloud-based application and device management service for the education sector.[] In Maythe company announced it was laying off 1, workers, and taking an impairment and restructuring charge of $&#;million.[] In JuneMicrosoft announced a project named Microsoft Azure Information Protection. It aims to help enterprises protect their data as it moves between servers and devices.[] In NovemberMicrosoft joined the Linux Foundation as a Platinum member during Microsoft's Connect(); developer event in New York.[] The cost of each Platinum membership is US$, per year.[] Some analysts deemed this unthinkable ten years prior, however, as in then-CEO Steve Ballmer called Linux "cancer".[] Microsoft planned to launch a preview of Intune for Education "in the coming weeks", with general availability scheduled for springpriced at $30 per device, or through volume licensing agreements.[]

In JanuaryMicrosoft patched Windows 10 to account for CPU problems related to Intel's Meltdown security breach. The patch led to issues with the Microsoft Azure virtual machines reliant on Intel's CPU architecture. On January 12, Microsoft released PowerShell Core for the macOS and Linux operating systems.[] In FebruaryMicrosoft killed notification support for their Windows Phone devices which effectively ended firmware updates for the discontinued devices.[] In MarchMicrosoft recalled Windows 10 S to change it to a mode for the Windows operating system rather than a separate and unique operating system. In March the company also established guidelines that censor users of Office from using profanity in private documents.[] In AprilMicrosoft released the source code for Windows File Manager under the MIT License to celebrate the program's 20th anniversary. In April the company further expressed willingness to embrace open source initiatives by announcing Azure Sphere as its own derivative of the Linux operating system.[] In MayMicrosoft partnered with 17 American intelligence agencies to develop cloud computing products. The project is dubbed "Azure Government" and has ties to the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure (JEDI) surveillance program.[] On June 4,Microsoft officially announced the acquisition of GitHub for $&#;billion, a deal that closed on October 26, [][] On July 10,Microsoft revealed the Surface Go platform to the public. Later in the month it converted Microsoft Teams to gratis.[] In AugustMicrosoft released two projects called Microsoft AccountGuard and Defending Democracy. It also unveiled Snapdragon compatibility for Windows 10 on the ARM architecture.[][][]

In AugustToyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for Internet of things (IoT) technologies related to water management. Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University, the water pump mechanisms use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt, analyze the number of fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide. The specific computer programs used in the process fall under the Azure Machine Learning and the Azure IoT Hub platforms.[] In SeptemberMicrosoft discontinued Skype Classic.[] On October 10,Microsoft joined the Open Invention Network community despite holding more than 60, patents.[] In NovemberMicrosoft agreed to supplyMicrosoft HoloLens headsets to the United States military in order to "increase lethality by enhancing the ability to detect, decide and engage before the enemy."[] In NovemberMicrosoft introduced Azure Multi-Factor Authentication for Microsoft Azure.[] In DecemberMicrosoft announced Project Mu, an open source release of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) core used in Microsoft Surface and Hyper-V products. The project promotes the idea of Firmware as a Service.[] In the same month, Microsoft announced the open source implementation of Windows Forms and the Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) which will allow for further movement of the company toward the transparent release of key frameworks used in developing Windows desktop applications and software. December also saw the company discontinue the Microsoft Edge project in favor of Chromium backends for their browsers.[]

February 20, Microsoft Corp said it will offer its cyber security service AccountGuard to 12 new markets in Europe including Germany, France and Spain, to close security gaps and protect customers in political space from hacking.[] In Februaryhundreds of Microsoft employees protested the company's war profiteering from a $&#;million Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs to develop virtual reality headsets for the United States Army.[]

–present: Acquisitions, Xbox Series X/S, and Windows 11

On March 26,Microsoft announced it was acquiring Affirmed Networks for about $&#;billion.[][] Due to the COVID pandemic, Microsoft closed all of its retail stores indefinitely due to health concerns.[] On July 22,Microsoft announced plans to close its Mixer service, planning to move existing partners to Facebook Gaming.[] On July 31,it was reported that Microsoft was in talks to acquire TikTok after the Trump administration ordered ByteDance to divest ownership of the application to the U.S.[] On August 3,after speculation on the deal, Donald Trump stated that Microsoft could buy the application, however it should be completed by September 15,and that the United States Department of the Treasury should receive a portion if it were to go through.[] On August 5,Microsoft stopped its xCloud game streaming test for iOS devices. According to Microsoft, the future of xCloud on iOS remains unclear and potentially out of Microsoft's hands. Apple has imposed a strict limit on "remote desktop clients" that means applications are only allowed to connect to a user-owned host device or gaming console owned by the user.[] On September 21,Microsoft announced its intent to acquire ZeniMax Media for about $&#;billion, with the deal expected to be occurred in the second half of fiscal year.[] On March 9,the acquisition was finalized and ZeniMax Media became part of Microsoft's Xbox Game Studios division.[] The total price of the deal was $ billion.[] On September 22,Microsoft announced that it had an exclusive license to use OpenAI’s GPT-3 artificial intelligence language generator.[] The previous version of GPT-3, called GPT-2, made headlines for being “too dangerous to release” and had numerous capabilities, including designing websites, prescribing medication, answering questions and penning articles.[] On November 10,Microsoft released the Xbox Series X and Xbox Series S video game consoles.[]

In AprilMicrosoft said that it will buy Nuance Communications for about $16 billion in cash.[] Inin part due to the strong quarterly earnings spurred by the COVID pandemic, Microsoft's valuation came to near $2 trillion. The increased necessity for remote work and distance education drove up the demand for cloud-computing services and grew the company's gaming sales.[][][]

On June 24,Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Microsoft announced Windows 11 during a livestream. The announcement came with confusion after Microsoft announced Windows 10 would be the last version of the operating system; set to be released in Fall [] It was released to the general public on October 5, []

In OctoberMicrosoft announced that it began rolling out end-to-end encryption (E2EE) support for Microsoft Teams calls in order to secure business communication while using video conferencing software. Users can ensure that their calls are encrypted and can utilize a Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs code which both parties on a call must verify on respective ends.[] On October 7, Microsoft acquired shoppingdowntown.us, a software service that measures companies' progress against OKRs. Microsoft plans to incorporate shoppingdowntown.us into its Viva family of employee experience products.[]

Corporate affairs

See also: Criticism of Microsoft; Internet censorship in China; and Embrace, extend, and extinguish

Board of directors

The company is run by a board of directors made up of mostly company outsiders, as is customary for publicly traded companies. Members of the board of directors as of July are Satya Nadella, Reid Hoffman, Hugh Johnston, Teri List-Stoll, Sandi Peterson, Penny Pritzker, Charles Scharf, Arne Sorenson, John W. Stanton, John W, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. Thompson, Emma Walmsley and Padmasree Warrior.[] Board members are elected every year at the annual shareholders' meeting using a majority vote system. There are four committees within the board that oversee more specific matters. These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues with the company including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters including the nomination of the board; and the Regulatory and Public Policy Glary Utilities Pro 2019 crack serial keygen, which includes legal/antitrust matters, along with privacy, trade, digital safety, artificial intelligence, and environmental sustainability.[]

On March 13,Gates announced that he is leaving the board of directors of Microsoft and Berkshire Hathaway in order to focus more on his philanthropic efforts. According to Aaron Tilley of The Wall Street Journal this is "marking the biggest boardroom departure in the tech industry since the death of longtime rival and Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs."[]

Chief executives

  1. Bill Gates (–)
  2. Steve Ballmer (–)
  3. Satya Nadella (–present)

Financial

When Microsoft went public and launched its initial public offering (IPO) inthe opening stock price was $21; after the trading day, the price closed at $ As of Julywith the company's nine stock splits, any IPO shares would be multiplied by ; if one were to buy the IPO today, given the splits and other factors, it would cost about 9&#;cents.[16]:&#;–&#;[][] The stock price peaked in at around $ ($, adjusting for splits).[] The company began to offer a dividend on January 16,starting at eight cents per share for the fiscal year followed by a dividend of sixteen cents per share the subsequent year, switching from yearly to quarterly dividends in with eight cents a share per quarter and a special one-time payout of three dollars per share for the second quarter of the fiscal year.[][] Though the company had subsequent increases in dividend payouts, the price of Microsoft's stock remained steady for years.[][]

Standard & Poor's and Moody's Investors Service have both given a AAA rating to Microsoft, whose assets were valued at $41&#;billion as compared to only $&#;billion in unsecured debt. Consequently, in February Microsoft released a corporate bond amounting to $&#;billion with relatively low borrowing rates compared to government bonds.[] For the first time in 20 years Apple Inc. surpassed Microsoft in Q1 quarterly profits and revenues due to a slowdown in PC sales and continuing huge losses in Microsoft's Online Services Division (which contains its search engine Bing). Microsoft profits were $&#;billion, while Apple Inc. profits were $6&#;billion, on revenues of $&#;billion and $&#;billion respectively.[] Microsoft's Online Services Division has been continuously loss-making since and in Q1 it lost $&#;million. This follows a loss of $&#;billion for the year []

On July 20,Microsoft posted its first quarterly loss ever, despite earning record revenues for the quarter and fiscal year, with a net loss of $&#;million due to a writedown related to the advertising company aQuantive, which had been acquired for $&#;billion back in [] As of JanuaryMicrosoft's market capitalization stood at $B,[] making it the 8th largest company in the world by market capitalization.[] On November 14,Microsoft overtook ExxonMobil to become the second most-valuable company by market capitalization, behind only Apple Inc. Its total market value was over $B—with the stock price hitting $ a share, the highest Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs early [] InReuters reported that Microsoft Corp had earnings abroad of $&#;billion which were untaxed by the Internal Revenue Service. Under U.S. law, corporations don't pay income tax on overseas profits until the profits are brought into the United States.[]

Year Revenue
in mil. US$[]
Net income
in mil. US$[]
Total Assets
in mil. US$[]
Employees[]
39, 12, 70, 61,
44, 12, 69, 71,
51, 14, 63, 79,
60, 17, 72, 91,
58, 14, 77, 93,
62, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, 18, 86, 89,
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, 39, , ,
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In Novemberthe company won a $&#;million military contract with the U.S. government to bring augmented reality (AR) headset technology into the weapon repertoires of American soldiers. The two-year contract may result in follow-on orders of more thanheadsets, according to documentation describing the bidding process. One of the contract's tag lines for the augmented reality technology seems to be its ability to enable "25 bloodless battles before the 1st battle", suggesting that actual combat training is going to be an essential aspect of the augmented reality headset capabilities.[]

Subsidiaries

Microsoft is an international business. As such, it needs subsidiaries present in whatever national markets it chooses to harvest. An example is Microsoft Canada, which it established in [] Other countries have similar installations, to funnel profits back up to Redmond and to distribute the dividends to the holders of MSFT stock.

Marketing

InMicrosoft commissioned research firms to do independent studies comparing the total cost of ownership (TCO) of Windows Server to Linux; the firms concluded that companies found Windows easier to administrate than Linux, thus those using Windows would administrate faster resulting in lower costs for their company (i.e. lower TCO).[] This spurred a wave of related studies; a study by the Yankee Group concluded that upgrading from one version of Windows Server to another costs a fraction of the switching costs from Windows Server to Linux, although companies surveyed noted the increased security and reliability of Linux servers and concern about being locked into using Microsoft products.[] Another study, released by the Open Source Development Labs, claimed that the Microsoft studies were "simply outdated and one-sided" and their survey concluded that the TCO of Linux was lower due to Linux administrators managing more servers on average and other reasons.[]

As part of the "Get the Facts" campaign, Microsoft highlighted the .NET Framework trading platform that it had developed in partnership with Accenture for the London Stock Exchange, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, claiming that it provided "five nines" reliability. After suffering extended downtime and unreliability[][] the London Stock Exchange announced in that it was planning to drop its Microsoft solution and switch to a Linux-based one in [][]

InMicrosoft hired a political pollster named Mark Penn, whom The New York Times called "famous for bulldozing" his political opponents[] as Executive Vice-president, Advertising and Strategy. Penn created a series of negative advertisements targeting one of Microsoft's chief competitors, Google. The advertisements, called "Scroogled", attempt to make the case that Google is "screwing" consumers with search results rigged to favor Google's paid advertisers, that Gmail violates the privacy of its users to place ad results related to the content of their emails and shopping results, which favor Google products. Tech publications like TechCrunch have been highly critical of the advertising campaign,[] while Google employees have embraced it.[]

Layoffs

Main article: Criticism of Microsoft

In JulyMicrosoft announced plans to lay off 18, employees. Microsoft employedpeople as of June 5,making this about a 14 percent reduction of its workforce as the biggest Microsoft lay off ever. This included 12, professional and factory personnel. Previously, Microsoft had eliminated 5, jobs in in line with the Great Recession of –[][] In SeptemberMicrosoft laid off 2, people, including people in the Seattle–Redmond area, where the company is headquartered. The firings came as a second wave of the layoffs that were previously announced. This brought the total number to over 15, out of the 18, expected cuts.[] In OctoberMicrosoft revealed that it was almost done with the elimination of 18, employees, which was Advanced systemcare pro 13.7 keygen,serial,crack,generator largest-ever layoff sweep.[] In JulyPc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Microsoft announced another 7, job cuts in the next several months.[] In MayMicrosoft announced another 1, job cuts mostly in its Nokia mobile phone division, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. As a result, the company will record an impairment and restructuring charge of approximately $&#;million, of which approximately $&#;million will relate to severance payments.[]

United States government

Main article: Criticism of Microsoft

Microsoft provides information about reported bugs in their software to intelligence agencies of the United States government, prior to the public release of the fix. A Microsoft spokesperson has stated that the corporation runs several programs that facilitate the sharing of such information with the U.S. government.[] Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in Mayseveral technology companies were identified as participants, including Microsoft.[] According to leaks of said program, Microsoft joined the PRISM program in [] However, in Junean official statement from Microsoft flatly denied their participation in the program:

"We provide customer data only when we receive a legally binding order or subpoena to do so, and never on a voluntary basis. In addition we only ever comply with orders for requests about specific accounts or identifiers. If the government has a broader voluntary national security program to gather customer data, we don't participate in it."[]

During the first six months inMicrosoft had received requests Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs affected between 15, and 15, accounts.[] In Decemberthe company made statement to further emphasize the fact that they take their customers' privacy and data protection very seriously, even saying that "government snooping potentially now constitutes an 'advanced persistent threat,' alongside sophisticated malware and cyber attacks".[] The statement also marked the beginning of three-part program to enhance Microsoft's encryption and transparency efforts. On July 1,as part of this program they opened the first (of many) Microsoft Transparency Center, that provides "participating governments with the ability to review source code for our key products, assure themselves of their software integrity, and confirm there are no "back doors."[] Microsoft has also argued that the United States Congress should enact strong privacy regulations to protect consumer data.[]

In Aprilthe company sued the U.S. government, arguing that secrecy orders were preventing the company from disclosing warrants to customers in violation of the company's and customers' rights. Microsoft argued that it was unconstitutional for the government to indefinitely ban Microsoft from informing its users that the government was requesting their emails and other documents, and that Folder Lock Crack Plus Serial Key 2019 Free Download: Fourth Amendment made it so people or businesses had the right to know if the government searches or seizes their property. On October 23,Microsoft said it would drop the lawsuit as a result of a policy change by the United States Department of Justice (DoJ). The DoJ had "changed data request rules on alerting the Internet users about agencies accessing their information."

Corporate identity

Corporate culture

Technical reference for developers and articles for various Microsoft magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal (MSJ) are available through the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). MSDN also offers subscriptions for companies and individuals, and the more expensive subscriptions usually offer access to pre-release beta versions of Microsoft software.[][] In AprilMicrosoft launched a community site for developers and users, titled Channel 9, that provides a wiki and an Internet forum.[] Another community site that provides daily videocasts and other services, Onnet, launched on March 3, [] Free technical support is traditionally provided through online Usenet newsgroups, and CompuServe in the past, monitored by Microsoft employees; there can be several newsgroups for a single product. Helpful people can be elected by peers or Microsoft employees for Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) status, which entitles them to a sort of special social status and possibilities for awards and other benefits.[]

Noted for its internal lexicon, the expression "eating your own dog food" is used to describe the policy of using pre-release and beta versions of products inside Microsoft in an effort to test them in "real-world" situations.[] This is usually shortened to just "dog food" and is used as noun, verb, and adjective. Another bit of jargon, FYIFV or FYIV ("Fuck You, I'm [Fully] Vested"), Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, is used by an employee to indicate they are financially independent and can avoid work anytime they wish.[]

Microsoft is an outspoken opponent of the cap on H-1B visas, which allow companies in the U.S. to employ certain foreign workers. Bill Gates claims the cap on H1B visas makes it difficult to hire employees for the company, stating "I'd certainly get rid of the H1B cap" in [] Critics of H1B visas argue that relaxing the limits would result in increased unemployment for U.S. citizens due to H1B workers working for lower salaries.[] The Human Halo Infinite torrent Archives Campaign Corporate Equality Index, a report of how progressive the organization deems company policies towards LGBT employees, rated Microsoft as 87% from to and as % from to after they allowed gender expression.[]

In AugustMicrosoft implemented a policy for all companies providing subcontractors to require 12 weeks of paid parental leave to each employee. This expands on the former requirement from requiring 15 days of paid vacation and sick leave each year.[] InMicrosoft established its own parental leave policy to Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs 12 weeks off for parental leave with an additional 8 weeks for the parent who gave birth.[]

Environment

InGreenpeace released a report rating the top ten big brands in cloud computing on their sources of electricity for their data centers. At the time, data centers consumed up to 2% of all global electricity and this amount was projected to increase. Phil Radford of Greenpeace said "we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today,"[] and called on "Amazon, Microsoft and other leaders of the information-technology industry must embrace clean energy to power their cloud-based data centers."[] InMicrosoft agreed to buy power generated by a Texas wind project to power one of its data centers.[] Microsoft is ranked on the 17th place in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics (16th Edition) that ranks 18 electronics manufacturers according to their policies on toxic chemicals, recycling and climate change.[] Microsoft's timeline for phasing out brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and phthalates in all products is but its commitment to phasing out PVC is not clear. As of Januaryit has no products that are completely free from PVC and BFRs.[]

Microsoft's main U.S. campus received a silver certification from the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program inand it installed over 2, solar panels on top of its buildings at its Silicon Valley campus, generating approximately 15 percent of the total energy needed by the facilities in April [] Microsoft makes use of alternative forms of transit. It created one of the world's largest private bus systems, the "Connector", to transport people from outside the company; for on-campus transportation, the "Shuttle Connect" uses a large fleet of hybrid cars to save fuel. The company also subsidizes regional public transport, provided by Sound Transit and King County Metro, as an incentive.[][] In Februaryhowever, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, Microsoft took a stance against adding additional public transport and high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes to the State Route and its floating bridge connecting Redmond to Seattle; the company did not want to delay the construction any further.[] Microsoft was ranked number 1 in the list of the World's Best Multinational Workplaces by the Great Place to Work Institute in [] In Januarythe company promised to remove from the environment all of the carbon that it has emitted since its foundation in [] On October 9,Microsoft made their work from home policy permanent.[] In Januarythe company announced on Twitter to join the Climate Neutral Data Centre Pact, which engages the cloud infrastructure and data centers industries to reach climate neutrality in Europe by

Headquarters

The corporate headquarters, informally known as the Microsoft Redmond campus, is located at One Microsoft Way in Redmond, Washington, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs. Microsoft initially moved onto the grounds of the campus on February 26,weeks before the company went public on March The headquarters has since experienced multiple expansions since its establishment. It is estimated to encompass over 8&#;million ft2 (,&#;m2) of office space and 30,–40, employees.[] Additional offices are located in Bellevue and Issaquah, Washington (90, employees worldwide). The company is planning to upgrade its Mountain View, California, campus on a grand scale. The company has occupied this campus since Inthe company bought the acre (13&#;ha) campus, with plans to renovate and expand it by 25%.[] Microsoft operates an East Coast headquarters in Charlotte, North Carolina.[]

Flagship stores

On October 26,the company opened its retail location on Fifth Avenue in New York City. The location features a five-story glass storefront and is 22, square feet.[] As per company executives, Microsoft had been on the lookout for a flagship location since [] The company's retail locations are part of a greater strategy to help build a connection with its consumers. The opening of the store coincided with the launch of the Surface Book and Surface Pro 4.[] On November 12,Microsoft opened a second flagship store, located in Sydney's Pitt Street Mall.[]

Logo

Microsoft adopted the so-called "Pac-Man Logo," designed by Scott Baker, in Baker stated "The new logo, in Helvetica italic typeface, has a Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs between the o and s to emphasize the "soft" part of the name and convey motion and speed."[] Dave Norris ran an internal joke campaign to save the old logo, which was green, in all uppercase, and featured a fanciful letter O, nicknamed the blibbet, but it was discarded.[] Microsoft's logo with the tagline "Your potential. Our passion."—below the main corporate name—is based on a slogan Microsoft used in Inthe company started using the logo in the United States and eventually started a television campaign with the slogan, changed from the previous tagline of "Where do you want to go today?"[][][] During the private MGX (Microsoft Global Exchange) conference inMicrosoft unveiled the company's next tagline, "Be What's Next."[] They also had a slogan/tagline "Making it all make sense."[]

On August 23,Microsoft unveiled a new corporate logo at the opening of its 23rd Microsoft store in Boston, indicating the company's shift of focus from the classic style to the tile-centric modern interface, which it uses/will use on the Windows Phone platform, XboxWindows 8 and the upcoming Office Suites.[] The new logo also includes four squares with the colors of the then-current Windows logo which have been used to represent Microsoft's four major products: Windows (blue), Office (red), Xbox (green) and Bing (yellow).[] The logo resembles the opening of one of the commercials for Windows [][]

  • Microsoft logo history
  • – First Microsoft logo, in

  • – Second Microsoft logo, in

  • – Third Microsoft logo, in

  • –present: Fifth Microsoft logo, introduced on August 23, []

The company was the official jersey sponsor of Finland's national basketball team at EuroBasket []

Philanthropy

During the COVID pandemic, Microsoft's president, Brad Smith, announced that an initial batch of supplies, including 15, protection goggles, infrared thermometers, medical caps, and protective suits, were donated to Seattle, with further aid to come soon.[]

See also

References

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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

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Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Hi Samuel,

Give this Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs link a look:

shoppingdowntown.us

Note: This is a non-Microsoft website. The page appears to be providing accurate, Pc Game Archives - Malik Softs, safe information. Watch out for ads on the site that may advertise products frequently classified as a PUP (Potentially Unwanted Products). Thoroughly research any product advertised on the site before you decide to download and install it.

It has a fix that looks to have helped some. Give it a shot and let me know!
- C

2 people found this reply helpful

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Hi Samuel,

Sorry for the inconvenience caused to you and thank you for your valuable question please, I would suggest you to see Meghmala 's methods in the below mentioned article and see if it helps. If the issue persists kindly do let me know, waiting for your kind reply please.

shoppingdowntown.us

Secondly kindly see the below mentioned useful article also

shoppingdowntown.us

Note: This is a non-Microsoft website. The page appears to be providing accurate, safe information. Watch out for ads on the site that may advertise products frequently classified as a PUP (Potentially Unwanted Products). Thoroughly research any product advertised on the site before you decide to download and install it.

Please let me know, if that helps and feel free to ask back any question.

Kind Regards:
Yasir

2 people found this reply helpful

·

Was this reply helpful?

Sorry this didn't help.

Great! Thanks for your feedback.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site.

How satisfied are you with this reply?

Thanks for your feedback.

 

 

Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

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