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Behavior [HTML]
Behavior
...nic strains 1.10. RNAi 1.11. Summary 1.12. Acknowledgements 2. Mechanosensation 2.1. Gentle touch to the body 2.2. Harsh touch to the body 2.3. Precipice response 2.4. Nictation 2.5. Head withdrawal and foraging 2.6. Tap reflex and habituation to tap (including tap reflex)...

...s, chemoaversion and plasticity-quadrant plate, version 1 4.2. Chemotaxis and chemoaversion-quadrant assay, version 2 4.3. Drop assay 4.4. Chemotaxis to volatile point source 4....

...1. Introduction 1.1. Considerations for behavioral assays 1.2. Controls for behavioral assays 1.3. Feeding status and cul...

.... Tap reflex and habituation to tap (including tap reflex). 2.7. Nose touch 3. Osmotic avoidance 3.1. Osmotic ring assay ...

Behavior : 1. Introduction
... an assay, these variables should at least be considered. 1.2. Controls for behavioral assays Controls: Clearly, con...

...he same transgenic marker such as GFP or phenotypic rescue, 2) the same genetic background, 3) an “empty” ver...

Behavior : 2. Mechanosensation
...not touch the animals too near the tip of the head or tail. 2.1.2. Qualitative assays for touch sensitivity 2.1.2.1. Stroking with an eyebrow hair The initial and most ...

...f the arrows. The six touch receptor neurons are indicated. 2.1.2.2. Tapping the plate Wild-type animals will move (adults...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.87.1 2. Mechanosensation 2.1. Gentle touch to the body Contributed by Martin Chal...

...rms of number of responses) to touches in the head or tail. 2.1.3.2. Using worm von Frey hairs von Frey hairs have been us...

Behavior : 3. Osmotic avoidance
...8220; Chemotaxis and chemoaversion, quadrant assay, version 2 ” and “ Drop assay ”. Contributed by Anne...

...number of animals leads to aberrantly low escape rates. 3.1.2. Preparing assay plates and reagents The dryness of th...

...the glycerol soak into the agar; this usually takes between 2 and 5 minutes. Lift the cap off. Check to make sure the ann...

Behavior : 4. Chemosensation
...ickinson Labware, USA) are filled with 16 ml buffered agar (2% agar, 5 mM K 2 HPO 4 /KH 2 PO 4 MgSO 4 ) either containing a dissolved attractant or n...

...t nematodes are washed three times with CTX buffer (5 mM KH 2 PO 4 /K 2 HPO 4 pH 6, 1 mM CaCl 2 and 1 mM MgSO 4 ) and 100–200 worms are placed at the...

...sure. We found that chemotaxis to 25 mM NaCl worked best. 4.2. Chemotaxis and chemoaversion-quadrant assay, version 2 Contributed by Stephen Wicks, Boston College, Chestnut Hill...

...., 2000 ). The assay is robust enough to characterize known mutants, or to screen for new mutants which fail to approach or avoid soluble compounds such as s...

Behavior : 5. Learning, adaptation and habituation
...mLs of adaptation agar (3% agar, 5mM KPO 4 [pH6], 1 mM CaCl 2 , 1 mM MgSO 4 ) or chemotaxis assay agar (2% agar, 5mM KPO 4 [pH6], 1 mM CaCl 2 , 1 mM MgSO 4 ) is aliquoted into 10 cm Petri plates, and a...

...otaxis to an odorant after pretreatment with the odorant. 5.2.2. Chemotaxis assay Chemotaxis assay plates are prepared...

...assay plates are prepared as follows: 10 mLs of assay agar (2% agar, 5mM KPO 4 [pH6], 1 mM CaCl 2 , 1 mM MgSO 4 is aliquoted into 10 cm Petri plates, and all...

... have used benzaldehyde, butanone and isoamyl-alcohol. When making adaptation or chemotaxis agar, KP0 4 , CaCl 2 and MgSO 4 are prepared separately and added after autoclav...

Behavior : 6. Thermal responses
...and reagents 9-cm starvation plates. The medium consists of 2% agar, 1mM CaCl 2 , 1mM MgSO 4 , and 25mM pH 6.0 potassium phosphate. After a...

...02 ; Satterlee et al., 2004 ; Figure 5 ). Figure 5.  6.2.2. Thermal stage The thermal stage is designed for use o...

...or thermotaxis (Ttx) assays ( Mori and Ohshima, 1995 ). 6.1.2. Radial thermotaxis (Ttx) assay Equipment and reagents...

...at room temperature. Do not use old seeded NGM plates (over 2 weeks). C. elegans : Use the healthy adult animals from unc...

Behavior : 7. Locomotion
...evels. Bordering can be quantified on NGM plates containing 2.1% agar seeded 2 days before the assay with 200 l of E. coli OP50 in LB medi...

...to me to be a more direct measure of the effort the worm is making to move which should be less influenced by these factors. I...

...might be introduced by using different batches of plates. 7.2. Decreased locomotion on food Contributed by Niels Rin...

...d is easily made by holding the plate at an angle, dripping 2-3 drops of fructose at the edge of the plate, and rotating ...

Behavior : 8. Feeding
...d at http://eatworms.swmed.edu/Worm_labs/Avery/MiniRig/ . 8.2. Pharyngeal pumping rate Pumping rate are measured by ...

Behavior : 9. Egg-laying, males and mating
...e precisely classify the phenotypes of egg-laying defective mutants. Some mutants with slow egg-laying rates (e.g., mutants defective in HSN function) show a lengthened time constant ...

...ant for the short, intraburst intervals. In contrast, other mutants (e.g., mutants affecting muscle calcium channels) exhibit an unclustered, ...

...example, cat-4 adults dissolve almost immediately, many Egl mutants dissolve okay, and N2 is difficult to dissolve; often the N...

...olve; often the N2 cuticle remains around the bunch of eggs making it difficult to resolve exactly the number of eggs in the t...

Behavior : 10. Assays of C. elegans reproductive behaviors
...ethanol containing 5 mg/ml cholesterol (Sigma), per liter H 2 O] Escherichia coli strain OP50 (OD=1.0). 10.4.2.2. Method Prepare plastic Petri plates with 10 ml agar m...

...croscope with moveable stage, video camera, and monitor. 10.2.2. Method The day before, put 5 μ l of bacteria fro...

...9 buffer for 4hrs before the assay, room temperature. Place 2 μ l of M9 buffer (control spot) and 2 μ l of hermaphrodite-conditioned M9 buffer (conditione...

... r/b/t/l (r= 1, l= 1/1 or 100%) or r/b/t/h/b/f/l (r=1, l= 1/2 or 50%) lov-1 mutants: x/x/r/./r/./r/b/t/p/t/b/t/p/t/b/t/l (r=1, L=1/3 or 30%). A...

Behavior : 11. Defecation
...out a second later by relaxation of the same muscles. About 2 seconds after the pBoc relaxation, specialized anal muscles...


Methods in cell biology [HTML]
Methods in cell biology
...Methods View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Visualizing cells and their components 2.1. Differential interference contrast (DIC or Nomarski) mic...

...erential interference contrast (DIC or Nomarski) microscopy 2.2. Polarized light microscopy (Denise Flaherty and Guy Benian...

...Polarized light microscopy (Denise Flaherty and Guy Benian) 2.3. Fluorescence microscopy 2.4. Electron microscopy 3. Protein-protein and protein-DNA i...

...cific methods in C. elegans cell biology 4.1. Endocytosis 4.2. Chromatin cell biology (Györgyi Csankovszki and Barba...

Methods in cell biology : 2. Visualizing cells and their components
...Reagents 4X Egg Salts   472 mM NaCl 5.517 g 160 mM KCl 2.386 g 13.6 mM CaCl 2 ·2H 2 0 0.400 g 13.6 mM MgCl 2 ·6H 2 0 0.553 g dH 2 0 to 200 ml 1X Culture Media 1X Egg Salts 5 mM Hepes, pH 7.2 5% Fetal Calf Serum FIX 1 (Make up fresh) 0.60 ml dH 2 0 2.5 ml 2X Eggs Salts/10 mM Hepes 0.1 ml 0.5M EGTA 1.0 ml 16% ...

...ES pH 5.6, room temperature for 60 min. Wash in 0.2M HEPES, 2 × 10 min; wash in 0.1M NaAcetate pH 5.2, 2 × 10 min. Stain in 1% UAc in 0.1M NaAcetate, pH 5.2, room temperature for 45 min. Wash in 0.1M NaAcetate, 2 × 10 min; wash in 0.2M HEPES, 2 × 10 min. Embed cut pieces in 3% agarose, positioning...

...; 30 ″ , 1 × 5 ′ , 1 × 10 ′ , 2 × 1 hr. Post-Fix in 1% OsO 4 +1%KFe(CN) 6 in .2 M NaCacodylate for 1 to 2 hours. Wash in 0.1M NaCacodylate: 2 × 30 ″ , 1 × 5 ′ , 2 × 10 ′ . Post-Fix in 0.2% tannic acid in 0.1M Cacodylate for 15 ′ . Wash in 0....

...@60°C. Buffer Recipes 0.2M NaCacodylate 42.8g Na(CH 3 ) 2 AsO 2 3H 2 O in 1000ml dH 2 O 0.2 M HCl [10 ml conc. HCl + 603 ml dH 2 O] 50ml A + B /18.3 → pH/6.4 Q.S. to 200 ml Protocol ...

Methods in cell biology : 3. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions
...e. Trace metals solution: Per liter solution, add 1.86 g Na 2 EDTA, 0.69 g FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O, 0.2 g MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O, 0.29 g ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O, 0.016g CuSO 4 . Autoclave to sterilize and store in the ...

...suspend in 100 μL TE. Buffer Recipes M9 buffer: 6 g Na 2 HPO 4 , 3 g KH 2 PO 4 , 5 g NaCl, 0.25 g of MgSO 4 7H 2 O per liter. Autoclave. 1 M potassium citrate, pH 6.0: Per ...

...ter) for 10–30 minutes. Spin in a microcentrifuge for 2 min. at 2,000 × g to pellet the Sepharose beads or IgGsorb. Tra...

...um phosphate, pH 6.0: Per liter solution, dissolve 136 g KH 2 PO 4 in 900 mL dH 2 O and adjust pH with KOH. Autoclave to sterilize. 10 x S ba...

Methods in cell biology : 4. Specific methods in C. elegans cell biology
...efly at 4°C. Egg Buffer: NaCl (118 mM) KCl (48 mM) CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O (2 mM) MgCl 2 ·6H 2 O (2 mM) Hepes (25 mM) Adjust pH to 7.3 with 1N NaOH. Filter Ste...

...nbsp; 25 mM KCl   1 mM MgSO 4   45 mM NaCl   2 mM CaCl 2 PBST: 10 ml 10X PBS   2.5 ml 20% Triton X-100   0.2 ml 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8   87.3 ml ddH 2 O DABCO: 50 ml total 5 g DABCO   5 ml PBS   45 ml...

...nbsp; 25 mM KCl   1 mM MgSO 4   45 mM NaCl   2 mM CaCl 2 PBST: 10 ml 10X PBS   2.5 ml 20% Triton X-100   0.2 ml 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8   87.3 ml ddH 2 O DABCO: 50 ml total 5 g DABCO   5 ml PBS   45 ml...

... PBST 3 × 10 minutes. Place slides in 70% ethanol for 2 minutes. 80% ethanol for 2 minutes, 95% ethanol for 2 minutes, 100% ethanol for 2 minutes. Air dry. Proceed with FISH. Fixation of embryos. B...

Methods in cell biology : 5. Embryonic cell culture
... NaCl (118 mM) 3.448g 6.896g KCl (48 mM) 1.789g 3.578g CaCl 2 • 2H 2 O (2 mM) 0.147g 0.294g MgCl 2 • 6H 2 O (2 mM) 0.203g 0.406g HEPES (25 mM) 2.979g 5.958g It is important that these weights are exact be...

...y filling the tube with egg buffer (118 mM NaCl, 48 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl 2 , 2 mM MgCl 2 , 25 mM Hepes, pH 7.3, 340 mOsm) and immediately pellet the...

... buffer: 11.8 ml 1 M NaCl, 4.8 ml 1 M KCl, 0.34 ml 1 M CaCl 2 , 0.34 ml 1 M MgCl 2 , 2.0 ml 0.25 M HEPES (pH 7.4), 82.5 ml dH 2 O. Filter-sterilize and store at 4°C. Chitinase/chymotr...

...–100 °C to degrade RNA. Chill on ice and then add 2 μl 10 × KFI buffer (D2) 2 μl d-NTP mix (2.5 mM each) 1 μl 100 mM DTT (Gibco) 1 μl T4 DNA po...


Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans [HTML]
Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans
...1.5. Function and pathways for individual G α subunits 2. G α s 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Phenotypes 2.3. Expression 2.4. Pathways 3. G α q 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Phenotypes 3.3. Expression 3.4. Pathways 4. Regulators of ...

...ated by RGS-7 . The C. elegans genome encodes 21 G α , 2 G β and 2 G γ subunits. The α subunits include one ortholog...

... 1. Introduction 1.1. G protein structure/G protein cycle 1.2. C. elegans G protein genes 1.3. β subunits 1.4. γ...

...of EGL-30/G protein signaling network 4.1. RGS regulation 4.2. GEF regulation 4.3. Negative regulation of the EGL-30 path...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 1. Introduction
...sp; C. elegans G protein genes C. elegans has 21 G α , 2 G β and 2 G γ genes ( Jansen et al., 1999 ; Cuppen et al., 2003 ...

...subunits have been identified in C. elegans , gpc-1 and gpc-2 ( Jansen et al., 2002 ). GPC-1 and GPC-2 show from 22 to 79% amino acid identity to the vertebrate G...

...he α subunit, stimulating the exchange of GDP for GTP (2). Additional GEFs have been isolated that act on GDP associ...

...s higher affinity for the G α -GTP transition state. 1.2.  C. elegans G protein genes C. elegans has 21 G α...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 2. Gαs
...y ( Korswagen et al., 1998 ). The terminal phenotype of acy-2 (lf) mutants resembles that of gsa-1 (lf) mutants and clr-1 mutants ( Korswagen et al., 1998 ), which phenotypically mimic worm...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.75.1 2. G α s 2.1. Introduction GSA-1 , encoded by gsa-1 , shares over...

...MP levels over untransfected cells ( Hobson et al., 2003 ). 2.2. Phenotypes In C. elegans GSA-1 is required for viabil...

...ermined in large-scale RNAi assays ( Simmer et al., 2003 ). 2.3. Expression GSA-1 is broadly expressed in neurons an...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 3. Gαq
...lcium transients in vulval muscles ( Shyn et al., 2003 ). 3.2. Phenotypes A complete loss-of-function mutation of eg...

...ycerol kinase) can partially bypass the resistance of egl-8 mutants for aldicarb, indicating that acetylcholine release is depe...

...titutively membrane-bound restores acetylcholine release to mutants lacking EGL-8 ( Lackner et al., 1999 ). Also, the larval ar...

...999 ). Also, the larval arrest and paralysis of egl-30 null mutants are rescued by phorbol ester treatment ( Reynolds et al., 2...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 4. Regulators of EGL-30/G protein signaling network
..., 2000 ). Genetic analysis using a targeted deletion of gpb-2 also indicates that GPB-2 modulates the EGL-30 / GOA-1 signaling network (see Figure 2 ; Chase et al., 2001 ; van der Linden et al., 2001 ). Like ...

...athways. Signaling mechanisms that drive interaction of GPB-2 with either RGS protein remain to be elucidated. Figure 2.  Depicted is the G protein signaling network that con...

...drolysis in cultured cells ( Hajdu-Cronin et al., 1999 ). 4.2. GEF regulation ric-8 encodes a GEF expressed in neuro...

...on mutations in egl-30 suppress the paralysis of ric-8 (rf) mutants, even a strong gain-of-function mutation in egl-30 is unabl...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 5. Gαo
... al., 2004 ). However, RIC-8 appears to act prior to GPR-1 /2 since RIC-8 is required for the association of GPR-1 /2 with GOA-1 , but GPR-1 /2 is not required for the association of RIC-8 with GOA-1 ( A...

...#945; o ( Lochrie et al., 1991 ). Characterization of goa-1 mutants and intensive RNAi analysis has revealed that G α o si...

...rientation ( Fraser et al., 2000 ; Simmer et al., 2003 ). 5.2. Phenotypes Null mutations in goa-1 are mostly viable ...

... ( Miller et al., 1999 ; Nurrish et al., 1999 ). goa-1 (lf) mutants display a number of behavioral defects including hyperactiv...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 6. Gα12
...et al., 1995 ; Fromm et al., 1997 ; Katoh et al., 1998 ). 6.2. Phenotypes Analysis of a gpa-12 null mutation as well...

...eal muscle, based on heterologous promoter fusions with myo-2 ( van der Linden et al., 2003 ), suggesting that these prot...

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 7. GPAs
...nts. In their study, butanone response was too low in odr-3 mutants to detect a redundant stimulatory function for GPA-2 ( Lans et al., 2004 ). gpa-2 (lf) mutants are partially resistant to dauer pheromone with respect to ...

...ns et al., 2004 ). Chemotaxis to diacetyl also requires GRK-2 . The reduced response to diacetyl seen in grk-2 (lf) mutants is significantly restored in mutants lacking the RGS protein EAT-16 , suggesting that EAT-16 may...

...odr-3 partially rescues the octanol avoidance defect of grk-2 (lf) mutants which lack the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK-2 ( Fukuto et al., 2004 ). ASH also mediates avoidance of the...

... ; Roayaie et al., 1998 ; Jansen et al., 1999 ). odr-3 (lf) mutants were isolated in screens for mutants defective in osmotic avoidance and in chemotaxis to benzald...


Neuropeptides [HTML]
Neuropeptides
...mitters View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Formation of mature neuropeptides 2.1. Processing of neuropeptide precursor molecules 2.2. Neuropeptides are released from dense core vesicles 3. Imm...

.... Neuropeptide function 7.1. The insulin-like gene family 7.2. The flp family 7.3. The nlp family 8. Neuropeptide recepto...

Neuropeptides : 1. Introduction
...1 ; Li et al., 2003 ) and the FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH 2 )-related peptides or FaRPs, which are referred to as FLPs ...

Neuropeptides : 2. Formation of mature neuropeptides
...nd decreased FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in egl-3 / kpc-2mutants, suggesting that egl-3 / kpc-2 cleaves some, but not all FLP precursors and that other pro...

...isolated from wild type and different proprotein convertase mutants. kpc-1 (gk8) and bli-4 ( e937 )/kpc-4 mutants showed a similar peptide profile as wild type, suggesting t...

...s more severe phenotypes than those seen in the egl-3 / kpc-2 proprotein convertase mutants. egl-21 null alleles show defects in egg laying, locomotion...

...involved in neuropeptide amidation has not been determined. 2.2. Neuropeptides are released from dense core vesicles B...

Neuropeptides : 4. Identification of putative neuropeptide genes
...AIM, ASE, ASG, AWA, BAG, NSM, intestine, vulval muscles DAF-2 antagonist? DAF-2? 2, 3, 4 ins-2 ZK75.2 II VQKRLCGRRLILFMLATCGECDTD SSEDLSHICCIKQCDVQDIIRVCCPNSFRK ...

...LP-1-4 FLP-1-5 FLP-1-6 FLP-1-7 FLP-1-8 PF2 PF1 AF26 1-6 flp-2 W07E11.3 X * SPR EPIRFG LRG EPIRFG FLP-2-1 FLP-2-2   4, 7, 8 flp-3 W07E11.2 X SPL GTMRFG * TPL GTMRFG * EAEEPL GTMRFG NPL GTMRFG * ASED...

...EFGLM  * YPYLIFPASPSSGDSRRLV ASK, ADL, 6 head neurons, 2 tail neurons, I2, g1D, pm5L, pm5R, 2 RVG, processes in pharynx, intestine; HOB   1, 2, 3, 4 nlp-9 E03D2.2 V GGARAF YGFYNAGNS  GGGRAF NHNANLFRFD GGGRAF AGSWSPYLE...

... C03G5.7 X * GA KFIRFG AGA KFIRFG APKP KFIRFG FLP-5-1 FLP-5-2 FLP-5-3   2, 7, 8 flp-6 F07D3.2 V x6 * KSAYMRFG * pQQDSEVEREMM FLP-6-1 FLP-6-2 AF8/PF3 3, 7-11 flp-7 F49E10.3 X x3 * SPMQRSS MVRFG x2 * TP...

Neuropeptides : 5. Expression and localization of neuropeptide genes
...mains and the FLPs all share a common C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH 2 ), antibodies are difficult to generate against specific ne...

...expression pattern of 60 neuropeptide genes (see Tables 1 , 2 and 3 ), including 15 insulin-like genes ( Pierce et al., 2...

...us system as well as in non-neuronal tissue (see Tables 1 , 2 and 3 ). For instance, over 160 neurons, which represent ov...

...and 9 , nlp-1 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 14 , 18 , 24 , and 27 , and flp-2 , 10 , and 21 ( Nathoo et al., 2001 ; Pierce et al., 2001 ;...

Neuropeptides : 6. Biochemical isolation of neuropeptides
...et al., 2005 ; S. Husson and L. Schoofs, pers. comm.; Table 2 ). Indeed, the identification of flp-33 was based on the bi...

Neuropeptides : 7. Neuropeptide function
...ulin pathway ( Kao et al., 2007 ). Hence, activation of DAF-2 leads to reproductive growth, whereas inactivation of DAF-2 leads to dauer arrest ( Riddle and Albert, 1997 ). DAF-2 also functions to determine lifespan ( Kenyon et al., 1993 ...

...her ins genes may enhance or suppress the phenotypes of daf-2 and daf-28 mutants. The phenotypes caused by overexpression of several ins gen...

...vel of dauer arrest and enhanced the dauer phenotype of daf-2 and/or daf-7 TGF β mutants, whereas no dauer effects were seen with overexpression of ...

...1 and INS-18 may function to antagonize the activity of DAF-2 or to down-regulate daf-2 to promote dauer formation ( Pierce et al., 2001 ), while I...

Neuropeptides : 8. Neuropeptide receptors
...cits ( Keating et al., 2003 ). RNAi of six receptors, C16D6.2 , C25G6.5 , C26F1.6 , F35G8.1 , F41E7.3 , and F59C12.2 , resulted in either an increased or decreased brood size (...

... eight receptors, AC7.1 (tachykinin-like), C15B12.5 , C10C6.2 , C24A8.4 , F15A8.5 , F59D12.1 , T02E9.1 , and T05A1.1 , ca...

...ta were confirmed in two cases by the isolation of deletion mutants in T05A1.1 and F35G8.1 ( Keating et al., 2003 ). Several of...

..., 2003 ; Rogers et al., 2003 ; Mertens et al., 2004 ; Table 2 ). Different FLP ligands were applied and several assays we...

Neuropeptides : 9. Pharmacology of FLP neuropeptides
...s have been examined in a pharyngeal preparation (see Table 2 ; Rogers et al., 2001 ). Muscles of exposed pharyngeal term...


Dauer [HTML]
Dauer
.... Modifier screens 9.1. sdf ( s ynthetic d auer f ormation) mutants 9.2. eak ( e nhancer of ak t-1 ) mutants 10. The XXX cells as a site of integration of insulin-like ...

...lopment View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Environmental influences on dauer arrest 3. Dauer morpholo...

...ays regulating dauer arrest 6.1. Guanylyl cyclase pathway 6.2. TGF β -like pathway 6.3. Insulin-like pathway 6.4. Gu...

...nd expression 6.5. Steroid hormone pathway 7. Amphid neuron mutants 8. Regulation of dauer arrest at 27°C 9. Modifier scree...

Dauer : 1. Introduction
...years, the molecular identities of genes mutated in various mutants exhibiting dysregulation of dauer arrest ( daf mutants) have revealed the critical roles of evolutionarily conserv...

Dauer : 2. Environmental influences on dauer arrest
...10.1895/wormbook.1.144.1 2. Environmental influences on dauer arrest The dauer de...

... 1984a ), and some temperature-sensitive dauer-constitutive mutants are suppressible by an amber nonsense suppressor ( Golden a...

Dauer : 5. Pheromone
...ally isolated by Paik's group, 5-O-ascarylosyl-5 R -hydroxy-2-hexanone and an ascaroside derivative of 8 R -hydroxy-2 E -nonenoic acid, are two orders of magnitude more potent t...

...the ascaroside (-)-6-(3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxy) heptanoic acid has dauer pheromone activity ( Jeong ...

...re potent than (-)-6-(3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxy) heptanoic acid at inducing dauer arrest ( Butcher et...

...tiple compounds ( Butcher et al., 2007 ) suggests that each compound may bind to a distinct receptor that transduces a dauer-pro...

Dauer : 6. Molecular characterization of signaling pathways regulating dauer arrest
...11 inhibits dauer arrest at least in part by activating TAX-2 and TAX-4 through increased cGMP synthesis. tax-4 mutants have a weaker Daf-c phenotype than daf-11 mutants ( Coburn et al., 1998 ), indicating that DAF-11 probably ac...

...ore, unlike guanylyl cyclase pathway and TGF β pathway mutants, daf-2 pathway mutants exhibit extended lifespans ( Friedman and Johnson, 1988 ; H...

...ions in akt-1 and pdk-1 suppress dauer arrest in age-1 null mutants but do not efficiently suppress dauer formation in daf-2(e1370) mutants ( Inoue and Thomas, 2000a ; Paradis et al., 1999 ; Paradis ...

... allele daf-18(e1375) suppresses dauer arrest in age-1 null mutants but not in daf-2(e1370) mutants ( Gil et al., 1999 ; Gottlieb and Ruvkun, 1994 ; Inoue and ...

Dauer : 7. Amphid neuron mutants
...10.1895/wormbook.1.144.1 7. Amphid neuron mutants Three mutants initially isolated based on defects in dauer arrest have st...

...arvation ( Albert et al., 1981 ). daf-10 and most other Dyf mutants suppress the dauer arrest phenotype of daf-11 mutants ( Starich et al., 1995 ; Vowels and Thomas, 1992 ), indicat...

...nt ( Albert et al., 1981 ; Perens and Shaham, 2005 ). daf-6 mutants are also unique among Dyf mutants in their inability to suppress the daf-11 dauer arrest phen...

...mphid cilia cannot access the external environment in daf-6 mutants suggests that the Daf-d phenotype of these mutants may be a result of the inability of the amphid neurons to s...

Dauer : 8. Regulation of dauer arrest at 27°C
... 25°C, including daf-3 /SMAD (as described in Section 6.2 ) and many Dyf mutants ( Ailion and Thomas, 2000 ; Apfeld and Kenyon, 1999 ). Thus...

... and Thomas, 2000 ; Apfeld and Kenyon, 1999 ). Thus, in Dyf mutants, a mere 2°C elevation in ambient temperature changes the collecti...

...lion and Thomas, 2000 ; Ailion and Thomas, 2003 ). Many Hid mutants have defects in synaptic transmission ( Ailion et al., 1999...

...e nature of dauer regulation. Intriguingly, a subset of Hid mutants that form dauers at high penetrance at 27°C have a Daf-...

Dauer : 9. Modifier screens
...by promoting dafachronic acid synthesis in the XXX cells. 9.2.  eak ( e nhancer of ak t-1 ) mutants Based on the indirect evidence supporting the existence of ...

...bsp;Modifier screens Since genetic screens for dauer arrest mutants at 25°C have been saturated, some groups have sought to...

...;C have been saturated, some groups have sought to identify mutants that exhibit dauer arrest phenotypes in specific genetic ba...

...auer arrest. 9.1.  sdf ( s ynthetic d auer f ormation) mutants unc-31 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of CAPS, a cytosolic...

Dauer : 10. The XXX cells as a site of integration of insulin-like and steroid hormone signaling
...mpared to the dauer arrest phenotype observed in strong daf-2 /InsR , daf-7 /TGF β , and steroid hormone pathway mutants indicates that other cells and tissues besides XXX likely p...

...uppresses the dauer arrest phenotype of eak-4 ;akt-1 double mutants ( Hu et al., 2006 ), suggesting that insulin-like signaling...

... ( Li et al., 2003 ; Pierce et al., 2001 ) could engage DAF-2 /InsR on the XXX cell surface, activate AKT-1 , and promote...

...thesis by DAF-9 /CYP27A1. It remains to be seen whether daf-2 /InsR is expressed in the XXX cells, as well as whether DAF...

Dauer : 11. Expression profiling of dauers
...ion was regulated strongly in the daf-7 /TGF β pathway mutants undergoing dauer arrest (P = 0.01). Notably, daf-2 /InsR and daf-9 are downregulated and daf-12 is upregulated...

...pared gene expression profiles of daf-7 /TGF β pathway mutants undergoing dauer arrest to profiles of wild-type early L3 l...

...ated and daf-12 is upregulated in daf-7 /TGF β pathway mutants, suggesting that DAF-7 /TGF β signaling feeds forward ...

Dauer : 13. RNAi-based analysis of dauer formation
...own dauer-constitutive genes does not efficiently phenocopy mutants ( Tewari et al., 2004 ). In light of the success of modifie...


Chemosensation in C. elegans [HTML]
Chemosensation in C. elegans
...G protein ODR-3 and modulatory G proteins in chemosensation 2.3. cGMP signaling and the TAX-4/TAX-2 channel 2.4. The TRPV channels OSM-9/OCR-2 and lipid signaling 2.5. Adaptation and modulation of chemosensation 2.6. Regulation of chemosensory gene expression 3. Complex ch...

...body size 1.6. Oxygen sensation by URX, AQR and PQR neurons 2. Signal transduction in chemosensation 2.1. Expression, localization, and function of chemosensory G...

...n, and function of chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors 2.2. The G protein ODR-3 and modulatory G proteins in chemosens...

...y neurons 1.1. Structure of chemosensory organs and cilia 1.2. ASE gustatory neurons sense salts and water-soluble attrac...

Chemosensation in C. elegans : 1. Chemosensation and its regulation by ciliated sensory neurons
...1 AWC Volatile chemotaxis, Lifespan, Navigation GPCRs ( str-2 ); odr-3 (major), gpa-3 , gpa-2 , gpa-5 , gpa-13 tax-4 , tax-2 , daf-11 , odr-1 , odr-4 , odr-8 , cGMP osm-9 , egl-4 , grk...

...; odr-3 (major), gpa-3 , gpa-5 ; gpa-13 ; gpa-6 osm-9 , ocr-2 , fat-3 , PUFA, odr-4 , odr-8 egl-4 , grk-2 , tax-6 , ttx-4 AWB Volatile avoidance GPCRs; odr-3 tax-4 ,...

...minor), Chemotaxis (minor), Lifespan, Navigation GPCRs; gpa-2 , gpa-3 , gpa-14 , gpa-15 tax-4 , tax-2 , cGMP, odr-1 , daf-11 , odr-4 kin-29 ADL Avoidance (minor)...

...1986 ). At least 27 genes can mutate to this phenotype: che-2 , 3 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , daf-6 , 10 , 19 , dyf-1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , osm-1 , 3...

Chemosensation in C. elegans : 2. Signal transduction in chemosensation
...ave defects in activity-dependent gene expression ( section 2.6.2 ) and in sensory axon structure. In tax-2 and tax-4 mutants, the ASE, ASJ, and ASI neurons either form secondary axons ...

...ns ( Daniels et al., 2000 ; Fujiwara et al., 2002 ; section 2.5.2 , 2.6.2 , 3.1 ). sdf-13 encodes a transcription factor of the Tbx2 ...

...ins ( Jansen et al., 1999 ), the GPCR-regulatory kinase GRK-2 ( Fukuto et al., 2004 ; see section 2.5.2 ), and the ODR-4 / ODR-8 GPCR trafficking system ( Dwyer et...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.123.1 2. Signal transduction in chemosensation 2.1. Expression, localization, and function of chemosens...

Chemosensation in C. elegans : 3. Complex chemosensory behaviors
...ls with severe defects in the ciliated neurons, such as che-2mutants, spend almost all of their time dwelling. Conversely, egl-4...

... spend almost all of their time dwelling. Conversely, egl-4 mutants roam more frequently than wild-type animals. Cell type-spec...

...and-pirouette components as directed chemotaxis ( section 1.2.1 ). Over the next thirty minutes, reversals are suppressed...

...es than in the maintenance of specific behavioral states. 3.2. Chemosensory learning and imprinting Associative lear...


Immunohistochemistry [HTML]
Immunohistochemistry
...able of Contents 1. Introduction 1.1. Immunocytochemistry 1.2. Western blot analysis 1.3. General comments 2. Protocols and procedures 2.1. Protocol 1: Antigen preparation 2.2. Protocol 2: Peptide coupling 2.3. Protocol 3: Chicken antibody purification 2.4. Protocol 4: Affinity purification 2.5. Protocol 5: Fixation conditions 2.6. Protocol 6: Freeze-crack 2.7. Protocol 7: Tube fixation 2.8. Protocol 8: Bouin's tube fixation 2.9. Protocol 9: Peroxide tube fixation 2.10. Protocol 10: Picric acid + glutaraldehyde fixation 2.11. Protocol 11: Depletion of primary antibody 2.12. Protocol 12: Cleaning secondary antibody 2.13. Protocol 13: Staining slides 2.14. Protocol 14: Staining tube-fixed worms 2.15. Protocol 15: Worm protein preparation 2.16. Protocol 16: Worm protein gel 2.17. Protocol 17: Western transfer 3. References ...

Immunohistochemistry : 1. Introduction
...e available to test antibody specificity. If there are null mutants or RNAi worms for the gene and protein of interest, then co...

... , and Picric acid + glutaraldehyde fixation protocols ) or 2) compress and freeze worms between slides and mechanically ...

...ty and morphology with the different fixation conditions. 1.2. Western blot analysis Western blot analysis is useful...

...lowed by permeabilization by collagenase treatment ( Figure 2 , Protocols 7 and 14 ) or other chemical permeabilization (...

Immunohistochemistry : 2. Protocols and procedures
... the top slide of the sandwich. 10X PBS (for 1 L) 80 g NaCl 2.0 g KCl 27 g Na 2 HPO 4 :7H 2 O 2.4 g KH 2 PO 4 2 g Sodium Azide TOXIC Allow salts to dissolve (with gentle h...

...d chill before using. 10X PBS, no azide (for 1 L) 80 g NaCl 2.0 g KCl 27.2 g Na 2 HPO 4 :7H 2 O 2.4 g KH 2 PO 4 Allow salts to dissolve (with gentle heat and stirring...

...ffinity purification (see Antibody purification protocol ). 2.2. Protocol 2: Peptide coupling 2.2.1. General comments This is a very simple and rapid pr...

...oupled peptide. Store at -20°C in well-sealed aliquots. 2.2.3. Solutions 100 mM NaPO 4 138 mg NaH 2 PO 4 -H 2 O 10 ml dd water Adjust pH to 7 with NaOH. 20 mM glutaralde...


Reverse genetics [HTML]
Reverse genetics
... Contents 1. Introduction to reverse genetics in C. elegans 2. Using RNAi to knockdown gene function 2.1. Which RNAi method to use? 2.2. Which worm strain to use? 2.3. Which stage of worm to use? 2.4. How do I know whether the RNAi has worked? 2.5. Can I use RNAi to target multiple genes? 2.6. Desigining a large-scale RNAi screen 2.7. Where do I get RNAi clones? 2.8. Did I target the gene I wanted to target? 3. RNAi by inj...

...ection 3.1. Preparing template for in vitro transcription 3.2. Preparing dsRNA 3.3. Worm handling 3.4. Acknowledgements 4...

... Acknowledgements 4. RNAi by soaking 4.1. Preparing dsRNA 4.2. RNAi by soaking 4.3. Notes and troubleshooting 4.4. Acknow...

...RNAi feeding on agar plates 5.1. Preparing feeding plates 5.2. Preparing the worms 5.3. Feeding and scoring 5.4. Feeding ...

Reverse genetics : 1. Introduction to reverse genetics in C. elegans
...viduals are treated with mutagens to induce DNA lesions and mutants with a phenotype of interest are sought. After a mutant is ...

...erest in another organism, but for which no forward genetic mutants have yet been identified. Finally, the vast majority of gen...

... C. elegans : RNA interference and the creation of deletion mutants. Either technique can be applied to the study of individual...

... screening of loss of function phenotypes and then deletion mutants are made to study genes of particular interest. RNAi can al...

Reverse genetics : 2. Using RNAi to knockdown gene function
...re. Worms of any stage can be subjected to RNAi by feeding. 2.2. Which worm strain to use? This will depend on the nat...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.47.1 2. Using RNAi to knockdown gene function   Julie Ah...

...ailed protocols for RNAi by injection, soaking and feeding. 2.1. Which RNAi method to use? There are three ways to c...

...ention. The sterility can be overcome by mating with males. 2.3. Which stage of worm to use? Again, this will depend...

Reverse genetics : 3. RNAi by injection
...; 5'-CGTAATACGACTCACTATAG-3'. Below is a general method for making a template from an RNAi feeding clone: With a yellow tip, p...

...enzyme in a 25 μl reaction, with 1 μM T7 oligo, 0.2 mM dNTPs and the following cycling conditions: 95°C 50s...

...step, the PCR reaction should yield ~200ng/ul of product. 3.2. Preparing dsRNA For high efficiency high yield transc...

...6;l sterile DEPC water or 10mM Tris 8.0, 0.1mM EDTA and run 2 μl on a gel for quantification. The concentration shou...

Reverse genetics : 4. RNAi by soaking
... Plate 1. Day 6 Examine the phenotypes of F1 worms on Plate 2. 4.2.2. L1-soaking Day 1: Egg preparation Collect gravid adul...

...e used for in vitro transcription without purification. 4.1.2.  In vitro transcription Use 7μl of the PCR react...

...Nase I. Extract the reaction with phenol/chloroform. Repeat 2–4 times. Alternatively, “Wizard Plus SV Minipre...

...ction. Rinse with 70% EtOH. Resuspend pellet in 40μl H 2 O. A concentration of 0.5–5 μg/μl dsRNA is ...

Reverse genetics : 5. RNAi feeding on agar plates
...plates. Let dry and induce overnight at room temperature. 5.2. Preparing the worms Grow desired worm strain on stand...

... the progeny for phenotypes at appropriate time points. 5.3.2. Streamlined L3/L4 feeding protocol: scoring of asynch...

Reverse genetics : 6. RNAi feeding in liquid culture (96 well format)
...r incidence of contamination and bacteria continue to grow, making scoring more difficult, as the wells do not clear. We find ...

...l produces more reproducible and easier to score results. 6.2. Worm handling Bleach adult worms using standard proce...

...ynchronized worms off plates using M9 buffer, spin 600g for 2 minutes. Repeat wash 2X. Resuspend worms in S-Basal (contai...

...nt. These may need to be adjusted to suit your screen. Note 2: Feeding of different larval stages may give different resu...

Reverse genetics : 7. Construction and screening of deletion mutant libraries to generate C. elegans gene knockouts
...terile and added to the S medium using sterile technique. 1.2 ml 1M MgSO 4 1.2 ml 1M CaCl 2 4 ml 100X trace metals solution 0.346 g FeSO 4 .7H 2 O 0.930 g Na 2 EDTA 0.098 g MnCL 2 .4H 2 O 0.144 g ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O 0.012 g CuSO 4 .5H 2 O bring up to 500 ml final volume with dH20 Autoclave. Stor...

... OD 550 . The OD of the diluted solution should be around 0.2. 7.2.2.2. Growing the worms Once the F1 lethality has been conf...

...ications, dilute the commercial mixture 10-fold in water to 2 mM each dNTP. 7.3.2.2.2. Setting up the test reactions Make a premix that cont...

...956;l reverse poison primer, (100 μM) – 4.3 ml H 2 0 2.2 ml H 2 0 31.8 μl Invitrogen Taq (5U/μl) 16 μl Invit...


Acetylcholine [HTML]
Acetylcholine
...Table of Contents 1. Introduction to cholinergic metabolism 2. Cholinergic pharmacology and drug-resistant mutants2.1. Background 2.2. Aldicarb and Ric mutants2.3. Aldicarb, Hic mutants, and G-protein pathways 2.4. Levamisole and Lev mutants 3. Acetylcholine synthesis and vesicular loading 3.1. The C...

... and VAChT 3.4. The cholinergic locus 3.5. cha-1 and unc-17 mutants 4. Choline transport 4.1. The CHO-1 choline transporter 4.2. The cho-1 gene and mutants 4.3. Sources of choline 4.4. Other choline transporters 5. ...

... transporters 5. Acetylcholinesterases 5.1. AChE proteins 5.2. AChE expression and localization 5.3. ace genes and mutants 5.4. Regulation of ace expression 6. ACh receptors - ligand...

...ceptors - ligand gated sodium channels 6.1. AChR subunits 6.2. AChR genes and mutants 7. Other ACh receptors 7.1. GAR proteins - G-protein couple...

Acetylcholine : 2. Cholinergic pharmacology and drug-resistant mutants
...10.1895/wormbook.1.131.1 2. Cholinergic pharmacology and drug-resistant mutants2.1. Background Sydney Brenner first reported the isolat...

...act on C. elegans neurobiology are aldicarb and levamisole. 2.2. Aldicarb and Ric mutants Although lannate was initially used for such studies ( Bren...

...ptic function has been described ( Sieburth et al., 2005 ). 2.3. Aldicarb, Hic mutants, and G-protein pathways In contrast to the Ric phenotype, mutants have been described with the opposite “Hic” phe...

... critical data for the interpretation of their function(s). 2.4. Levamisole and Lev mutants Levamisole (see Figure 2 ) is a potent cholinergic agonist, and is often used as a p...

Acetylcholine : 3. Acetylcholine synthesis and vesicular loading
...ors ( Brenner, 1974 ; Rand and Russell, 1984 ). Null unc-17 mutants are lethal, with a phenotype quite similar to cha-1 null mutants ( Alfonso et al., 1993 ). The lethality of unc-17 null mutants and the similarity of their phenotype to cha-1 nulls argue ...

...20;cholinergic” promoter. 3.5.  cha-1 and unc-17 mutants unc-17 mutants were first described by Brenner ( Brenner, 1974 ), and cha-...

...y synaptic vesicles, because it was mislocalized in unc-104 mutants. Both the synaptic and the cytoplasmic staining were decrea...

...ich overexpress ChAT (J. Duerr and J. Rand, unpublished). 3.2. The VAChT ( UNC-17 ) protein The vesicular acetylchol...

Acetylcholine : 4. Choline transport
... to apparent synaptic vesicles ( Ferguson et al., 2003 ). 4.2. The cho-1 gene and mutants The reference allele, tm373 , is a precise 1695 bp deletion...

...nd development appear to be normal. However, although cho-1 mutants have little difficulty crawling on agar, they swim somewhat...

...e N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine by the PMT-1 and PMT-2 methyltransferases ( Palavalli et al., 2006 ). Choline may ...

... preferentially localized to neuromuscular junctions. snf-6 mutants are somewhat uncoordinated and mildly hypersensitive to ald...

Acetylcholine : 5. Acetylcholinesterases
...i et al., 1981 ; Johnson et al., 1988 ). Each of the single mutants is essentially wild-type, although ace-2 animals are hypersensitive to aldicarb. The ace-2 ; ace-3 and ace-3 ; ace-1 double mutants are also essentially wild-type (although ace-2 ; ace-3 animals are hypersensitive to aldicarb); however, a...

...egulation of the ace genes. In each of the three single ace mutants and each of the three double ace mutants, the remaining cholinesterase activities are present at the...

... have been shown to be the gene products of the ace-1 , ace-2 , and ace-3 genes, respectively ( Johnson et al., 1981 ; Cu...

...poorly characterized ( Combes et al., 2000 ). Class B ( ACE-2 ) and Class C ( ACE-3 ) subunits form glycolipid-anchored h...

Acetylcholine : 6. ACh receptors - ligand gated sodium channels
...of expression. This information is presented in Table 1 . 6.2. AChR genes and mutants As might be expected, loss-of-function mutations in any of ...

... are suppressed by loss-of-function mutations in either des-2 or deg-3 ( Treinin and Chalfie, 1995 ). The DEG-3 and DES-2 subunits can associate with each other to form a functional...

...ight play a role in sensory transduction, and deg-3 and des-2mutants have been shown to be deficient in chemotaxis to choline ( ...

... ACR-16 α       Mongan et al., 2002 EAT-2 ACR-16 Non- α Pharyngeal muscles Slow pumping   M...

Acetylcholine : 7. Other ACh receptors
... PVM ( gar-1 only), motor neurons in the ventral cord ( gar-2 ), and HSN ( gar-2 ) ( Lee et al., 2000 ). gar-3 is expressed in pharyngeal mu...

...d subsequently verified through analysis of the gar-1 , gar-2 , and gar-3 genes. The primary transcripts from all three o...

...ropine, but not scopolamine ( Lee et al., 1999 ), while GAR-2 binds neither atropine nor scopolamine ( Lee et al., 2000 )...

...orted. However, GFP constructs indicated that gar-1 and gar-2 are expressed in neurons, including some sensory neurons in...

Acetylcholine : 8. Cholinergic receptor-associated proteins and genes
...n the first intron of lev-10 ( Gally et al., 2004 ). eat-18 mutants resemble eat-2mutants, demonstrating the importance of EAT-18 for EAT-2 function ( McKay et al., 2004 ). CAM-1 (a Ror receptor tyro...

... maturation of at least four types of ACh receptor: the EAT-2-containing pharyngeal AChR, the DEG-3 / DES-2 neuronal AChR, the UNC-29-containing levamisole-sensitive m...

...most or all neurons, and is localized to cell bodies. ric-3 mutants are Unc , Ric, and Lev ( Nguyen et al., 1995 ; Miller et al...

... for proper function of pharyngeal AChRs containing the EAT-2 non- α subunit, and apparently other pharyngeal nicoti...

Acetylcholine : 9. ACh-mediated behaviors
...coordinated movement, cholinergic (i.e., cha-1 and unc-17 ) mutants have a dramatically reduced rate of wave initiation. 9.2. Egg laying Egg laying behavior involves the action of...

...entral nerve cord cholinergic motor neurons express the ACR-2 and ACR-5 AChR subunits ( Winnier et al., 1999 ; Hallam et ...

...ls deficient in cholinergic release (e.g., cha-1 and unc-17 mutants) are constitutive for egg-laying, and retain very few embry...

...rminals of the HSN cells, and interacts with inhibitory GAR-2 (and perhaps other) cholinergic receptors ( Bany et al., 20...

Acetylcholine : 10. Additional aspects of cholinergic biology
...esicles, or if they are released from the same synapses. 10.2. Role in protein turnover One of the consequences of s...

...nput to the muscles ( Szewczyk et al., 2000 ). For example, mutants deficient in ACh release or reception (e.g., cha-1 , unc-17...

...diated through UNC-63 -containing receptors, because unc-63 mutants were partially resistant to the stage-specific lethality of...


Synaptic function [HTML]
Synaptic function
...>> Function View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Exocytosis 2.1. Docking 2.2. Priming 2.3. Ca-sensing 2.4. Fusion 3. Endocytosis 3.1. Recruitment 3.2. Budding 3.3. Fission 3.4. Uncoating 4. Summary 5. Referenc...

... proteins in the C. elegans genome are highly conserved and mutants can be readily generated by forward and reverse genetics. M...

...ward and reverse genetics. Most C. elegans synaptic protein mutants are viable affording an opportunity to study the functional...

...c function in C. elegans. This review highlights C. elegans mutants affecting specific stages of the synaptic vesicle cycle, wi...

Synaptic function : 1. Overview
...endocytosis Jorgensen et al., 1995 ; Nonet et al., 1993 unc-2 α subunit of voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel Evoked release, Ca 2+ influx at terminals Nonet et al., 1998 ; Schafer and Kenyo...

...in Vesicle fusion Nonet et al., 1998 snt-1 Synaptotagmin Ca 2+ -sensor in exocytosis/AP-2 binding partner in endocytosis Jorgensen et al., 1995 ; Non...

... advantages of C. elegans over other organisms is that most mutants affecting synaptic transmission are viable and can be propa...

...eral muscles to establish sinusoidal body bends. C. elegans mutants defective in synaptic transmission often exhibit a locomoto...

Synaptic function : 2. Exocytosis
...fewer vesicles. In addition, the synaptic defects of unc-10 mutants are more severe than those of rab-3 mutants ( Nonet et al., 1997 ), as well as mutants in the Rab3 nucleotide exchange factor ( AEX-3 ; Iwasaki et...

...vided via voltage-gated calcium channels containing the UNC-2 alpha subunit, as unc-2mutants have reduced evoked synaptic responses ( Richmond et al., 2...

...ts based on behavioral criteria ( Whitfield et al., 1999 ). 2.2. Priming Priming refers to the molecular events follow...

...lso indicate that vesicles are fusion incompetent in unc-13 mutants. Mutants of the mouse and Drosophila homologs of unc-13 , Munc13-1 a...

Synaptic function : 3. Endocytosis
...e, biochemical experiments have established that the μ 2 and α -adaptin subunits of the heterotetrameric AP-2 complex bind to the C2B domain of synaptotagmin ( Fukuda et...

...en the two proteins has not been demonstrated. Unlike snt-1 mutants, endocytosis still occurs in unc-11 mutants based on the continued presence of vesicles, although vesic...

...cruitment During recruitment, adaptor proteins including AP-2 and AP180 are recruited to the fused vesicle membrane via i...

...gmin in vesicle recycling ( Jorgensen et al., 1995 ). snt-1 mutants are uncoordinated and exhibit impaired synaptic transmissio...

Synaptic function : 4. Summary
...cium dynamics in neurons and muscles ( Kerr et al., 2000 ). 2) The use of styryl dyes such as FM1-43 to study vesicle cyc...


The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans
...ng. 1.5. Defining relationships between age-related changes 2. Age-related changes in C. elegans 2.1. Neuromuscular behaviors 2.2. Reproduction 2.3. Morphological changes 2.4. Biochemical changes 3. Conclusions 3.1. Relationships be...

...ges 1.1. The importance of measuring age-related changes. 1.2. Distinguishing age-related changes pertinent to developmen...

...onclusions 3.1. Relationships between age-related changes 3.2. Characterization of mutations that influence longevity 3.3...

...on (1) why it is important to measure age-related changes; (2) which age-related changes should be measured; (3) how age-...

The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans : 1. Measurements of age-related changes
...re a critical component of every mechanistic aging study. 1.2. Distinguishing age-related changes pertinent to devel...

... is the generation of summary statistics for the purpose of making comparisons. Figure 1 shows the basic approaches that have ...

...Table 3 summarizes age-related changes in several longevity mutants. 1.5. Defining relationships between age-related chang...

...onships as each age-related change is considered, and Table 2 summarizes the relationships between age-related changes th...

The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans : 2. Age-related changes in C. elegans
...d the age-related change in pharyngeal tissue morphology in mutants with varying rates of pharyngeal pumping. eat-2 and daf-2mutants that display reduced rates of pumping in young adults also ...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.137.1 2. Age-related changes in C. elegans 2.1. Neuromuscular behaviors 2.1.1. Pharyngeal pumping The pharynx is a neuromuscular...

...cline in pharyngeal pumping is significantly delayed in daf-2 and age-1 mutants and accelerated in daf-16 mutants (see Table 3 ; Huang et al., 2004 ). These results indicate...

...scribe the effects of loss-of-function mutations in the daf-2, age-2, daf-16, eat-2 , and clk-1 genes; see text for references to studies that ...

The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans : 3. Conclusions
...difference being the delayed timing of these changes in the mutants. Mutants that fail to undergo specific age-related changes have not ...

...ess these issues using rigorous longitudinal studies. Table 2 summarizes the experimentally defined relationships. There ...

...ed by common mechanisms and/or causally linked in series. 3.2. Characterization of mutations that influence longevit...

...studies is the extensive analysis of age-related changes in mutants that display an extended lifespan. These studies are import...


Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans [HTML]
Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans
...n C. elegans * Daniel L. Chase 1 § , Michael R. Koelle 2 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Univers...

...Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA 2 Department of Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry, Yale...

...mitters View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Octopamine 3. Tyramine 4. Dopamine 5. Serotonin 6. Acknowl...

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 1. Introduction
...ed based on sequence similarity to mammalian receptors, and mutants for most of these are available (see Table 2 ). Although the specific biogenic amine that activates a gi...

...se neurotransmitters into vesicles have been identified and mutants are available in each (see Figure 1 ). Analysis of the phen...

...in each (see Figure 1 ). Analysis of the phenotypes of such mutants has shed light on the behaviors controlled by the amines an...

... to determine their likely physiological ligands (see Table 2 ). Transgenes in which the promoters for the receptors driv...

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 2. Octopamine
...10.1895/wormbook.1.132.1 2. Octopamine Octopamine is synthesized from tyramine by...

...s, ( Alkema et al., 2005 ). The behavioral defects of tbh-1 mutants have not been described in detail, however they share sever...

...several (though apparently not all) pleiotropies with tdc-1 mutants (which cannot synthesize tyramine or octopamine, see Figure...

...uo et al., 2006 ). Behavioral defects associated with ser-3 mutants have not yet been described, however treatment of animals w...

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 3. Tyramine
...f which are similar to the behavioral defects seen in tdc-1 mutants. For example, ser-2mutants fail to suppress head oscillations in response to touch ( R...

...n for tyramine ( Tsalik et al., 2003 ). While a single tyra-2 mutant is available, an analysis of TYRA-2 effects on behavior has not yet been published. TYRA-2 is expressed in neurons of the amphid sensilla ( ASE , ASG ...

... does inhibit egg laying it likely does not act through SER-2 , as tyramine still inhibits egg laying in ser-2mutants. While the synthesis of tyramine in the gonadal sheath cell...

...ramine as a neurotransmitter ( Alkema et al., 2005 ). tdc-1 mutants exhibit behavioral defects not shared with tbh-1 mutants, and characterization of these defects indicate that tyrami...

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 4. Dopamine
...aviors in addition to those revealed by the analysis of cat-2mutants, as cat-2 null mutants retain significant levels of dopamine ( Sanyal et al., 2004...

... to plate tapping is modulated by dopamine signaling as cat-2mutants and mutants of the D1-like dopamine receptor dop-1 habituate to tap mor...

...in which the dopaminergic neurons have been ablated; and 3) mutants for cat-2 , which encodes a tyrosine hydroxylase responsible for cata...

...220;basal slowing response” requires dopamine, as cat-2mutants or animals in which the dopaminergic neurons have been abla...

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 5. Serotonin
...owing response” requires serotonin as bas-1 and cat-4 mutants (but not cat-2mutants) exhibit defects in enhanced slowing ( Sawin et al., 2000 )...

...ates egg laying. Exogenous serotonin causes egg laying, and mutants in which the HSN neurons die ( egl-1 mutants) are strongly egg-laying defective ( Egl ). Selective serot...

..., 28 Inhibits locomotion 1, 13, 10 . Inhibits egg laying 1, 2 . Inhibits defecation 2, 13 . Increases frequency of high-angled turns 25 . Seroton...

..., 11 (in the presence of food or 5-HT). Inhibits defecation 2, 3 . Tyramine Tyramine receptors SER-2 5 Inhibits egg laying (5, 9) (in the presence of food or 5-...


The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
...f Caenorhabditis elegans * Peter N. Inglis 1 , Guangshuo Ou 2 , Michel R. Leroux 1 § , and Jonathan M. Scholey 2 1 Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon F...

...ciliumbiogenesis.html 10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans Download PDF ve...

...mistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada V5A 1S6 2 Center of Genetics and Development, University of Californi...

...st version Table of Contents 1. General definition of cilia 2. Historical perspective 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution a...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 1. General definition of cilia
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 1. General definition of cilia Cilia are slender micro...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 2. Historical perspective
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.22. Historical perspective In a letter to Max Perutz date...

... cilia present in sensory neurons, and some of the earliest mutants to be isolated were defective in their abilities to sense e...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution and architecture
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 3.  C. elegans cilia: distribution and architecture Un...

...d to the external environment ( Hall and Russell, 1991 ). 3.2. Inner/outer labial, cephalic neurons The inner labial...

... Ward et al., 1975 ; Ware et al., 1975 ). The outer labial (2 lateral outer labial, or OLL neurons, and 4 quadrant outer ...

...a of these neurons, although they can be identified under a compound microscope using, for example, the GCY-36 protein fused to ...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 4. Cilium biogenesis and intraflagellar transport (IFT)
...1033 + + + + IFT-particle B Fujiwara et al., 1999 che-3 osm-2 , che-8 , avr-1 , caf-2 F18C12.1 I:2.47 +/ − 0.023 e1124 + + + + IFT-dynein heavy chain Wi...

...is required for proper localization of the human polycystin-2 homolog, PKD-2 , to the cilium ( Peden and Barr, 2005 ). This finding indi...

...-like movement of the KLP-6 kinesin was not observed. Table 2. Components and available mutants of the intraflagellar transport machinery Component Gene mo...

...machinery Component Gene model Protein Description/function Mutants Reference Kinesin-II F20C5.2 KLP-11 95KD Motor tm324 Snow et al., 2004 Y50D7A.6 KLP-20 8...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 5. Transcriptional regulation of cilium morphogenesis
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 5. Transcriptional regulation of cilium morphogenesis ...

...ole of DAF-19 as a master regulator of ciliogenesis, daf-19 mutants lack all signs of cilia ( Perkins et al., 1986 ; Swoboda et...

...d BBS proteins also possess X boxes. However, unlike daf-19 mutants, disruption of these genes leads to abnormal (truncated) ci...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 6. The C. elegans ciliome
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 6. The C. elegans ciliome Recent studies in several or...

...Further analysis of putative ciliary genes may also include making translational fusions to GFP to determine if the protein is...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 7. Understanding C. elegans ciliary functions through ciliary mutant analysis
... mammals ( Nauli and Zhou, 2004 ). Furthermore, the ciliary mutants che-2 , che-3 , che-13 , osm- 6 , che-12 and osm-3 all show signi...

...y have been discovered through analysis of oxidative stress mutants, which showed that mutants resistant to methyl viologen (also known as paraquat) were ...

...QR and PQR neurons ( Mak et al. 2006 ). Chemotaxis in tub-1 mutants is impaired, although tub-1 mutants show no abrogation of ciliary structure based on a normal D...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 7. Understanding C. elegans ciliary functions through ...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 8. C. elegans as a model system to study ciliopathies
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 8.  C. elegans as a model system to study ciliopathies...

...polycystic kidney-disease loci PKD1 and PKD2, lov-1 and pkd-2 , were shown to produce defects in male mating behavior and...

.... elegans LOV-1 is required for the proper targeting of PKD-2 to the cilium of in the male-specific neurons CEM, as well ...

...disrupts IFT subcomplex A), the ciliary localization of PKD-2 is significantly altered, resulting in accumulations in the...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 9. Concluding remarks
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 9. Concluding remarks Given the diverse array of in vi...

...ying intraflagellar transport, ciliary integrity, and cilia mutants, C. elegans sits in a unique position to facilitate our und...

...ciliopathies. For example, identification of additional Dyf mutants and characterization of their phenotypes may help uncover n...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 10. Acknowledgements
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 10. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the ...


Vulval development [HTML]
Vulval development
...Contents 1. Introduction 1.1. Steps in vulval development 1.2. Phenotypes of vulval development mutants 1.3. Note on phenotypes 2. Generation of vulval precursor cells 2.1. Vulval competence group 2.2. Hox gene lin-39 , competence, and fusion 2.3. Other genes affecting competence 2.4. Non-equivalence of the VPCs 3. Overview of VPC 1 ° -2 ° -3 ° pattern formation 3.1. Specification and det...

...Patterning of adult cell types 9.1.  1 ° lineage 9.2. Polarity of 2 ° lineages 10. The vulval-uterine connection 10.1. pi c...

...ion 3.1. Specification and determination of the VPC fates 3.2. Commitment to fates 3.3. The cell cycle and vulval develop...

...hor cell 4.1. The anchor cell is necessary and sufficient 4.2. Action at a distance 4.3. Graded action of LIN-3 4.4. Non-...

Vulval development: 1. Introduction
.... (1995) for morphological distinctions between 1 ° and 2 ° lineages. 1.2. Phenotypes of vulval development mutants Mutations that affect vulva development often cause defects...

...VPCs specifies three VPCs to generate vulval cells ( Figure 2 ). The vulval lineages are of two types, 1 ° and 2 ° , each of which generate distinct sets of progeny. Th...

...their fates in a precise spatial pattern: 3 ° -3 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° -3 ° ( Figure 3 ). (3) Generation of the adult ce...

... are specified from among the ventral epidermal Pn.p cells. 2. The VPCs become specified to 1 ° , 2 ° or 3 ° cell fates by multiple signaling pathways....

Vulval development: 2. Generation of vulval precursor cells
... P3.p - P8.p generate vulval cells ( Thomas et al., 1990 ). 2.2. Hox gene lin-39 , competence, and fusion The hox gene...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.6.1 2. Generation of vulval precursor cells The eleven Pn.p ...

...gative regulation of competence. Yellow, 3 ° fate; red, 2 ° fate; blue, 1 ° fate. Figure 5. Roles of LIN-39.&...

...arrows, positive regulation; red bars, negative regulation. 2.1. Vulval competence group In the intact, wild-type he...

Vulval development: 3. Overview of VPC 1°-2°-3° pattern formation
...10.1895/wormbook.1.6.1 3. Overview of VPC 1 ° -2 ° -3 ° pattern formation The 1 ° , 2 ° , and 3 ° fates occur in a precise spatial patter...

...eral signaling among induced VPCs via LIN-12 that specifies 2 ° fates and inhibits 1 ° fates. Cross inhibition ex...

...ion of three signaling pathways. Yellow, 3 ° fate; red, 2 ° fate; blue, 1 ° fate. Green arrows, positive regu...

...e Lateral signal among the induced VPCs (blue) promotes the 2 ° fate (via LIN-12 ). The negative signal is inferred f...

Vulval development: 4. Induction of the vulva by the anchor cell
...ly located anchor cell can induce patterns such as 1 ° -2 ° -1 ° , 1 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° or 2 ° -2 ° -2 ° -2 ° ( Thomas et al., 1990 ). The dorsally located anchor ...

...bsp; In wild-type, the six VPCs adopt the 3 ° -3 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° -3 ° pattern in each case. Animals with reduced l...

..., including cases as shown here. Yellow, 3 ° fate; red, 2 ° fate ; blue, 1 ° fate. 4.2. Action at a distance The anchor cell signals at a dis...

...An individual VPC, after ablation of other VPCs, can have a 2 ° fate. Also, in a dig-1 mutant there can be 2 ° VPCs without 1 ° VPCs ( Thomas et al., 1990 ). In...

Vulval development: 5. Physiological inputs to vulval development
...e that can be scratched away by careful genetic analysis. 5.2. Zinc regulation Two genes identified by loss-of-funct...

Vulval development: 6. Negative regulation of induction
...d bars) thereby inhibiting the specification of 1 ° and 2 ° VPC fates. 6.2. Signal transduction regulators Other negative regulat...

...ctive in both A and B function have a Multivulva phenotype. Mutants defective in only A, or in only B, have normal vulval devel...

...description of the anatomy. Figure 12. Synthetic multivulva mutants suggest signaling from hyp7 to VPCs.  lin-15b , lin-35...

...d four additional negative regulators, dpy-23 , lst-1 , lst-2 , lst-3 , and lst-4 . These four regulators, and lip-1 ( Be...

Vulval development: 7. LIN-12-mediated lateral signaling
...ate ( Greenwald et al., 1983 ). Null alleles of lin-12 lack 2 ° VPCs. Gain of function lin-12 mutants cause all six VPCs to generate 2 ° lineages, even in the absence of inductive signaling....

...ttern of VPC fates in a lin-15 multitvulva mutant (1 ° -2 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° -1 ° ; Figure 15 ) is reminiscent of spacing patt...

... that type and instead differentiating as some alternative (2 ° VPCs). While adjacent 2 ° VPCs are common, adjacent 1 ° VPCs are rare. In a...

... adjacent VPCs ( P7.p and P8.p ), they will become 1 ° -2 ° or 2 ° -1 ° , with approximately equal probability. Thus...

Vulval development: 8. Coupling of LET-23 and LIN-12 signaling
...LET-23 activation leads to 1 ° fates at high levels and 2 ° at low levels. The genetic requirements for this 2 ° specification has not been elucidated. LIN-12 lateral...

...d LIN-12 is fundamental to the specification of 1 ° and 2 ° fates ( Figure 16 ). As described above, LET-23 activ...

... ° ( Sternberg, 1988 ), and can induce a cell to become 2 ° ( Greenwald et al., 1983 ; Simske and Kim, 1995 ; Kog...

...in ( Shaye and Greenwald, 2002 ). Conversely, a presumptive 2 ° cell downregulates LET-23 signaling ( Berset et al., ...

Vulval development: 9. Patterning of adult cell types
...ted LET-23 bypasses this requirement for EGL-38 function. 9.2. Polarity of 2 ° lineages The cell division pattern and cell fates of ...

...olarity of P7.p ( Inoue et al., 2004 ). The WNT protein MOM-2 is expressed in the anchor cell ( Inoue et al., 2004 ) and ...

...zled type receptor LIN-17 ; the second involves the WNT MOM-2 and the Ryk type receptor LIN-18 ( Ferguson et al., 1987 ; ...

...ing through LIN-17 and LIN-18 . Figure 19. Polarity of P7.p 2 ° lineage.  Multiple WNT signals from the anchor c...

Vulval development: 10. The vulval-uterine connection
...s the ventral uterus, inducing the uterine pi cells via LAG-2 and LIN-12 signaling ( Newman et al., 1995 ; Cinar et al., ...

...uction.  The anchor cell expresses DSL-type ligand LAG-2 in a LIN-29-dependent manner and signals presumptive pi cel...

...12. LIN-12 activation leads to expression of lin-11 and cog-2 , two transcription factors necessary for utse development,...

...0.1. pi cell induction and function egl-13 (a.k.a. cog-2 ), which encodes Sox domain transcription factor expressed ...

Vulval development: 11. Morphogenesis
...ation to form is regulated by eight sqv genes ( sqv-1 , sqv-2 , sqv-3 , sqv-4 , sqv-5 , sqv-6 , sqv-7 , and sqv-8 ; Herma...

...toshechkin and Han, 2002 ). The Rac proteins encoded by mig-2 and ced-10 ( Kishore and Sundaram, 2002 ) are necessary for...

...vulF to vulA as the toroids fuse ( Dalpe et al., 2005 ). 11.2. Organization of neurons and muscles The vulval epithe...

...i and Chalfie, 1990 ). This is most obviously seen in dig-1 mutants in which the gonad is shifted anteriorly and the vulva, vul...

Vulval development: 12. Concluding remarks
...stands in stark contrast to the variable phenotypes of many mutants and perturbations; I view these phenotypes as providing a r...


Small GTPases [HTML]
Small GTPases
... Table of Contents 1. Ras-superfamily GTPases in C. elegans 2. Ras/Ral/Rap family GTPases 2.1. K-Ras 2.2. Rap 2.3. Rho-family GTPases 2.4. Rho 2.5. Cdc42 2.6. Rac 2.7. Overlapping roles of Racs in development 2.8. Modularity of Rac signaling 2.9. Rab family 2.10. Ran-family GTPase 2.11. Arf/Sar-family GTPases 3. Summary and future directions...

Small GTPases : 1. Ras-superfamily GTPases in C. elegans
...b-8 Rab8 T23H2.5 rab-10 Rab10 F53G12.1 rab-11.1 Rab11 W04G5.2 rab-11.2 Rab11 K09A9.2 rab-14 Rab14 Y92C3B.3 rab-18 Rab18 Y62E10A.9 rab-19 Rab19 T...

... RhoA R07G3.1 cdc-42 Cdc42 C09G12.8 ced-10 Rac1 C35C5.4 mig-2 RhoG d F22E12.2   Wrch1 Y32F6B.3   conserved Cdc42-like P60953 Ra...

...21 Rab21 Y87G2A.4 rab-27 Rab27 Y11D7A.4 rab-28 Rab28 Y45F3A.2 rab-30 Rab30 F43D9.2 rab-33 Rab33 Y47D3A.25 rab-35 Rab35 W01H2.3 rab-37 Rab37 C5...

...11A5.3 – Rab2 Arf/Sar family ZK632.8 arl-5 Arf8 B0336.2 arf-1.2 Arf1 C38D4.8 arl-6 Arf6 F54C9.10 arl-1 Arf1 ZK180.4 –...

Small GTPases : 2. Ras/Ral/Rap family GTPases
...nd compensatory roles (i.e. in which they act redundantly). 2.7.1. Axon pathfinding Null mutants of mig-2 and ced-10 and rac-2(RNAi) displayed no detectable defects in axon pathfinding (...

... canonical Racs similar to vertebrate Rac1 ( ced-10 and rac-2 ), and one Mtl Rac ( mig-2 ). Mtl Racs, defined by C. elegans MIG-2 and Drosophila Mtl, are similar to both Rac and Cdc42 but i...

...oles in embryonic elongation ( Piekny et al., 2000 ; Figure 2 ). Figure 2. The opposing roles of RHO-1 and MIG-2 Rac in hypdermal contraction during embryonic elongation.&n...

...ons were identified in screens for cell migration-defective mutants ( Zipkin et al., 1997 ). No mutations that perturb rac-2 function exist to date. rac-2 lof is induced using RNAi, and has no apparent phenotypic c...

Small GTPases : 3. Summary and future directions
...ronal migration, axon pathfinding, vulval morphogenesis rac-2 Rac1 Neuronal migration, axon pathfinding mig-2 Mtl Cell migration (P-cells, distal tip cells, Q cells and ...

...nization, vesicle trafficking, and nuclear assembly ( Table 2 ). Studies of small GTPases in C. elegans have been central...

...Rap, Rab, and Arf/Sar family remain to be discovered. Table 2. Known roles of Ras-superfamily GTPases in C. elegans C. el...


Potassium channels in C. elegans [HTML]
Potassium channels in C. elegans
...for abnormal behavioral phenotypes reveal potassium channel mutants2. The 6TM gene families 2.1. Voltage-gated potassium channels 2.2. KQT potassium channels 2.3. Eag- like potassium channels 2.4. Calcium-activated Slo -like potassium channels 2.5. Cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels 2.6. SK Small conductance, voltage insensitive calcium-activa...

...PDF version Potassium channels in C. elegans * L. Salkoff 1,2, § , A.D. Wei 1 , B. Baban 1 , A. Butler 1 , G. Fawcet...

..., C.M. Santi 1 1 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology and 2 Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Med...

...m channels in C. elegans have close mammalian orthologues 1.2. Genetic screens for abnormal behavioral phenotypes reveal ...

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 1. Introduction
... potassium channel subunit genes, six examples are known of mutants isolated by forward genetic screens ( egl-36[Shaw] , egl-2 , unc-103[Eag] , exp-2 [Shab-like] , exp-3 [SK] and slo-1[Slo] ). Currently, no mutants have been identified of the 2TM class of potassium channels...

...on about mutant strains and cDNAs for expression studies. 1.2. Genetic screens for abnormal behavioral phenotypes re...

...for abnormal behavioral phenotypes reveal potassium channel mutants An advantage of studying potassium channels in C. elegans i...

...l C. elegans behavioral phenotypes have yielded examples of mutants linked to nearly every major class of potassium channel sub...

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 2. The 6TM gene families
...rs of this family follow. Shaw Channels (Kv3 family) egl-36 mutants were isolated from screens for egg-laying deficient mutants. These mutants ( n728 , n2332 ) are also moderately defective in generatin...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.42.1 2. The 6TM gene families 2.1. Voltage-gated potassium channels Voltage-gated pota...

...ionally and structurally diverse types of channel subunits. 2.2. KQT potassium channels KQT potassium channels are rel...

..., 1999 ; Reiner et al., 1999 ; Petersen et al., 2004 ). Egl-2 gf mutants exhibit pleiotropic behavioral defects. In addition to egg-...

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 3. 2TM potassium channels
...they differentiated in the vertebrate line of evolution. No mutants have yet been reported to be associated with any of the thr...

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 4. 4TM potassium channels
...while in humans there are approximately fifteen genes. Four mutants are known of the 4TM “TWK” subunit class ( sup-...

... response to prodding of the head, whereas loss-of-function mutants resemble wild-type. However, loss of function of any gene i...

... to the vertebrate K ATP channel complex formed by 2TM Kir6.2 potassium channel subunits and the SUR sulfonylurea recepto...

...ombined genetic and electrophysiological analyses of twk-18 mutants have been possible. Two separate dominant alleles of twk-18...

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 5. Usefulness of the information in C. elegans
...ressed. A deletion mutant was generated to identify the SLO-2 current in native cells. It was shown that native SLO-2 channels were active only when intracellular Ca 2+ and Cl - were raised above normal physiological conditions...

...ter experiments also indicated that the high conductance Ca 2+ &Cl - activated SLO-2 channels are prominently expressed. A deletion mutant was g...

...tage-dependent currents can be removed either by the use of mutants or by treating cultured cells with appropriate RNAi's. GFP-...

... occurs during hypoxia. However, under such conditions, SLO-2 is the largest outward current, contributing up to 87% of t...


The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
...ation History in side bar. Peter N. Inglis 1 , Guangshuo Ou 2 , Michel R. Leroux 1 § , and Jonathan M. Scholey 2 1 Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon F...

...mistry, Simon Fraser University; Burnaby, BC Canada V5A 1S6 2 Center of Genetics and Development; University of Californi...

...st version Table of Contents 1. General definition of cilia 2. Historical perspective 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution a...

...ilia: distribution and architecture 3.1. Amphids/Phasmids 3.2. Inner/outer labial, cephalic neurons 3.3. Pseudocoelomic c...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 2. Historical perspective
...10.1895/wormbook.1.126.1 2. Historical perspective In a letter to Max Perutz date...

... cilia present in sensory neurons, and some of the earliest mutants to be isolated were defective in their abilities to sense e...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution and architecture
...d to the external environment ( Hall and Russell, 1991 ). 3.2. Inner/outer labial, cephalic neurons The inner labial...

... Ward et al., 1975 ; Ware et al., 1975 ). The outer labial (2 lateral outer labial, or OLL neurons, and 4 quadrant outer ...

...a of these neurons, although they can be identified under a compound microscope using, for example, the GCY-36 protein fused to ...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 4. Cilium biogenesis and intraflagellar transport (IFT)
...1033 + + + + IFT-particle B Fujiwara et al., 1999 che-3 osm-2 , che-8 , avr-1 , caf-2 F18C12.1 I:2.47 +/ − 0.023 e1124 + + + + IFT-dynein heavy chain Sh...

...is required for proper localization of the human polycystin-2 homolog, PKD-2 , to the cilium ( Peden and Barr, 2005 ). This finding indi...

...-like movement of the KLP-6 kinesin was not observed. Table 2. Components and available mutants of the intraflagellar transport machinery Component Gene mo...

...machinery Component Gene model Protein Description/function Mutants Reference Kinesin-II F20C5.2 KLP-11 95KD Motor tm324 Signor et al. 1999b Y50D7A.6 KLP-20...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 5. Transcriptional regulation of cilium morphogenesis
...ole of DAF-19 as a master regulator of ciliogenesis, daf-19 mutants lack all signs of cilia ( Perkins et al., 1986 ; Swoboda et...

...d BBS proteins also possess X boxes. However, unlike daf-19 mutants, disruption of these genes leads to abnormal (truncated) ci...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 6. The C. elegans ciliome
...Further analysis of putative ciliary genes may also include making translational fusions to GFP to determine if the protein is...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 7. Understanding C. elegans ciliary functions through ciliary mutant analysis
... mammals ( Nauli and Zhou, 2004 ). Furthermore, the ciliary mutants che-2 , che-3 , che-13 , osm- 6 , che-12 and osm-3 all show signi...

...y have been discovered through analysis of oxidative stress mutants, which showed that mutants resistant to methyl viologen (also known as paraquat) were ...

...QR and PQR neurons ( Mak et al. 2006 ). Chemotaxis in tub-1 mutants is impaired, although tub-1 mutants show no abrogation of ciliary structure based on a normal D...

...lysis The availability of large numbers of existing ciliary mutants is in large part the result of the vision of molecular biol...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 8. C. elegans as a model system to study ciliopathies
...polycystic kidney-disease loci PKD1 and PKD2, lov-1 and pkd-2 , were shown to produce defects in male mating behavior and...

.... elegans LOV-1 is required for the proper targeting of PKD-2 to the cilium of in the male-specific neurons CEM, as well ...

...disrupts IFT subcomplex A), the ciliary localization of PKD-2 is significantly altered, resulting in accumulations in the...

...he 11 known human BBS genes possess C. elegans orthologues, making the nematode an excellent model system to study this multig...

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 9. Concluding remarks
...ying intraflagellar transport, ciliary integrity, and cilia mutants, C. elegans sits in a unique position to facilitate our und...

...ciliopathies. For example, identification of additional Dyf mutants and characterization of their phenotypes may help uncover n...


Spermatogenesis [HTML]
Spermatogenesis
...rmatogenesis 3. Identification of spermatogenesis defective mutants 4. Translational control during spermatogenesis 5. Mutants that affect sperm meiosis 6. Mutants affecting FB-MOs 7. Cytoskeletal mutants 8. Sex-specific aspects of spermiogenesis 9. Fertilization mutants 10. Post-fertilization mutants 11. Future prospects 12. Acknowledgements 13. References Ab...

...e germ line View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Wild-type spermatogenesis 3. Identification of spermatogen...

...ores her sperm and uses them to fertilize her oocytes. Many mutants have been identified where hermaphrodite self-fertility is ...

...nted tests are then applied to identify the subset of these mutants that produce defective sperm. Currently, more than 44 genes...

Spermatogenesis : 1. Overview
...e germ line ). Wild-type spermatogenesis and its defects in mutants can be studied in vivo because the animal is transparent an...

Spermatogenesis : 2. Wild-type spermatogenesis
...10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 2. Wild-type spermatogenesis Development of sperm in C. ...

...panies meiosis I is either complete (not shown) or partial (2 in Figure 1 A). Either way, the resulting cells are seconda...

...o form secondary spermatocytes (FB-MOs are shown in green); 2, spermatids selectively retain FB-MOs as they bud from the ...

...n at left) and body (b; region to the right of the collar); 2, the FB-MO complex reaches its largest size within primary ...

Spermatogenesis : 3. Identification of spermatogenesis defective mutants
....1.85.1 3. Identification of spermatogenesis defective mutants C. elegans spermatogenesis mutants ( spe or fer ) have been identified because they compromise...

...ion in the germ line ), most produce defective sperm. While mutants that fail to initiate spermatogenesis lay a few oocytes, mutants that make defective sperm lay large numbers of unfertilized...

...rowth plate ( Ward and Carrel, 1979 ). In contrast, spe/fer mutants lay unfertilized oocytes, which are round, brown cells that...

...adily identified following mutagenesis. While some of these mutants never initiate spermatogenesis (see Sex determination in th...

Spermatogenesis : 4. Translational control during spermatogenesis
...RNAi) hermaphrodites lay unfertilized oocytes, like spe/fer mutants. Examination of the spermatheca reveals that cpb-1(RNAi) he...

Spermatogenesis : 5. Mutants that affect sperm meiosis
...10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 5. Mutants that affect sperm meiosis Like other animals, C. elegans me...

...efects during spermatogenesis. Six dominant wee-1.3(gf) Spe mutants have been discovered and they have no evident defects durin...

...at seen in wild-type (haploid) spermatids. wee-1.3 dominant mutants do not initiate cytokinesis and they arrest with an undivid...

...sis I, and this regulation does not occur in these dominant mutants ( Lamitina and L'Hernault, 2002 ). puf-8 encodes a pumilio-...

Spermatogenesis : 6. Mutants affecting FB-MOs
...olfe, 2003 ). The SPE-4 protein resides in FB-MOs and spe-4 mutants, like spe-39 mutants, develop FBs that are not associated with MOs. spe-4 mutants accumulate aberrant spermatocytes filled with distended MOs...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 6. Mutants affecting FB-MOs Several mutants affect FB-MO morphogenesis or function. The spe-39 gene enc...

...d Ward, 1989 ). Motile spermatozoa can still form in spe-17 mutants, and some are competent to engage in fertilization. spe-10 mutants initiate FB-MO morphogenesis normally, but the membrane sur...

...ociated with FB-MOs in spermatocytes and spermatids. spe-39 mutants arrest as aberrant spermatocytes ( Figure 5 B) that lack MO...

Spermatogenesis : 7. Cytoskeletal mutants
...10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 7. Cytoskeletal mutants There are two spe genes that encode known cytoskeletal prot...

...eins. The spe-26 gene encodes an actin binding protein, and mutants usually form aberrant spermatocytes that do not become sper...

...tocytes that do not become spermatids. Occasionally, spe-26 mutants make spermatids that become spermatozoa, but these spermato...

...rting role as spermatids bud from the residual body. spe-15 mutants partially fail in their polarized delivery of mitochondria ...

Spermatogenesis : 8. Sex-specific aspects of spermiogenesis
...l., 2000 ; Shakes and Ward, 1989 ). Eighteen non-null spe-6 mutants allow partial bypass of any spe-8 pathway mutant ( spe-6 nu...

...low partial bypass of any spe-8 pathway mutant ( spe-6 null mutants have defects in FB-MO morphogenesis, see above). These non-...

...hrodites ( Muhlrad and Ward, 2002 ). These spe-6 suppressor mutants have also been analyzed in a background that was not mutant...

...ids show only minimal signs of necrosis in spe-6 suppressor mutants ( Muhlrad and Ward, 2002 ). These data indicate that there ...

Spermatogenesis : 9. Fertilization mutants
...10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 9. Fertilization mutants Seven mutants ( fer-14 , spe-9 , spe-13 , spe-36 , spe-38 , spe-41 / trp-...

...t et al., 2005 ). Spermatozoa derived from any of the seven mutants in this class have no detectable motility defects, and they...

...he spermatheca. Male-derived spermatozoa from five of these mutants ( fer-14 , spe-9 , spe-13 , spe-41 / trp-3 and spe-42 ) ren...

Spermatogenesis : 10. Post-fertilization mutants
...10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 10. Post-fertilization mutants One mutant ( spe-11 ) forms spermatozoa that are competent ...

Spermatogenesis : 11. Future prospects
...predicted male spermiogenesis pathway have been identified. Mutants with specific defects in male spermiogenesis are likely obt...

...terile hermaphrodites will not allow identification of such mutants; new screens will need to be designed for this purpose. The...


Autophagy in C. elegans [HTML]
Autophagy in C. elegans
...lecular machinery 1.3. Signaling regulation 1.4. Physiology 2. Tools to study autophagy in C. elegans 2.1. Genetic models 2.2. Detection of autophagy 3. Functions of autophagy in C. ele...

...on Autophagy in C. elegans * Alicia Meléndez 1–2,§ , Beth Levine 3–5 § 1 Department of Biolo...

...ueens College, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367; 2 The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 365 F...

...rily conserved features of autophagy 1.1. Cellular events 1.2. Molecular machinery 1.3. Signaling regulation 1.4. Physiol...

Autophagy in C. elegans : 1. Introduction to evolutionarily conserved features of autophagy
...es Regulation of Induction         TOR1,2 let-363 B0261.2 PI K-related protein kinase, Rapamycin target L, LL Noda an...

...eacute;ndez et al., 2003 ; Kirisako et al., 2000   lgg-2 ZK593.6   NE Meléndez et al., 2003 ATG10 D2085.2 E2-like enzyme conjugates Atg5 and Atg12 ? Meléndez ...

...tingre et al., 2005 ). The association of Beclin 1 with Bcl-2 or the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl -X L , Mcl-1, Bcl-w) ...

...attingre et al., 2005 ). When Beclin 1 dissociates from Bcl-2, autophagy is induced. The Bcl-2-Beclin 1 association has been shown to be conserved among t...

Autophagy in C. elegans : 2. Tools to study autophagy in C. elegans
...10.1895/wormbook.1.147.1 2. Tools to study autophagy in C. elegans 2.1. Genetic models Our understanding of the role of aut...

...he regulation of autophagy and its role during development. 2.2. Detection of autophagy Prior to the identification of...

...f-1, and the p53-induced molecule, DRAM, also exist ( Table 2 ), but have not been tested for their role in autophagy in ...

Autophagy in C. elegans : 3. Functions of autophagy in C. elegans
...ologs shortened the lifespan of both N2 (wild-type) and daf-2mutants, but the decrease in lifespan was greater in the daf-2mutants. Thus, multiple autophagy genes are required for lifespan e...

...en et al. (2008 ) have shown that pha-4 is required for eat-2mutants to have elevated numbers of GFP::LGG-1 foci. Reduced daf-2 / insulin/IGF-1 signaling mutants lacking daf-16 / FOXO activity still show high levels of au...

...pha-3 , which have abnormal pharyngeal anatomy; eat-1 , eat-2 and eat-3 mutants, which have reduced pharyngeal pumping rates; and eat-10 mutants, which have a slippery pharynx that inefficiently traps bac...

... autophagy genes are required for lifespan extension in daf-2 (IGF-1) mutants. Dietary restriction plays an evolutionarily conserved role...


Interactions with microbial pathogens [HTML]
Interactions with microbial pathogens
...ecology View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Bacterial infections of the intestine 2.1. Enterococcus faecalis 2.2. Escherichia coli 2.3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2.4. Salmonella enterica 2.5. Serratia marcescens 2.6. Staphylococcus aureus 2.7. Staphylococcus epidermidis 3. Bacterial infections of th...

...nfections of the cuticle 3.1. Microbacterium nematophilum 3.2. Yersinia sp. 4. Bacteria with multiple or undetermined kil...

... undetermined killing modes 4.1. Burkholderia cenocepacia 4.2. Burkholderia pseudomallei 4.3. Plant, fish and insect path...

...thogens 5. Fungal infections 5.1. Cryptococcus neoformans 5.2. Drechmeria coniospora 6. Toxin-mediated killing 6.1. Bacil...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 1. Introduction
... screens have been performed in which thousands of pathogen mutants have been tested individually against worms. Of course, C. ...

...decades of research has provided an extensive collection of mutants and clones that are available as off-the-shelf reagents for...

...s of the host is feasible, e.g. by screening C. elegans for mutants that are either resistant or hypersensitive to a pathogen. ...

...or hypersensitive to a pathogen. Screens for hypersensitive mutants have been especially productive in elucidating the C. elega...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 2. Bacterial infections of the intestine
...ction between the C. elegans model and mammalian infection. 2.2.  Escherichia coli E. coli is known to C. elegans rese...

...creened for attenuated bacteria, identifying 19 loci out of 2,300 transposon insertions tested. Fewer than half of the mutants were attenuated in a Drosophila melanogaster model for S. m...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.21.1 2. Bacterial infections of the intestine Numerous bacter...

...g occurs, there are specific pathogenic mechanisms at work. 2.1.  Enterococcus faecalis E. faecalis is a Gram-positi...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 3. Bacterial infections of the cuticle
...vating ERK in response to M. nematophilum . Screens for Bus mutants have identified 20 loci, and the mutants include alleles of sur-2 ( Nicholas and Hodgkin, 2004 ) and srf-3 ( Hoflich et al., ...

...e unknown. Because M. nematophilum attaches to the cuticle, mutants with altered surface properties were examined. srf-2 , srf-3 and srf-5 animals were not colonized on the peri-an...

...ing protein ( ksr-1 ), and transcriptional activators ( sur-2 , lin-25 ). When infected, these mutants become severely constipated and their fertility is sharply ...

...d a small peri-anal region of the exterior cuticle ( Figure 2 ). The area around the anus becomes distended and swollen, ...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 4. Bacteria with multiple or undetermined killing modes
...w killing, but did not significantly affect fast killing. 4.2.  Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis, an infection ...

...e substance. Gan et al. screened 3,400 transposon insertion mutants of B. pseudomallei and obtained five with reduced killing o...

...obtained five with reduced killing of C. elegans . The five mutants were all attenuated to various degrees when inoculated intr...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 5. Fungal infections
... lived longer on C. laurentii than on E. coli OP50. Several mutants known to be attenuated in mouse infections were also less p...

...s capsule is toxic. A screen of 350 C. neoformans insertion mutants yielded seven with attenuated virulence ( Mylonakis et al.,...

...ze several tissues, and killing was substantially slowed. 5.2.  Drechmeria coniospora D. coniospora is an endoparasi...

...proteins. D. coniospora were able to bind che-12 and che-14 mutants, which have defective amphids; conidia also bound mec-1 ani...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 6. Toxin-mediated killing
... . Screening for C. elegans bre ( Bacillus toxin resistant) mutants identified five genes ( Marroquin et al., 2000 ). bre-2 , bre-3 , bre-4 , bre-5 encode glycosyltransferases that ap...

...B to glycolipids that are absent in bre-3 , bre-4 and bre-5 mutants has been demonstrated ( Griffitts et al., 2005 ). 6.2.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa P. aeruginosa kills C. elegan...

...of 3,300 P. aeruginosa transposon insertions produced seven mutants with reduced killing ( Mahajan-Miklos et al., 1999 ). Four mutants had reduced levels of pyocyanin, a pigmented secondary meta...

...t least in part to oxidative stress. Analysis of C. elegans mutants lent support to this hypothesis. age-1 mutants, which are resistant to other forms of oxidative stress, we...

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 7. Conclusions
...ale screens of pathogen genomes, and thousands of bacterial mutants have been tested in screens of P. aeruginosa ( Gallagher an...

...Tan et al., 1999 ) and B. pseudomallei ( Gan et al., 2002 ) mutants defective against C. elegans were also attenuated in a mous...

...mouse models. On the other hand, no new mammalian virulence mutants were found in a screen of S. marcescens ( Kurz et al., 2003...

... success is the work of Aroian and colleagues on C. elegans mutants resistant to a Bt toxin. The screen identified a set of gly...


Germline survival and apoptosis [HTML]
Germline survival and apoptosis
...ival and apoptosis * Anton Gartner 1 § , Peter R. Boag 2 , and T. Keith Blackwell 2 † 1 Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Exp...

...n and Expression, University of Dundee; Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK 2 Section on Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin Diab...

...e germ line View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Methods to assess germline apoptosis 3. Physiological germ...

...l germ cell apoptosis: the “nurse cell” model 4.2. Mechanisms that influence physiological germ cell apoptosi...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 2. Methods to assess germline apoptosis
...10.1895/wormbook.1.145.1 2. Methods to assess germline apoptosis Several methods ...

...th the caveat that AO does not work in engulfment-defective mutants. A sensitive method for visualizing germ cell apoptosis rel...

...P then appears diluted among a large number of dying cells, making detection of individual cells difficult. In addition, time ...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 3. Physiological germline apoptosis occurs during normal oogenesis
...ore apoptotic machinery, including CED-3 and CED-4 ( Figure 2 ; see Programmed cell death ; Lettre and Hengartner, 2006 )...

... therefore differs from other C. elegans apoptosis ( Figure 2 ). Moreover, physiological germ cell apoptosis is not preve...

...on of the core apoptosis machinery by an unknown mechanism, making it of significant interest and a topic of current research....

...ignificant interest and a topic of current research. Figure 2. Regulation of germ cell apoptosis.  At least two dist...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 4. Functions, regulation, and conservation of physiological germ cell apoptosis
... guanine nucleotide association inhibitors N.R. RabGGT/ M57.2 , B0280.1 2,9 Rab geranyl geranyl transferase; prenylates Rab proteins ...

...al., 1999 ). When apoptosis is prevented (in ced-3 or ced-4 mutants), young animals do not produce obviously abnormal oocytes, ...

...uring spermatogenesis. Sperm contain very little cytoplasm, making it possible for all sperm nuclei to form gametes without cy...

...erhaps because sperm may be more expendable than oocytes. 4.2. Mechanisms that influence physiological germ cell apo...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 5. DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis
... all DNA damage responses, and were later mapped to the mrt-2 , clk-2 and hus-1 loci ( Table 2 ). mrt-2 and hus-1 , which also function in telomere replication (se...

...t, as UV-induced apoptosis is dramatically reduced in these mutants ( Table 2 ; Stergiou et al., 2007 ). clk-2 is a functionally conserved checkpoint gene that was first ...

...ls of germ cell apoptosis in DNA double strand break repair mutants such as brca-1, brca-2 and rad-51 ( Alpi et al., 2003 ; Boulton et al., 2004 ; Chi...

...ngation and is functionally conserved in C. elegans ( Table 2 ; Boerckel et al., 2007 ). Table 2. Genes implicated in germline DNA damage responses Gene Pro...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 6. cep-1 (p53/p63) and the regulation of DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis
...is. In addition, no mutator phenotype was detected in cep-1 mutants or in mutants defective in the core cell apoptosis pathway ( Harris et al...

.... elegans p53-like), a primordial p53 family member ( Table 2 ; Derry et al., 2001 ; Schumacher et al., 2001 ). Due to lo...

...eems unlikely that the worm genome encodes a homolog of MDM-2, an E3 ligase and the most common negative regulator of p53...

...t studies also confirmed a role of C. elegans akt-1 and akt-2 kinases, which had previously been implicated in insulin si...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 7. Meiotic recombination and pairing checkpoints
...nd Dernburg, 2005 ). Apoptosis was, however, blocked in pch-2mutants, which do not affect DNA damage-induced apoptosis ( Bhalla ...

...rg, 2005 ). The DNA damage checkpoint is activated in him-8 mutants that are defective in X-chromosome pairing and in mutants containing a PC deletion on chromosomes. This may be explai...

...k repair and meiotic recombination, such as rad-51 and brca-2 ( Alpi et al., 2003 ; Gartner et al., 2000 ; Martin et al.,...

...esults in germ cell apoptosis that requires the cep-1 , clk-2 and mrt-1 checkpoint genes. Consistent with the recombinati...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 8. Other stresses that induce germ cell apoptosis
... parallel egl-1 -independent mechanism is involved ( Figure 2 ). The induction of apoptosis by oxidative, heat, or osmoti...

Germline survival and apoptosis : 9. Germ cell immortality
...s ( Ahmed, 2006 ). Unbiased genetic screens have identified mutants that are defective in germ cell immortality ( Ahmed and Hod...

...ty ( Ahmed and Hodgkin, 2000 ). These mrt (mortal germline) mutants proliferate normally for several generations, before eventu...

...due to defects in germ cell proliferation. Several of these mutants have been implicated in telomere length maintenance ( Ahmed...

... encoding the 9-1-1 DNA damage checkpoint complex (e.g. mrt-2 and hus-1 ) are needed for telomere length maintenance ( Ah...


The C. elegans intestine [HTML]
The C. elegans intestine
...e intestine 6.1. Analysis of intestine specific promoters 6.2. Intestinal GATA factors and the predominance of ELT-2 6.3. Other transcription factors in the intestine 7. Future...

...control View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The intestinal cell lineage in time and space 3. Intestina...

...stinal morphogenesis and patterning 3.1. Intestinal twist 3.2. Anterior-posterior patterning of intestinal transcription ...

...4.1. Apical domain, the brush border and the terminal web 4.2. Basolateral domain 4.3. Apical junctions 4.4. Intestinal o...

The C. elegans intestine : 2. The intestinal cell lineage in time and space
...c view of the E lineage is shown on the left side of Figure 2 . The right side of Figure 2 depicts the more realistic view of the intestinal lineage d...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.133.1 2. The intestinal cell lineage in time and space The ent...

... below in the section on transcriptional regulation. Figure 2. Cell lineage of the C. elegans embryonic intestine.  ...

...nterior daughter Ea and a posterior daughter Ep (see Figure 2 ). Ea and Ep then migrate into the embryo during gastrulati...

The C. elegans intestine : 3. Intestinal morphogenesis and patterning
...articular MS-lineage cells expressing the LIN-12 ligand LAG-2 contact the intestine primordium on the left side, not on t...

...ernative ligand APX-1 . Both of these interactions, the LAG-2 dependent imposition of LIN-12 asymmetry at the 4E stage an...

...sary to impart the helical form to the overall intestine? 3.2. Anterior-posterior patterning of intestinal transcrip...

...re the same molecules studied so intensely in the earlier P 2 -EMS contact that specifies the intestine. Overall, the ges...

The C. elegans intestine : 4. Structure of an intestinal cell
...face ( Beh et al., 1991 ; Fukushige et al., 2005 ), the OPT-2 /PEP-2 peptide transporter ( Nehrke, 2003 ; Meissner et al., 2004 ...

...ain including brush border and terminal web; (see section 4.2 ) the basolateral domain including the basement membrane; (...

...lation of cells during intestinal morphogenesis (see Figure 2 above) or from defects in the maturation of the apical junc...

...f microvillar length. The intermediate filament protein IFB-2 is the epitope reacting with the monoclonal antibody MH33 (...

The C. elegans intestine : 5. Function: towards a molecular physiology of the intestine
...ges of the intact intestine in a living animal using the Ca 2+ -sensitive-fluorescent cameleon system. After Ca 2+ spikes at the intestine posterior, a Ca 2+ wave propagates from the posterior to the intestine anteri...

...y uptake of food-derived peptides ( Nehrke, 2003 ). The OPT-2 /PEP-2 protein is the major C. elegans dipeptide transporter and i...

...se ( Mendel et al., 2003 ; Oskouian et al., 2005 ). The ELO-2 , ELO-5 and ELO-6 enzymes have fatty acid elongation activi...

...stine: The NUC-1 nuclease was originally identified because mutants retained bacterial DNA undigested within the intestine ( Su...

The C. elegans intestine : 6. Transcriptional control in the intestine
...ating vitellogenin transcription will be discussed below. 6.2. Intestinal GATA factors and the predominance of ELT-2 The C. elegans genome encodes eleven zinc-finger GATA-relat...

... genes encoding the next round of GATA factors, chiefly ELT-2. The elt-2 gene (where elt stands for erythrocyte-like transcription f...

...age and persists into adulthood; maintenance of correct ELT-2 levels likely involves direct elt-2 gene autoregulation ( Fukushige et al., 1998 ; Fukushige et...

...ndant backup for a minor fraction of genes regulated by ELT-2 , i.e. an elt-7 ; elt-2 double knockout has a slightly more severe phenotype than d...


Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans [HTML]
Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans
...est version Table of Contents 1. Aging, models and theories 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging 2.3. Statistical analysis 3. Published gene expression profil...

...evant to C. elegans aging 3.1. Studies of wild type aging 3.2. Studies involving dauer formation gene mutants 3.3. Studies of life-extension paradigms 4. What have we le...

...earned? 4.1. Conclusions drawn from studies of worm aging 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants 5. Future directions 6. References Abstract Great inroads i...

...geneexpressionaging.html 10.1895/wormbook.1.127.2 Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 1. Aging, models and theories
...10.1895/wormbook.1.127.2 1. Aging, models and theories Aging, or organismal sen...

...imura et al., 1997 ). The best characterized of these ( daf-2 , age-1 ) are in an insulin-like signaling pathway which cu...

...ddle et al., 1981 ). The cost to fitness of these longevity mutants predicted by evolutionary theory was observed under stressf...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis
...10.1895/wormbook.1.127.22. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology Microarray met...

...ime-course experiments that are necessary in aging studies. 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging To enable the i...

...iar with microarrays and high-dimensionality data analysis. 2.3. Statistical analysis The analysis of microarray dat...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 3. Published gene expression profiling relevant to C. elegans aging
...olism, proteases McElwee et al., 2003 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) vs. daf2( e1370 ); daf-16 ( m27 ) . Pools used, 2 biological replicates, 2 technical replicates of each. cDNA (17871) 4 Arbitrary cut-...

...;Mount 15” McElwee et al., 2004 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) or daf-2( m577 ) vs. daf-2 ; daf-16 . Pools used, 5 biological replicates per genotype...

...0000 tags) 5 Discovery Space Platform 48 age-related in daf-2 , 265 age-matched control vs daf-2 , 130 physiologically matched control vs daf-2 Lipid, protein and energy metabolism, stress response, cell...

...lov, 2004 ; Halaschek-Wiener et al., 2005 ), or between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants ( McElwee et al., 2003 ; McElwee et al., 2004 ; Murphy et a...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 4. What have we learned?
... between the microarray and SAGE data related to N2 and daf-2 aging deserve further investigation. 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants Interestingly, most studies have focused on differences in ...

... have focused on differences in gene expression between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 rather than between N2 and daf-2 . Presumably, this is because mutation of daf-16 shortens (...

..., since daf-16 is required for both dauer formation and daf-2 longevity, the gene sets identified by comparing daf-2 with daf-2 ; daf-16 overlaps substantially with the gene sets identifi...

...s that several stress-response genes are upregulated in daf-2 animals relative to daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants. Dauers also have an altered metabolism, consistent with th...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 5. Future directions
...udinal studies of gene expression over the life span of daf-2 or other long-lived mutants would aid in the interpretation of the expression changes r...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.127.2 5. Future directions Much has been learned from the ex...


Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
... version 1 latest version Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Neuronal cell lineages and neuron classification 3. Genes ...

...ns 3.1. Neuronal vs. non-neuronal lineage transformations 3.2. Neuron lineage alterations and losses 4. Genes controlling...

... 4.1. Terminal selectors control terminal neuron identity 4.2. Combinatorial regulatory codes 4.3. Other regulatory routi...

...lass specification 5.1. Diversifying motor neuron classes 5.2. Diversification across the left/right axis 6. Linking neur...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 1. Introduction
... of the worm has allowed the retrieval of a large number of mutants required for the specification of cells within the nervous ...

...by John Sulston and colleagues almost 30 years ago ( Figure 2 ) ( Sulston, 1983 ; Sulston et al., 1980 ; Sulston and Horv...

...ceh-17 homeobox axon pathfinding (several head neurons) ceh-2 homeobox aspects of neuronal differentiation (pharyngeal ne...

...ects of neuronal differentiation (command interneurons) fkh-2 forkhead ciliogenesis fozi-1 Zn finger subtype identity swi...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 2. Neuronal cell lineages and neuron classification
...lops ( Table 1 provides an overview of neuronal development mutants). Below, I highlight a selected few of these mutants, grouping them by the types of defects observed. Other revi...

...10.1895/wormbook.1.12.1. 2. Neuronal cell lineages and neuron classification Suls...

...ls some key features of nervous system development ( Figure 2 ). As a quick glance at the diagram shows, C. elegans neuro...

...y derived from many different lineages (red lines in Figure 2 ). Some lineage sub-branches give rise exclusively to neuro...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 3. Genes controlling lineage decisions
...ryonic V ectoblasts transform into neuronal fates in lin-22 mutants or lose their neuronal fate in lin-32 mutants ( Horvitz et al., 1983 ; Wrischnik and Kenyon, 1997 ; Zhao ...

...ons Two classic examples of neuronal lineage transformation mutants, lin-32 and lin-22 , reveal the existence of defined neuron...

...ure 3A ). Interestingly, the opposite is observed in lin-22 mutants that lack a hairy- type bHLH transcription factor ( Figure ...

...Other lineages show similar re-iteration patterns in unc-86 mutants.   (C) A hypodermal cell transforms into a motorneuron...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 4. Genes controlling neuron class specification
...vidual behavior completely fails to differentiate. In mec-3 mutants mechanosensory neurons fail to differentiate, in ttx-3 mutants an interneuron class (AIY) required for processing thermose...

... neuronal migration defects are observed (e.g., mab-5 , ham-2mutants ( Baum et al., 1999 ; Salser and Kenyon, 1992 )). Usually t...

...ionally been identified through forward genetic screens for mutants in which individual neuron classes with easily scorable fun...

...5 ; Horvitz et al., 1983 ). Searching for viable behavioral mutants may have introduced a bias to the types of genes identified...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 5. Genes controlling neuron subclass specification
... a regulatory routine onto a subset of the class members. 5.2. Diversification across the left/right axis Neural fat...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 6. Linking neuronal class specification to lineage
...shown in Figure 5 . The transiently expressed Zic- like ref-2 Zn finger transcription factor cooperates with a combinatio...

... to the coupling of the neuroblast identity determinant ref-2 to a terminal selector. For example, the nhr-67 orphan nucl...

...uron is born. One example is the HMX-type homeobox gene mls-2 , which is transiently expressed in the AWC neuron shortly ...

... distinct lineage histories as shown in the inset to Figure 2 ). Figure 5. A Wnt signaling system contributes a lineage s...

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 7. Conclusions and perspectives
...orth reiterating to underscore the common thread: in lin-22 mutants neuronal fate will be executed instead of hypodermal fate; ...

...ome touch neurons adopt the fate of their sisters; in lim-4 mutants the AWB neuron switches to the AWC neuron; in unc-4 and vab...

...e AWB neuron switches to the AWC neuron; in unc-4 and vab-7 mutants ventral cord motor neuron classes execute alternative fate ...

...native fate programs ( Von Stetina et al., 2006 ); in ahr-1 mutants RMEL /R neurons change their identity to RMED /V neurons ( ...


Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans [HTML]
Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans
...est version Table of Contents 1. Aging, models and theories 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging 2.3. Statistical analysis 3. Published gene expression profil...

...evant to C. elegans aging 3.1. Studies of wild type aging 3.2. Studies involving dauer formation gene mutants 3.3. Studies of life-extension paradigms 4. What have we le...

...earned? 4.1. Conclusions drawn from studies of worm aging 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants 5. Future directions 6. References Abstract Great inroads i...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 1. Aging, models and theories
...imura et al., 1997 ). The best characterized of these ( daf-2 , age-1 ) are in an insulin-like signaling pathway which cu...

...ddle et al., 1981 ). The cost to fitness of these longevity mutants predicted by evolutionary theory was observed under stressf...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis
...10.1895/wormbook.1.127.1 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology Microarray met...

...ime-course experiments that are necessary in aging studies. 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging To enable the i...

...iar with microarrays and high-dimensionality data analysis. 2.3. Statistical analysis The analysis of microarray dat...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 3. Published gene expression profiling relevant to C. elegans aging
...olism, proteases McElwee et al., 2003 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) vs. daf2( e1370 ); daf-16 ( m27 ) . Pools used, 2 biological replicates, 2 technical replicates of each. cDNA (17871) 4 Arbitrary cut-...

...;Mount 15” McElwee et al., 2004 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) or daf-2( m577 ) vs. daf-2 ; daf-16 . Pools used, 5 biological replicates per genotype...

...0000 tags) 5 Discovery Space Platform 48 age-related in daf-2 , 265 age-matched control vs daf-2 , 130 physiologically matched control vs daf-2 Lipid, protein and energy metabolism, stress response, cell...

...lov, 2004 ; Halaschek-Wiener et al., 2005 ), or between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants ( McElwee et al., 2003 ; McElwee et al., 2004 ; Murphy et a...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 4. What have we learned?
... between the microarray and SAGE data related to N2 and daf-2 aging deserve further investigation. 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants Interestingly, most studies have focused on differences in ...

... have focused on differences in gene expression between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 rather than between N2 and daf-2 . Presumably, this is because mutation of daf-16 shortens (...

..., since daf-16 is required for both dauer formation and daf-2 longevity, the gene sets identified by comparing daf-2 with daf-2 ; daf-16 overlaps substantially with the gene sets identifi...

...s that several stress-response genes are upregulated in daf-2 animals relative to daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants. Dauers also have an altered metabolism, consistent with th...

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 5. Future directions
...udinal studies of gene expression over the life span of daf-2 or other long-lived mutants would aid in the interpretation of the expression changes r...


Genomic overview of protein kinases [HTML]
Genomic overview of protein kinases
...Kinases View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The C. elegans kinome 3. Kinase evolution 4. Recent expans...

...st and most influential of gene families: constituting some 2% of the proteome, they regulate almost all biochemical path...

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 1. Introduction
...est and most important of protein families, accounting for ~2% of genes in a variety of eukaryotic genomes. By phosphoryl...

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 2. The C. elegans kinome
...10.1895/wormbook.1.60.1 2. The C. elegans kinome Most protein kinases share a co...

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 3. Kinase evolution
...c   1 5 Immunity; morphogenesis   TKL LISK LIMK 1 2 Cytoskeletal   TKL LISK TESK 1 2 Testis development   Human Atypical Alpha ChaK 0 2 Neuronal Human adds kinase to metazoan-wide channel Atypica...

... Human adds kinase to conserved protein Other NKF3   0 2 Unknown   Other NKF4   0 2 Cytoskeletal   Other NKF5   0 2 Testis development?   TK Axl   0 3 Cell growth; a...

...ich is present in fly. Splicing function? CAMK PSK   1 2 Human PSKH1 has a Golgi function. CAMK PIM   2 3 Related to PASK, which is present in fly and absent from ...

...ly has closely related Ror and Musk families. TK Met   22 Worm has a clear Met homolog and a divergent family member....

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 4. Recent expansions and inventions in the worm kinome
...l 3 3 0 0 CK1/TTBKL 31 22 0 0 CK1/Worm6 28 19 0 0 CK1/Worm7 2 1 0 0 CK1/Worm8 3 1 0 0 CK1/Worm9 2 0 0 0 CK1/Worm10 22 0 0 CK1/Worm11 1 2 0 0 CK1/Unique 6 3 0 0 TK/Fer 38 24 1 2 RGC group 27 20 6 5 TK/KIN-16 16 6 0 0 Other/Haspin 13 1 1 ...

...10 8 4 7 CMGC/MAPK/Jnk 5 3 1 3 TK/KIN-9 5 5 0 0 Other/Worm1 2 1 0 0 Other/Worm2 3 2 0 0 Other/Worm3 2 1 0 0 Other/Worm4 1 1 0 0 Other/Worm5 3 0 0 0 Total 217 132...

... 5 TK/KIN-16 16 6 0 0 Other/Haspin 13 1 1 1 CMGC/GSK3 7 6 3 2 CAMK/CAMKL/ CHK1 7 1 1 1 Ste/Ste7 10 8 4 7 CMGC/MAPK/Jnk 5 ...

...el extracellular regions. KIN-16 includes the old-1 and old-2 genes thought to be involved in age and stress resistance (...

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 5. The C. briggsae kinome
... between conserved and expanded families is shown in Figure 2 A of the nematode-specific KIN-16 family, in which few pair...

...s, all of which pair off in an orthologous fashion ( Figure 2 B). ...

Genomic overview of protein kinases : A. Appendix A: Classification of worm kinases
...BKL   31 Nematodes M7.7 , B0207.7 , F35C11.3 , Y71F9AL.2 , C04G2.2 , C45G9.1 , F32B6.10 , W01B6.2 , C05C12.1 , C49C8.1 , Y73B6A.2 , D2024.1 , Y47G6A.13 , F54H5.2 , C56C10.6 , C53A5.4 , K06H7.8 , D2045.5 , W09C3.1 , R10D12...

... Wormbook entries Name/ function overview AGC     2 Nematodes, Dictyostelium F31E3.2 , F28C10.3     AGC AKT   2 All kinomes akt-1 , akt-2   PI3K signaling AGC DMPK GEK 1 All metazoans K08B12.5...

...azoans Y50D7A.3   Phosphorylase kinase CAMK PIM   2 Nematodes and vertebrates prk-1 , prk-2     CAMK PKD   2 All metazoans T25E12.4 , W09C5.5   Protein kinase D CA...

..., C09D4.3 , C55B7.10 , F41G3.5 , F38E1.3 , C27D8.1 , Y39G8C.2 , F53C3.1 , F33D11.7 , C34B2.3 , C49C3.2 , spe-6 , C09B9.4 , ZK354.2 , Y65B4A.9 , F59E12.3 , C38C3.4   Uncharacterized CK1 ...


Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection [HTML]
Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection
...biology View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Tools to study transcriptional regulation 3. Locating cis-...

... elements 4. Simple promoters 5. Complex promoters 5.1. myo-2 : activation of a terminal differentiation gene by the comb...

...ties of organ- and cell type-specific regulatory elements 5.2. hlh-1 : activation of gene expression by lineage-preferenc...

...ntrol of pharyngeal gene expression by a master regulator 7.2. Tissue specificity: regulation of gut gene expression by a...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 1. Introduction
... is phosphorylated on the C-terminal domain (CTD) at serine 2 and 5 like other eukaryotes ( Seydoux and Dunn, 1997 ; Wall...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 2. Tools to study transcriptional regulation
...10.1895/wormbook.1.45.1 2. Tools to study transcriptional regulation Reporter ge...

... There are several considerations to take into account when making reporter genes. One is the distinction between transcriptio...

...ackground hybridization or partially permeabilized animals, making it difficult to get in situ hybridization signals that are ...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 3. Locating cis-acting regulatory elements
... is controlled, in part, by an element located greater than 2 kb downstream of the coding region and beyond an unrelated,...

...ex and distant control regions. However, a rule-of-thumb of 2 kb upstream of the ATG works well as a starting point in th...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 4. Simple promoters
... and sex-specific expression controlled, in the case of vit-2 , by a 247 bp promoter ( MacMorris et al., 1992 ; MacMorris...

...er ( MacMorris et al., 1992 ; MacMorris et al., 1994 ). vit-2 promoter activity depends on GATA-factor binding sites and ...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 5. Complex promoters
... not the only factor functioning with PHA-4 to activate myo-2 expression. CEH-22 is expressed in most, but not all, myo-2 expressing pharyngeal muscles ( Okkema and Fire, 1994 ). Li...

...combination to activate pharyngeal muscle expression of myo-2 . myo-2 expression is activated by the pharyngeal muscle-specific C...

...bed for the promoter region of several genes, including myo-2 , hlh-1 and lin-26 . These studies reveal examples in which...

...ssue- and organ-type and by lineage history. 5.1.  myo-2 : activation of a terminal differentiation gene by the comb...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 6. Trans-acting factors
...r TAF11 R07C12.4 185116_s_at AP-1-like F28C6.1 191919_at AP-2-like F28C6.2 191940_at AP-2-like K06A1.1 191145_at AP-2-like Y62E10A.17 186925_at AP-2-like Y73E7A.2 176887_at Apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor aha-1...

...11_s_at PHD-finger Y51H4A.12 184300_s_at PHD-finger Y53G8AR.2 174165_at, 187052_at PHD-finger ZC132.2 179825_at PHD-finger K04C1.2 182794_s_at Polycomb-group mes-2 190261_s_at Polycomb-group mes-6 187971_at Polycomb-group s...

..._at E2F/DP1 F49E12.6 175552_at, 189678_at E2F/DP1 elf-1(mex-2) 186476_s_at E2F/DP1 elf-2 186271_at E2F/DP1 C24A1.2 174325_at ETS domain C33A11.4 188664_at ETS domain C42D8.4 ...

...; Blackwell et al., 1994     E/Daug- hterless HLH-2 HLH-2 ; HLH-3 ; LIN-32 YES N.D. lin-3 , lag-2 CACCTG Hwang and Sternberg, 2004 ; Karp and Greenwald, 2003...

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 7. Spatial specificity
...is then expressed one cell division later, beginning at the 2 E-cell stage ( Fukushige et al., 1998 ). elt-2 expression is activated by END-1 ( Zhu et al., 1998 ), but,...

...l muscle-specific homeodomain factor CEH-22 to activate myo-2 expression during muscle cell differentiation ( Kalb et al....

...uld affect PHA-4 binding affinity by cooperative binding. 7.2. Tissue specificity: regulation of gut gene expression...

...ow indicates an autoregulatory mechanism that maintains elt-2 expression. The first of these gut-specific GATA factors is...


Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans [HTML]
Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans
...ecology View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Taxonomic overview 2.1. The genus Caenorhabditis 2.2. The family Rhabditidae 2.3. The family Diplogastridae 2.4. Nematodes of clade IV 3. Developmental systems 3.1. Gona...

... clade IV 3. Developmental systems 3.1. Gonad development 3.2. Vulva development 3.3. Male tail and body size evolution 4...

Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans : 2. Taxonomic overview
...Caenorhabditis C. elegans H V: R Di Central/ − 1-step 2°-1°-2°   Oscheius O. tipulae H V: R Di Central/ − 2-step 2°-1°-2° see sections 3.1.2 / 3.2.3 . Rhabditella R. axei G V: R Di Central/ − 2-step 2°-1°-2° Felix and Sternberg, 1997 Rhabditoides R. regina G V: ...

...96 Pristionchus P. pacificus H V: D Di Central/+ continuous 2°-1°-2° see sections 3.1.3. / 3.2.4. Koerneria K. sp. RS 113 G V: D Di Central/+ Gonad dep.* 2°-1°-2° Sternberg and Horvitz, 1981 Diplogasteroides D. sp. RS...

...lished Panagrolaimus P. sp. PS 1732 H IV: P Mono Central /+ 2-step 2°-1°-1°-2° Felix et al., 2000 Panagrellus P. redivivus G IV: P Mo...

...00 Panagrellus P. redivivus G IV: P Mono Posterior/ − 2-step 2°-1°-1°-2° Sternberg and Horvitz, 1981 / Felix et al., 2000 Turba...

Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans : 3. Developmental systems
... fates are shown in grey. Note that the Cephalobina pattern 2°-1°-1°-2° is a simplification (see section 3.2.2 for details). Reprinted from Sommer (2000) , Copyright (200...

...risingly conserved with the only major alteration being the 2°-1°-2° pattern (clade V) vs. 2°-1°-1°-2° pattern (clade IV; Table 1 ). At the same time however...

... death. These include P(1-4).p and P(9-11).p (see section 3.2.4. below). The vulva is formed by P(5-7).p with a 2°-1°-2° pattern ( Figure 6A ; Table 1 ; Sommer and Sternberg, ...

...these cells adopt the anteroposterior pattern 3°-3°-2°-1°-2°-3°. P3.p , P4.p and P8.p have an epidermal fate in...


Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology [HTML]
Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology
...omments Table of Contents 1. Ionotropic glutamate receptors 2. Glutamate-gated chloride channels: distribution and functi...

Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology : 1. Ionotropic glutamate receptors
... acid (AMPA; GluR1-4/GluRA-D), or kainate (KA; GluR5-7, KA1-2). Two other subunits, δ 1 and δ 2, which share high sequence similarity with other iGluR subu...

...most similar to either the AMPA or kainate subfamilies. The 2 NMDA subunits, NMR-1 and NMR-2
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0verkill-0.16 -- 0verkill is a bloody 2D action deathmatch-like game in ASCII-ART
2bsd-diff-2.11 -- 2.11BSD diff utility
2dhf-2003.02 -- A Numerical Hartree-Fock Program for Diatomic Molecules
3dc-0.8.1 -- 3-Dimensional Chess for X Window System
3ddesktop-0.2.5_1 -- 3D Virtual Desktop Switcher
3dm-1.10.0.011_1,1 -- 3ware ATA RAID monitoring daemon and web server
3dpong-0.4 -- X Window 3D Pong game for 1 or 2 players with a ball and paddles
3proxy-0.4.1b -- Proxy servers set (support HTTP(S), FTP, SOCKS, POP3, TCP & UDP)
44bsd-csh-20001106 -- The traditional 4.4BSD /bin/csh C-shell
44bsd-more-20000521 -- The pager installed with FreeBSD before less(1) was imported
44bsd-rdist-20001111 -- The traditional 4.4BSD rdist
4va-1.21 -- Four-Dimensional graphics tumbler for X11
54321-1.0.2001.11.16 -- 54321 is five games in four-, three-, or two-dimensions for one player
6tunnel-0.09 -- TCP proxy for application that don't speak IPv6
9box-0.2.1 -- 9box can "pack" windows inside itself
9e-1.0 -- Explode Plan9 archives
9libs-1.0 -- Plan9 compatibility libraries
9menu-1.6 -- A simple menu patterened after plan9
9term-1.6.3 -- An X11 program which emulates a plan9 window
9wm-1.1 -- An 8 1/2-like Window Manager for X
ADMsmb-0.3 -- Security scanner for Samba
ADMsnmp-0.1 -- SNMP audit scanner
AbiWord2-2.0.1 -- An open-source, cross-platform WYSIWYG word processor
AquaGatekeeper-1.17 -- Aqua H323 Gatekeeper and proxy
Atlas-0.4.6_1 -- A C++ reference implementation of the Atlas protocol
BitchX-1.0c19_3 -- "An alternative ircII color client with optional GTK/GNOME support"
CalculiX-1.1 -- A Three-Dimensional Structural Finite Element Program
CaribbeanStud-1.0 -- Caribbean Stud gambling game for X Window System
Cgraph-2.04_1 -- A PostScript plotting library in C
Coin-2.1.0 -- C++ 3D graphics library based on the Open Inventor 2.1 API
DarwinStreamingServer-4.1.3g -- Darwin Streaming Server, a MP3, MPEG4 and QuickTime streaming server
E-FancyLauncher-0.7 -- A flexible and easily configurable button bar for Enlightenment
E-Run-1.2 -- A simple epplet for launching arbitrary programs
E-Weather-0.4a -- Weather epplet for Enlightenment similar to wmWeather
E-buttons-0.2 -- A simple epplet that contains several buttons used to launch programs
ELFIO-1.0.0 -- C++ library for reading and generating files in the ELF binary format
EZWGL-1.50_1 -- The EZ Widget and Graphics Library
FSViewer.app-0.2.5 -- X11 file manager using WINGS library. Dockable in WindowMaker
FlightGear-0.9.2 -- The FlightGear flight simulator
Fudgit-2.41 -- Multi-purpose data-processing and fitting program
GSubEdit-0.4.p1 -- GNOME Subtitle Editor is a tool for editing/converting video subtitles
GTKsubtitler-0.2.0.p1 -- A small GNOME program for editing and converting subtitles
Gdtclft-2.2.5_4 -- A TCL interface to the Thomas Boutell's Gd library
Generic-NQS-3.50.9_2 -- Generic Network Queuing System
GeoIP-1.2.2 -- Find the country that any IP address or hostname originates from
GiNaC-1.1.5 -- A C++ library for symbolic mathematical calculations
GimpUserManual-HTML-2 -- The user manual for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP)
GimpUserManual-PDF-2 -- The user manual for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP)
Goggles-0.5.6 -- A FOX frontend to the Ogle DVD player
HVSC-Update-2.8.2 -- Update program for the HVSC C= 64 SID tune collection
Hermes-1.3.3 -- Fast pixel formats conversion library
HeroesOfMightAndMagic-3 -- BSD Installation of the Linux game "Heroes of Might and Magic III"
Howto-1.0_4 -- Linux HOW-TOs modified for applicablity on FreeBSD
Hyperlatex-2.6 -- Produce HTML and printed documents from LaTeX source
IMHear-1.0 -- An MSN Messenger event/message sniffer
IPA-1.00 -- Image Processing Algorithms
IglooFTP-0.6.1 -- Easy to use FTP client for X Window System
ImageMagick-5.5.7.11_1 -- Image processing tools
Ipe-5.0 -- Extensible drawing editor
JX-1.5.3_1 -- A C++ application framework and widget library for X11
KSubeditor-0.13.r1 -- A video subtitle editor for KDE
L-Breeder-1.0 -- Allows you to display and breed L-system forms
LDAP-Account-Manager-0.4 -- Webfrontend for managing accounts stored in an OpenLDAP server
LPRng-3.8.21 -- An Enhanced Printer Spooler
LPRngTool-1.3.2 -- Configuration Tool for LPRng
LaBrea-2.4 -- Security tarpit defense tool
LinNeighborhood-0.6.5_2 -- GTK+ gui for browsing and mounting SMB filesystems
MT-2.64_1 -- A web-based personal publishing system like weblogs
Maaate-0.3.1 -- MPEG audio analysis toolkit
Mail-Mbox-MessageParser-1.12 -- A fast and simple mbox folder reader
MathPlanner-3.1.2 -- A mathematical design and publishing application
Mesa-5.0.1_2 -- A graphics library similar to SGI's OpenGL
Mowitz-0.2.1_1 -- This is the Mowitz ("More widgets") library
MuSE-0.8.1_1 -- Multiple Streaming Engine
NeTraMet-4.4_1 -- Implementation of the Internet Accounting Architecture
NetPIPE-3.5 -- A self-scaling network benchmark
NetRexx-2.02_2 -- Human-oriented programming language for writing/using Java classes
NetSpades-4.2.0 -- Very popular card game for 1-4 players over a network
NuppelVideo-0.52.a -- A very low CPU usage VCR/DVR application
OQTEncoder-0.1 -- A simple encoder using OpenQuicktime (TM)
OQTPlayer-0.5 -- A very very small, not functionnal, video OpenQuicktime (TM) player
ORBacus-3.2.1_1 -- A CORBA 2 implementation
ORBit-0.5.17_1 -- High-performance CORBA ORB with support for the C language
ORBit2-2.8.2 -- High-performance CORBA ORB with support for the C language
OpenEXR-1.0.5_3 -- OpenEXR, a high dynamic-range (HDR) image file format developed by ILM
OpenSP-1.5_4 -- This package is a collection of SGML/XML tools called OpenSP
OpenSSH-askpass-1.2.2.2001.02.24 -- Graphical password applet for entering SSH passphrase
OpenVerse-0.8.3 -- A visual chat program written in Tcl/Tk
ParMetis-3.1 -- A package for parallel (mpi) unstructured graph partitioning
PicMonger-0.9.6 -- An automated USENET (NNT) picture decoding client
QtPixmap-0.26 -- Modifed GTK pixmap engine to obtain Theme information from Qt
QuakeForge-0.5.4 -- Cleaned up copy of the GPLd Quake 1 source code
R-a4-1.8.0 -- A language for statistical computing and graphics
R-letter-1.8.0 -- A language for statistical computing and graphics
Radiator-3.6 -- Radiator Radius Server by Open System Consultants
RealTimeBattle-1.0.4_1 -- Robot programming game for UNIX
SETISupport-0.75 -- JAVA application that shows current state of [email protected] client
SSLtelnet-0.13_1 -- SSL enhanced telnet/telnetd
STk-4.0.1 -- A scheme interpreter with full access to the Tk graphical package
Sablot-1.0 -- XML toolkit implementing XSLT 1.0, XPath 1.0 and DOM Level2
SimGear-0.3.3 -- A toolkit for 3D games and simulations
Slay-1.2 -- Kills a login shell and process(es) of a user
SoQt-1.0.2_1 -- Qt toolkit library for Coin
SoXt-1.1.0 -- GUI binding for using Open Inventor with Xt/Motif
SpecTcl-1.1_3 -- Free drag-and-drop GUI builder for Tk and Java from Sun
TclExpat-1.1_2 -- The TCL interface to Expat library
Tee-3.4 -- An enhanced version of tee(1)
TekNap-1.3.g -- Console napster client
TenDRA-4.20030825 -- A portable BSD-licensed compiler suite
Tk-FileDialog-1.3 -- Tk::FileDialog - A file selector dialog for perl/Tk
VisualOS-1.0.4 -- A visual simulator of an operating system to help understand how OSes work
WMxmms-0.1.4 -- A dockable XMMS interface
WWWdb-0.8.2 -- A Perl based generic WWW DB interface / frontend
WebMagick-2.03p3_7,1 -- Image Web Generator - recursively build HTMLs, imagemaps, thumbnails
WhistlerK-200010142358 -- A GTK theme engine inspired by the Windows Whistler
Wingz-142_1 -- A Commercial Spreadsheet
WordNet-1.7.1 -- Dictionaries and thesauri with devel. libraries (C, TCL) and browsers
XBone-2.0_1 -- A system for dynamic internet overlay deployment and management
XFree86-3.3.6_11 -- X11R6.3/XFree86 core distribution
XFree86-4.3.0,1 -- X11/XFree86 core distribution (complete, using mini/meta-ports)
XFree86-FontServer-4.3.0_2 -- XFree86-4 font server
XFree86-NestServer-4.3.0_3 -- XFree86-4 nested X server
XFree86-PrintServer-4.3.0_1 -- XFree86-4 print server
XFree86-Server-4.3.0_12 -- XFree86-4 X server and related programs
XFree86-Server-4.3.99.15 -- XFree86-4 X server and related programs
XFree86-VirtualFramebufferServer-4.3.0_3 -- XFree86-4 virtual framebuffer server
XFree86-aoutlibs-3.3.6.9 -- XFree86 a.out compatibility libraries
XFree86-clients-4.3.0_5 -- XFree86-4 client programs and related files
XFree86-contrib-3.3.6 -- XFree86 contrib programs
XFree86-documents-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 documentation
XFree86-font100dpi-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 bitmap 100 dpi fonts
XFree86-font75dpi-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 bitmap 75 dpi fonts
XFree86-fontCyrillic-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 Cyrillic fonts
XFree86-fontDefaultBitmaps-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 default bitmap fonts
XFree86-fontEncodings-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 font encoding files
XFree86-fontScalable-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 scalable fonts
XFree86-libraries-4.3.0_6 -- XFree86-4 libraries and headers
XFree86-manuals-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 man pages
XNap-2.5.p1 -- A pure java napster client; also, supports OpenNap & giFT (FastTrack)
XPostitPlus-2.3_1 -- PostIt (R) messages onto your X11 screen
XSB-2.5 -- A tabled Logic Programming and Deductive Database system
Xaw3d-1.5 -- A 3-D Athena Widget set that looks like Motif
XawPlus-3.1.0_1 -- A replacement for Xaw with a nicer 3-D look and some extensions
Xft-2.1.2 -- A client-sided font API for X applications
XmHTML-1.1.7_1 -- A Motif widget set for displaying HTML 3.2 documents
a2dev-1.2 -- Apple II 6502 assembler, linker, loader, and object file viewer
a2ps-a4-4.13b_1 -- Formats an ascii file for printing on a postscript printer
a2ps-letter-4.13b_1 -- Formats an ascii file for printing on a postscript printer
a2ps-letterdj-4.13b_1 -- Formats an ascii file for printing on a postscript printer
aXe-6.1.2_1 -- Simple to use text editor for X
aaccli-1.0 -- Adaptec SCSI RAID administration tool
aafid2-0.10 -- A distributed monitoring and intrusion detection system
aalib-1.4.r5_1 -- An ascii art library
aap-1.040 -- A build tool alternative to make with internet access and CVS support
abacus-0.9.13_1 -- Spread sheet for X Window System
abc2mtex-1.6.1 -- Music TeX converter from "abc" to MusiXTeX format
abcache-0.14 -- A tool to cache applications written in PHP
abcde-2.1.8 -- Front-end shell script to encode CDs in flac/mp3/ogg/speex format
abck-2.2 -- Manage intrusion attemps recorded in the system log
abclock-1.0c -- Clock for X that displays hours and minutes in an analog fashion
abcm2ps-2.11.3 -- Converts ABC to music sheet in PostScript format
abcmidi-36 -- Convert abc music files to MIDI and PostScript
abcselect-1.5 -- Extract parts, movements, etc from abc music files
abntex-0.5 -- Both classes and styles for both LaTex and bibtex for ABNT rules
abook-0.5.0 -- An addressbook program with mutt mail client support
abridge-0.4.0 -- Bridge game
abs-0908 -- A free spreadsheet with graphical user interface
abuse-2.0_1 -- The classic 2D action game Abuse
abuse_sdl-0.7.0 -- An SDL port of the Abuse game engine
ac-archive-0.5.55 -- A set of useful GNU autoconf macros
ac3dec-0.6.1 -- Software for research in digital audio coding/decoding
accessx-0.950_1 -- Customise accessibility features for X
accrete-1.0 -- Accrete is a physical simulation of solar system planet formation
acfax-0.981011_1 -- Recieve faxes using sound card and radio
achievo-0.8.4 -- A flexible web-based resource management tool
acid-0.9.6b23 -- Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases (ACID) with Snort and MySQL
acidlaunch-0.5 -- An application launcher with simple XML-based configuration syntax
acidwarp-1.0 -- SVGAlib demo which displays trippy mathematical images in cycling colors
aclgen-2.02 -- Optimize Cisco routers ip access lists
acm-5.0 -- A flight simulator for X11
acme-2.4.1 -- Tool to make multimedia keys work on laptops
acpicatools-20030523.0 -- Some utilities for Intel ACPICA (Debugger, ASL Compiler and etc.).
acrobatviewer-1.1 -- Viewer for the PDF files written in Java(TM)
acron-1.0 -- Database of acronyms and abbreviations
acroread-3.02 -- View, distribute and print PDF documents
acroread-5.08 -- View, distribute and print PDF documents
acroread5-commfont-2002.5 -- Asian Font Packs for Acrobat Reader 5.0 (for common files)
act-2.0 -- A DNA sequence comparison viewer based on Artemis
actx-1.23 -- Window sitter for X11
adabindx-0.7.2 -- An Ada-binding to the X Window System and *tif
adabooch-20020602 -- Library which provide container classes as well as powertools for Ada
adabooch-doc-20020602 -- Manual for adabooch
adacurses-5.2 -- Curses library for Ada
adamem-1.0 -- ADAMEm is a portable Coleco ADAM and ColecoVision emulator
adasdl-20010504 -- An Ada thin binding to SDL
adasockets-1.8.2 -- Sockets library for Ada
adcomplain-3.52 -- Complain about inappropriate commercial use (f.e. SPAM) of usenet/e-mail
add-1.0 -- Full-screen editing calculator
adgali-0.2.3 -- An open source game library useful for 2D games programmation
admesh-0.95 -- Program for processing STL triangulated solid meshes
adns-1.0 -- Easy to use, asynchronous-capable DNS client library and utilities
adobe-cmaps-200204 -- Adobe CMap collection
adodb-3.60_1 -- A database library for PHP4
adom-1.1.1 -- An rogue-like advanced rpg with color support (binary port)
adonthell-0.3.3 -- A free role playing game
adpcm-1.2 -- An Intel/DVI IMA ADPCM codec library
adtool-1.2 -- Active Directory administration tool
adzap-20031105 -- Filter out animated ad banners from web pages
ae_fonts1_ttf-1.0 -- A collection of truetype Arabic fonts created by Arabeyes.org
ae_fonts_mono-1.0 -- A collection of PCF fonts that include Arabic glyphs
aee-2.2.15b -- An easy editor with both curses and X11 interfaces
aescrypt-0.7 -- "A command-line AES encryption/decryption suite"
aewm++-1.0.24 -- The C++ version of aewm
aewm-1.2.3 -- ICCCM-compliant window manager based on 9wm
af-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
af-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
afbackup-3.3.5_2 -- AF's backup system
afbackup-client-3.3.5_2 -- AF's backup system
afbackup-server-3.3.5_2 -- AF's backup system
afbinit-1.0 -- Sun AFB aka Sun Elite 3D microcode firmware loader
affenspiel-1.0 -- Little puzzle game with monkey for X Window System
afio-2.4.7_1 -- Archiver & backup program w/ builtin compression
afm-1.0 -- Adobe Font Metrics
afsp-7.1 -- Audio file conversion utilities and library
aft-5.09,1 -- A document preparation system using an Almost Free Text input format
afternoonstalker-1.0.3 -- A clone of the 1981 Night Stalker video game
afterstep-1.0_1 -- Window manager originally based on the Bowman NeXTSTEP clone
afterstep-1.8.11 -- A stable version of the AfterStep window manager
afterstep-i18n-1.0_1 -- The NeXTSTEP clone window manager with Fontset support
aftp-1.0 -- A ftp-like shell for accessing Apple II disk images
agenda-headers-1.2.0 -- All headers which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
agenda-libs-1.2.0 -- All libraries which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
agenda-snow-libs-1.2.0 -- SNOW libraries which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
agenda-static-libs-1.2.0 -- Static libraries which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
aget-0.4 -- A multithreaded HTTP download accelerator
aggregate-1.6 -- Optimise a list of route prefixes to help make nice short filters
agrep-2.04_1 -- Approximate grep (fast approximate pattern-matching tool)
aguri-0.7 -- An Aggregation-based Traffic Profiler
ah-tty-0.3.12 -- Ah-tty is an automatic helper for command prompts and shells
ahwm-0.90 -- An X11 window manager
aide-0.9 -- A replacement and extension for Tripwire
aileron-0.1.3 -- WINGs mail client
aim-1.5.234 -- AOL's Instant Messenger (AIM) client
airoflash-1.7 -- Flash utiltity for Cisco/Aironet 802.11 wireless cards
airport-2.0.1 -- Apple Airport / Lucent RG-1000 configuration program
aish-1.13 -- Ish/uuencode/Base64 converter
akpop3d-0.7.4 -- POP3 daemon aimed to be small and secure
ald-0.1.5 -- Debugger for assembly level programs
aleph-0.9.0 -- Aleph is a multi-threaded functional programming language
alephone-0.12.0 -- The open source version of Bungie's Marathon game
alephone-data-1.0 -- Data files for the alephone port
alevt-1.6.0 -- X11 Teletext decoding and display program. (reads from /dev/vbi)
alf-0.1 -- Abstract Large File
algae-4.1.3 -- A programming language for numerical analysis
alienwah-1.13 -- "Paul Nasca's AlienWah LADSPA Plugin"
align-1.5.1 -- Text column alignment filter
alisp-8 -- A tail-recursive interpreter for purely symbolic LISP
allegro-4.1.4 -- A cross-platform library for games and multimedia programming
alloywm-0.4.0 -- Has title bars, shading, resizing, automatic placement, window list
alsaplayer-0.99.75 -- Audio player with pitch control and a GNOME GUI
althea-0.5.7 -- Yet another GTK-based mail reader for X. Supports IMAP
altivore-0.9.3 -- A publically disclosed (neither GPL nor open-source) ala Carnivore src
amanda-client-2.4.4_1,1 -- The Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (client)
amanda-server-2.4.4_4,1 -- The Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (server)
amap-4.3 -- Application mapper
amaterus-0.34.1 -- A GTK+ window manager
amavis-perl-11 -- Mail Virus Scanner (uses external antivirus)
amavisd-0.1,1 -- The daemonized version of amavis-perl
amavisd-new-20030616.p5 -- Performance-enhanced daemonized version of amavis-perl
amaya-8.1b -- The W3C's testbed web editor/browser
amiwm-0.20.p48 -- A window manager that makes your desktop look like an Amiga(TM)
amp-0.7.6 -- Another mp3 player
amphetamine-0.8.10_1 -- A 2D - Jump'n'run shooter
ample-0.5.4 -- Allows you to listen to your own MP3's away from home
amsn-0.83_1 -- MSN Messenger
amspsfnt-1.0 -- AMSFonts PostScript Fonts (Adobe Type 1 format)
amy-0.8.4 -- A chess program for playing and analyzing games
amyc-0.9.159_3 -- Display the contents of your Netscape cache
an-0.95_1 -- Fast anagram generator
anacron-2.3 -- Schedules periodic jobs on systems that are not permanently up
analog-5.32_1,1 -- An extremely fast program for analysing WWW logfiles
and-1.0.9 -- Auto Nice Daemon
angband-3.0.3 -- Rogue-like game with color, X11 support
angst-0.4b -- An active sniffer
animabob-1.3.0b -- Interactive 3D volume renderer
anjuta-1.0.2 -- Integrated Development Environment for C and C++
anjuta-1.1.98 -- Integrated Development Environment for C and C++
annextools-10.0 -- BSD tools for the MicroAnnex-XL Terminal Server
ant-xinclude-task-0.2 -- XInclude task for Jakarta Ant
anteater-0.4.5 -- A MTA log analyzer
antipolix-2.1 -- Simple multiplayer game for X Window System
antivir-milter-1.0.6_1 -- AntiVir Milter mail virusscanner for Sendmail
antiword-0.34 -- "An application to display Microsoft(tm) Word files"
antlr-2.7.2 -- ANTLR: ANother Tool for Language Recognition
anubis-3.6.2_1 -- Outgoing SMTP mail processor
aoi-1.6 -- An open source Java written 3D modelling and rendering studio
aolserver-3.4.2 -- A multithreaded web server with embedded TCL interpreter
ap-utils-1.3.1_1 -- A set of utilities to configure and monitor wireless access points
apache+ipv6-1.3.29 -- The extremely popular Apache http server. Very fast, very clean
apache+mod_ssl-1.3.29+2.8.16 -- The Apache 1.3 webserver with SSL/TLS functionality
apache+ssl-1.3.28.1.51_1 -- Apache-SSL: Apache secure webserver integrating OpenSSL
apache-1.3.29_1 -- The extremely popular Apache http server. Very fast, very clean
apache-2.0.48_1 -- Version 2 of the extremely popular Apache http server
apache-ant-1.5.4_1 -- Java- and XML-based build tool, conceptually similar to make
apache-contrib-1.0.8 -- Third-party modules contributed to the Apache HTTP server project
apache-jserv-1.1.2_1 -- Loadable servlet module for apache
apache-soap-2.3.1 -- The Apache SOAP implementation in Java
apache_fp-1.3.27 -- The Apache webserver with MS Frontpage Module
apachetop-0.7 -- Apache RealTime log stats
apc-1.0 -- An xforms based Auto Payment Calculator
apcpwr-1.2 -- Control APC 9211 MasterSwitchs via snmp
apcupsd-3.8.6_1 -- A daemon for controlling APC UPS
apel-emacs19-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for emacs19
apel-emacs20-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for emacs20
apel-emacs21-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for emacs21
apel-mule-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for mule
apel-xemacs21-mule-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for xemacs21-mule
apg-2.3.0b -- An automated password generator
apinger-0.6.1_1 -- An IP device monitoring tool
apotheke-0.2_1 -- A CVS view for Nautilus
apr-0.9.4_3 -- The Apache Group's Portability Library
apsfilter-7.2.5_3 -- Magic print filter with file type recognition, print preview, duplex printing
aqmoney-0.6.2 -- AqMoney uses openhbci to manage your credit institute accounts
aqsis-0.8.0 -- A photorealistic rendering system
ar-frontpage-5.0.2.2623 -- Microsoft Frontpage Arabic Web Administration
ar-katoob-0.3.5 -- Light-weight, bidirectional editor for arabic texts
ar-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
ar-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
ar-openoffice-1.0.3_2 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
ar-openoffice-1.1.0_1 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
arc-5.21j -- Create & extract files from DOS .ARC files
arcexplorer-4.0 -- Lightweight java-based GIS data viewer
arch-1.0.p16 -- A distributed source code management / revision control system
archie-1.4.1 -- Prospero client for the archie service
archie.el-3.0.2 -- A mock-interface to Archie for Emacs
archivemail-0.6.1 -- Search mailbox files and archive or delete mail older than N days
arena-i18n-beta3b -- Experimental HTML 3 browser, supports math and style sheets
ares-1.1.1 -- An asynchronous DNS resolver library
argouml-0.14 -- A UML design tool with cognitive support
argparse-1.0.1 -- A tool for commandline parsing for shell scripts
argus-2.0.5 -- A generic IP network transaction auditing tool
ari-yahoo-1.10 -- A console Yahoo! messenger client
aria-1.0.0 -- Yet another download tool
arirang-1.6,1 -- Powerful webserver security scanner
arj-3.10g -- Open-source ARJ
arla-0.35.6 -- A free AFS client implementation
arm-aout-binutils-2.12.1 -- FSF Binutils for embedded ARM cross-development
arm-elf-binutils-2.14 -- GNU binutils for vanilla ARM cross-development
arm-elf-gcc-2.95.3 -- GNU cross compiler suite for vanilla ARM targets.
arm-rtems-binutils-2.13.2.1 -- FSF binutils-2.13.2.1 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-g77-3.2.3 -- FSF F77-gcc-3.2.3 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-gcc-3.2.3 -- FSF C/C++-gcc-3.2.3 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-gcj-3.2.1 -- FSF JAVA-gcc-3.2.1 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-gdb-5.2_1 -- FSF gdb-5.2 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-objc-3.2.3 -- FSF OBJC-gcc-3.2.1 base-port for RTEMS development
arpack-96 -- Argand Library: large eigenvalue subroutines (serial version)
arpd-0.2 -- A daemon to service arp replies
arping-1.07 -- ARP level "ping" utility
arprelease-1.0 -- Libnet tool to flush arp cache entries from devices (eg. routers)
arpwatch-2.1.a11_3 -- Monitor arp & rarp requests
arrow-1.0.8 -- Mail Reader for X: view, compose and organize; e.g, PGP, GnuPG, POP & APOP
artemis-4.0 -- A DNA sequence viewer and annotation tool
arts++-1.1.a8_1,1 -- A network data storage and analysis library from CAIDA
arts-1.1.4,1 -- Audio system for the KDE integrated X11 desktop
artwiz-fonts-1.0_1 -- A set of free fonts for X11 desktops
as80-0.8 -- A lightweight 8080/8085 assembler
asWedit-4.0.1 -- An easy to use HTML and text editor
asapm-2.13 -- Laptop battery status display for X11
asbutton-0.3 -- A dockapp that displays 4 or 9 buttons to run apps of your choice
asc-1.13.8.0 -- A turn based, multiplayer strategic game with very nice graphics
ascd-0.13.2 -- A dockable cd player for AfterStep or WindowMaker
ascii2pdf-0.9.1 -- A perl script to convert text files to PDF files
asclock-1.0 -- Afterstep clock with some language extentions
asclock-gtk-2.1.10 -- New flavor of asclock (GTK version)
asclock-xlib-2.0.11 -- New flavor of asclock
ascpu-1.9 -- CPU statistics monitor utility for XFree86
asedit-1.3.2_1 -- Text editor for X/Motif
asfiles-1.0 -- X11 file manager. Dockable in WindowMaker
asfrecorder-1.1.20010307 -- Tool for downloading streaming media from the Internet
asfsm-1.0.p15 -- File-system monitor for the AfterStep window manager
ashe-1.3 -- A simple HTML editor
asir-20030825 -- The system Risa/Asir is a general computer algebra system
asis-3.15p -- GNAT implementation of the Ada Semantic Interface Specification
asl-1.41r8 -- Assembler for a variety of microcontrollers/-processors
aslookup-0.12 -- Tool that searches the sequence of AS numbers
asm2html-1.4 -- Converts NASM syntax assembly code to HTML code
asmail-1.6 -- Biff-type program, designed to match AfterStep
asmem-1.8 -- An AfterStep look-n-feel memory utilization monitor
asmix-1.4 -- Volume control dock-app for the AfterStep Window Manager
asmixer-0.5 -- A mixer control for X, and specifically the AfterStep Window Manager
asmodem-0.6.1 -- Displays the modem status, designed to match AfterStep
asmon-0.60 -- A swallowable applet monitors the CPU usage, memory and swap, etc
asmutils-0.14 -- A set of UNIX utilities written in assembly language
asp2php-0.76.17 -- Converts ASP scripts to PHP
aspathtree-4.2 -- Checks IPv6 routes' stability and correctness on IPv6 internet
aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Spelling checker with better suggestion logic than ispell
aspostit-1.3 -- An AfterStep dockable version of XPostIt
asprint-1.0 -- A simple browser to allow a user to print
asr-manpages-20000406 -- alt.sysadmin.recovery man page distribution.
asr-utils-3.04 -- Adaptec ASR RAID Management Software
asterisk-0.5.0_2 -- An Open Source PBX and telephony toolkit
astime-2.8 -- Time/Date applet for WindowMaker
astk-client-1.0.14_2 -- Graphical interface for Code_Aster (client side)
astk-serveur-1.0.14_2 -- Graphical interface for Code_Aster (server side)
astrolog-5.40_1 -- An astrology program for X11 and alpha-numeric terminals
astyle-1.15.3 -- A reindenter and reformatter of C++, C and Java source code
aswiki-1.0.1_2 -- WikiWikiWeb clone written in Ruby
at-1.0 -- The Acoustic ToolBox includes four acoustic models
at-spi-1.3.8 -- An Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface
atari800-1.3.1 -- Atari 8-bit computer emulator
aterm-0.4.2 -- A color vt102 terminal emulator with transparency support
atitd-1.0 -- The Linux "A Tale in the Desert" (ATITD) client
atk-1.4.1_1 -- A GNOME accessibility toolkit (ATK)
atlas-3.5.5,1 -- Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS)
atlas-devel-3.5.12 -- Development version of math/atlas
atlast-1.0_1 -- Autodesk Threaded Language Application System Toolkit
atlc-4.0.1 -- A tool to calculate the impedance of transmission lines
atomix-0.4.3 -- A yet another little mind game
atp-1.50 -- A QWK message packet reader and composer for FreeBSD
atr3d-0.6 -- 3D asteroids-like multiplayer game
aub-2.1.3 -- Assemble usenet binaries
aube-0.30.2 -- System for sound generation and processing
auctex-11.13 -- Integrated environment for writing LaTeX using GNU Emacs
audacity-1.0.0_2 -- Audacity is a GUI editor for digital audio waveforms
audit-1.0_1 -- Tools for remote and centralized audit data collection
august-0.63b_1 -- HTML editor for the experienced Web author
aumix-2.8_1 -- Audio mixer for X11, terminal, or command line
aunit-1.01 -- A unit testing framework for the Ada '95 programming language
aureal-kmod-1.3_4 -- A FreeBSD Driver for Aureal Vortex based soundcards
auth_ldap-1.6.0_2 -- Apache module to authenticate against an LDAP directory
authforce-0.9.6_2 -- HTTP authentication brute forcer
authpf-2.00 -- Authentification shell for pf gateways
autobench-2.0.1 -- Automating the process of benchmarking a web server
autobook-1.3 -- GNU autoconf, automake and libtool - The Book
autocd-3.02.10a -- Compact disc control utility
autoconf-2.13.000227_5 -- Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms (legacy 2.13 version)
autoconf-2.53_1 -- Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms
autoconf-2.57 -- Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms
autocutsel-0.6.2 -- Synchronizes the two copy/paste buffers used by X applications
autodia-1.6 -- Automatic Dia XML - from Source Code and Data
autogen-5.5.6 -- The Automated Program Generator
automake-1.4.5_9 -- GNU Standards-compliant Makefile generator (legacy version 1.4)
automake-1.5,1 -- GNU Standards-compliant Makefile generator
automake-1.7.5_1 -- GNU automake generates input files for GNU autoconf
autools-1.2.0 -- A collection of programs to manipulate audio files
autopsy-1.73 -- The Autopsy Forensic Browser is a GUI for Sleuthkit
autorespond-2.0.4 -- Simple autoresponder for qmail
autosig-2.3 -- A random .signature generator with header file included
autossh-1.2e -- Automatically restart SSH sessions and tunnels
autotrace-0.31.1_1 -- Convert bitmap to vector graphics
autozen-1.3.1 -- Adjust brain waves with sound
avarice-2.0.20030403 -- Atmel AVR JTAG programmer and debugging interface for avr-gdb
avcheck-0.9 -- A simple antivirus solution for a mail system
avida-1.6.0 -- Avida is an auto-adaptive genetic system designed for ALife research
avidemux-0.9.0.110 -- Simple GUI-based video editor
aview-1.3.0.r1 -- Graphics viewer for viewing netpbm format on console or X using aalib
avifile-0.7.34.20030319,2 -- AVI player/converter with numerous codecs, including MPEG-4(DivX ;-))
avinfo-0.7.3 -- A utility for displaying AVI header information
avltree-1.1 -- An in-memory index w/ binary and string keys and key counts
avmailgate-6.12.0.0 -- AntiVir MailGate mail virusscanner
avr-binutils-2.14 -- GNU binutils for Atmel AVR 8-bit RISC cross-development
avr-gcc-3.3.1 -- FSF GCC 3.3.1 for Atmel AVR 8-bit RISC cross-development
avr-gdb-5.3 -- GNU GDB 5.2.1 for the AVR target
avr-libc-2003.09.09 -- A C and math library for the Atmel AVR controller family
avrdude-4.2.0 -- Program for programming the on-chip memory of Atmel AVR CPUs
avrprog-3.0.0 -- Program to drive a simple parallel port programmer for Atmel AVR CPUs
awele-1.0 -- An african board game
awka-0.7.5 -- Converts the AWK script to C, then compiles it
awstats-5.9 -- Free real-time logfile analyzer to get advanced web statistics
axel-1.0a_2 -- A download accelerator
axelq-0.80 -- A queue manager for the download accelerator axel
axis-1.1_2 -- SOAP implementation by APACHE project
axpoint-1.30 -- XML Based Presentations
axyftp-0.5.1 -- X Window System FTP client, with WSftp-like UI
az-kde-i18n-3.0.5 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
b2bua-1.5.0_1 -- A back-to-back (B2B) SIP user agent
babel-1.6_3 -- Converts among various molecular file formats
babytrans-0.9.1_1 -- GTK+/GNOME front-end for Babylon Translator .dic files
backfract-1.1.2 -- Fractal image animated wallpaper program
bacula-1.32c -- The network backup solution
baduki-0.2.9 -- The game of Go
badwm-0.06 -- Window manager based on eviwm
bakery-1.0.2 -- A C++ Application Framework for use with Gnome--
balance-3.11 -- Simple but powerful generic tcp proxy with round robin features
balsa-1.4.4 -- A mail reader for the GNOME desktop
balsa2-2.0.15 -- A mail reader for the GNOME 2 desktop
bandwidthd-1.1.6 -- Tracks bandwidth usage by IP address
barcode-0.97 -- A barcode generation library along with a command line frontend
barrage-1.0.1 -- Destroy as many targets as possible
barry-0.6 -- A nice KDE frontend to the ports system
base64-1.3 -- Simple program to convert binary files to base64
bash-1.14.7 -- The GNU Bourne Again Shell -- old version
bash-2.05b.007 -- The GNU Bourne Again Shell
bash-completion-20031022 -- Programmable completion library for Bash 2.04 and up
basiliskII-1.0 -- A free, portable, Open Source 68k Mac emulator
basket-0.3.3 -- Desktop organization tool
battalion-1.4_1 -- Monsters, explosions, destruction game for X Window System
battfink-0.6.1 -- An energy saving preferences app for GNOME
battleball-2.1 -- 3D single/multiplayer military soccer game for X Window System
bayespam-0.9.2 -- qmail spam filter written in Perl using Bayesian classification
bb-1.3.r1 -- High quality audio-visual demonstration for text terminal
bbapm-0.0.1 -- APM monitor for the Blackbox slit
bbconf-1.8 -- Configurator for the Blackbox window manager
bbdate-0.2.4 -- A tool made for Blackbox that displays the date in a decorated window
bbdb-emacs20-2.34 -- Big Brother Database
bbdb-emacs21-2.34 -- Big Brother Database
bbjd-1.01 -- Beat the blackjack dealer
bbkeys-0.8.5 -- A keygrabber for the Blackbox window manager
bblimage-0.66 -- A set of software tools for medical image processing
bbmail-0.8.2 -- A tool intended for Blackbox that checks for new mail
bbpager-0.3.1 -- A pager for the Blackbox window manager
bbrb-0.4.1 -- A graphical background manager for the Blackbox window manager
bbrun-1.4_1 -- A Run box for Blackbox
bbsmount-0.3.0p1 -- Graphical disk mounter for the Blackbox slit
bbsnet-2.8 -- A front-end of telnet client for multiple users or in private
bcc-1995.03.12 -- Bruce's C compiler (with as and ld); can do 16-bit code
bchunk-1.1.1 -- Converts .bin/.cue files to .iso/audio
bclock-1.0 -- A round, analog X11 clock with bezier curve hands
bcpp-20020518 -- A utility similar to indent for C++ code
bcwipe-1.2.3 -- BCWipe securely erase data from magnetic and solid-state memory
bdfresize-1.5 -- A tool for resizing BDF format font
beav-1.40.15 -- Binary Editor And Viewer, a full featured binary file editor
beaver-0.3.1_1 -- A programmer's text editor for GTK+ 2.0
bebocd-0.4 -- GTK2 CD Player
bed-0.2.19 -- Variable dataformat binary editor
bedic-data-0.1.b1 -- Data (dictionary) files for the kbedic and cbedic ports
beecrypt-3.1.0 -- BeeCrypt is an open source cryptography library
beep-1.0 -- Beeps a certain duration and pitch out of the PC Speaker
beep-media-player-1.0.0_1 -- GTK2 mp3 player
bestfit-0.2.0 -- Optimally choose files to be put on a CD (or other media)
bf2c-1.2.2 -- Optimizing BrainF*ck to C compiler
bfbtester-2.0.1 -- A security tool for testing binaries for overflows
bfe2-20030124 -- X11 GUI for the bochs debugger (revision 2)
bfilter-0.8.2a -- Smart filtering HTTP proxy
bforce-0.22.8 -- Simple ifcico like Fidonet technology mailer
bforce-kst-0.22.7.5 -- Simple ifcico like Fidonet technology mailer
bftpd-1.0.24 -- Very configurable FTP server that can do chroot easily
bg-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
bg-ooodict-BG-1.2 -- Bulgarian (Bulgaria) MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
bglibs-1.009_1 -- One stop library package by Bruce Guenter
bgpq-1.0.7.6_1 -- Bgpq - lightweight access-list generator for cisco routers
bgrab-1.3.6 -- Binary Grabber - downloads binaries from newsgroups
bgrot-1.30 -- A program to handle your X background to prevent boredom
biabam-0.9.2 -- A command-line attachment mailer
bibcard-0.6.4 -- X11 interface for ediing BibTeX files
bibcursed-2.0.0 -- A simple curses-based editor for BibTeX bibliography files
bibelot-0.9.4 -- Formats and converts text documents into compressed PalmDoc .pdb files
biblereader-0.3.3 -- A GUI based Bible program for X11
bibletime-1.2.2 -- A powerful Bible study application for KDE3
bibletime-doc-1.2.2 -- Documentation for bibletime, a powerful Bible study program for KDE3
bibtex2html-1.65 -- A collection of tools for searching BibTeX and translating from BibTeX to HTML
bibview-2.2 -- Graphical interface for manipulating BibTeX bibliography databases
bicom-1.01 -- Data compressor in the PPM family
bicyclerepair-0.7.1 -- A python refactoring tool
bidiv-1.4 -- A bidirectional text filter
bidwatcher-1.3.10 -- Bid monitor for eBay
biew-5.5.0 -- Binary vIEWer + editor for binary, hexadecimal and dis-asm modes
biffer-1.0 -- A better mail notification server
biggles-1.6.2 -- Create publication-quality 2D scientific plots
bigloo-2.5a -- A Scheme interpreter and native code compiler
bigyear-20010226,1 -- A program to print a large (one month per page) calendar
bin86-0.16.13 -- 16-bit assembler and loader (conflicts with devel/bcc)
bincimap-1.2.3 -- Light-weight IMAP server for Maildir
bind-8.3.6 -- The Berkeley Internet Name Domain, an implementation of DNS
bind84-8.4.1 -- The Berkeley Internet Name Domain, an implementation of DNS
bind9-9.2.3 -- Completely new version of the BIND DNS server
bind9-dlz-9.2.2+0.6.0_1 -- The Berkeley Internet Name Daemon, with DLZ extensions
bind9-sdb-mysql-9.2.2_1 -- BIND DNS 9 server which supports a MySQL backend
binder-1.3 -- A file manager on X window with TkStep
bing-1.0.4_1 -- A point-to-point bandwith measurement tool
binkd-0.9.6 -- Fidonet TCP/IP mailer
bins-1.1.20 -- Tool to generate HTML photo albums with XML support
biojava-1.01 -- Open-source java tools for processing biological data
biorythm-1.1.2 -- Simple biorythm calculation program
birda-1.00_2 -- Bohlin's IrDA utilities, ported from NetBSD's pkgsrc
birthday-1.5 -- A program that outputs reminders for upcoming events (e.g. birthdays)
bison-1.75_1 -- A parser generator from FSF, (mostly) compatible with Yacc
bison-1.875_1 -- A parser generator from FSF, (mostly) compatible with Yacc
bitedit-0.9.4 -- Bitedit is a simple ncurses program for editing a file
bitlbee-0.74a -- An IRC to other chat networks gateway
bitmap-emacs20-8.5 -- Bitmap-mule, Package to use bitmap in Emacs20
bitmap-emacs21-8.5 -- Bitmap-mule, Package to use bitmap in Emacs21
bitmap-fonts-1.0 -- Bitmap font, (6x12, 7x14, 8x16, 12x24) dots bitmap font
bitmap-mule-8.5 -- Package to use bitmap in MULE
bitstream-vera-1.10 -- Bitstream Vera TrueType font collection
bjfilter360-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F360
bjfilter850-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F850
bjfilter850ug-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F850 (supported BCI-6 inks)
bjfilter860-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F860
bjfilter870-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F870
bjfiltercom-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- Common files
bjfilters600-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ S600
bjfilters630-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ S630
bjfilters6300-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ S6300
bjorb-0.5.5p1 -- Secure TCP relay software with SSL
bk2site-1.1.9 -- Transforms Netscape bookmarks into a Yahoo-like website
bkmrkconv-1.10 -- Netscape bookmarks.html converter
bkpupsd-1.0a -- A simple UPS daemon for APC BK Pro(TM)
bksh-1.3 -- Backup-only shell
blackbox-0.65.0 -- A small and fast window manager for X11R6
blackened-1.8.1 -- The Blackened IRC Client
blackjack-1.2 -- One of the better implementations of blackjack, based on QT
blacs-1.7 -- The BLACS (Basic Linear Algebra Communication Subprograms)
bladeenc-0.94.2 -- MP3 encoder
blas-1.0 -- Basic Linear Algebra, level 1, 2, and 3
blast-1.0 -- Blast blows holes through windows
blender-2.25 -- Fully functional 3D modeling/rendering/animation/gaming package
blender-devel-2.28c -- 3D modeling/rendering/animation/gaming package
blimitd-0.1_1 -- Daemon to enforce login.conf limits
blitz++-0.7 -- A C++ class library for scientific computing
block-0.6 -- Small text based maze game
blockade-1.00 -- An X version of the `blockade' Macintosh game
blop-0.2.7 -- Bandlimited oscillator plugins for LADSPA-aware audio applications
blt-2.4z -- A Tk extension (with shared libs)
blue-2.6 -- A Blue Moon card solitaire
bluefish-0.11.20031031 -- HTML editor designed for the experienced web designer
bluefish-0.7_1 -- HTML editor designed for the experienced web designer
bluej-1.2.2 -- BlueJ is an integrated Java environment designed for introductory teaching
blwm-1.0.4 -- Portuguese derivative of qvwm, simplified to conserve resources
bmf-0.9.4_1 -- A fast Bayesian Mail Filter compatible with maildrop and procmail
bmon-1.2.1 -- "BMON - bandwidth monitor using curses lib"
bnc-2.8.4 -- A simple IRC relay proxy with support for virtual hosting
bnf-1.6.9 -- Generate C parser given a grammar in BNF notation
boa-0.94.14.r17,1 -- High performance single-tasking web server
boaconstructor-0.2.3 -- A cross platform RAD GUI Building IDE for wxPython
bobot++-1.99.2 -- An IRC bot written in C++
bochs-2.0.2,2 -- An IA-32 (x86) PC emulator that runs DOS, Win 95, and more
boclient-1.21 -- Client program for the Back Orifice Windows program
boehm-gc-6.2 -- Garbage collection and memory leak detection for C and C++
bogged-1.0.0 -- Word game for X Window System
bogofilter-0.15.7 -- "Fast, teachable, learning spam detector"
bogofilter-tdb-0.15.7 -- "Fast, teachable, learning spam detector"
bogosort-0.4.1 -- "Sort (or not) stdin using the bogo-sort algorithm"
boiling-egg-0.02_1 -- A front-end of Egg V4
bomb-1.0 -- Interactive display hack for SVGAlib or X
bomberclone-0.10.1 -- Reimplementation of Atomic Bomber Man
bomberinstinct-0.8.9 -- A nice Bomberman-like multiplayer game
bombermaze-0.6.6 -- A Bomberman clone for GNOME
bonk-0.6 -- Lossy/lossless audio compressor
bonnie++-1.93.03 -- Performance Test of Filesystem I/O
bonnie-2.0.6 -- Performance Test of Filesystem I/O
bonobo-1.0.22 -- The component and compound document system for GNOME
bonobo-conf-0.16 -- Bonobo configuration moniker
bookcase-0.7.1 -- Personal book collection manager for KDE
boost-1.30.2 -- Free peer-reviewed portable C++ source libraries
borzoi-1.0.1 -- An Elliptic Curve Cryptography Library
botan-1.2.7 -- A portable, easy to use, and efficient C++ crypto library
bottlerocket-0.04c -- Home Automation Software for the X10 FireCracker kit
bounce-1.0 -- Bounce tcp connections to another machine/port
bouncycastle-1.16 -- Cleanroom build of Java Cryptography Extensions
boxes-1.0.1 -- Draws ASCII-art configurable boxes around text or code
boxtools-0.65.0 -- Style tools for the blackbox family of window managers
bozohttpd-20031005 -- The bozotic HTTP server
bpatch-1.0 -- A hex editor that doesn't load the whole file at once
bpft-4.20031028 -- The BPF Traffic collector
bpl+-1.0_1 -- B Plus file transfer protocol
br-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Breton dictionary
braa-0.41 -- Tool for making SNMP queries
braincurses-0.2 -- A clone of the Mastermind game
bricons-3.0 -- Quick start up utility for applications on an X display
briquolo-0.4.2 -- Breakout clone with an OpenGL 3D representation
british-ispell-3.1_1 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
bro-0.8 -- System for detecting Network Intruders in real-time
brs-4.03 -- An interactive King James Bible
bs-2.4 -- Battleships solitaire game with a color interface
bs-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
bs-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
bsd-airtools-0.2 -- BSD Wireless Scanning Tools
bsdftpd-ssl-0.6.3 -- FTP server with TLS/SSL support
bsdiff-4.1 -- Generates and applies patches to binary files
bsdproxy-0.03 -- "A TCP proxy, demonstrating use of the kevent(2)/kqueue(2) API"
bsdsar-1.10_2 -- System Activity Reporter for FreeBSD
bsdtris-1.1 -- BSD version of Text-based tetris game
bsh-1.2.b7 -- A Java scripting environment
bsmtp-1.02_4 -- Batch SMTP support for sendmail, incoming and outgoing
bsp-5.1 -- Node builder for Doom
bsvc-2.1 -- An extensible hardware simulation framework with MC68K support
btc-258 -- A tool for creating bass tablature
btoa-5.2_1,1 -- Encode/decode binary to printable ASCII
bubblegum-1.12 -- Watch a file for changes
bubblemon-dockapp-1.40 -- X eye candy for displaying CPU and memory load in a dock
bubblemon2-2.0.1 -- Bubblemon2 is a system CPU and memory load monitor for GNOME2
buffer-1.17.1 -- Buffer sporadic I/O for faster tape and pipe throughput
buffy-0.2 -- A GTK theme engine looking like SGI enhanced Motif (aka Roxy)
bugbuddy2-2.4.1.1 -- A bug reporting tool for GNOME 2
bugs-4.1.1 -- Great cryptography library and sample programs
bugseeker-1.0.2_1 -- BugSeeker for Java 2, a debugger for Java applications
bugseeker-demo-1.0.2 -- A debugger for Java software
bugsx-1.08 -- Breed bugs using genetic algorithims
bugzilla-2.16.3_1 -- Bug-tracking system developed by Mozilla Project
buildtool-0.14 -- A set of portable software build utilities
buildtool-doc-0.14 -- Buildtool User's and Developer's manuals
bulk_mailer-1.13 -- Speeds delivery to mailing lists by sorting & batching addresses
burgerspace-1.6.1_1 -- A BurgerTime clone
buttonbox-0.03 -- Xlib-based application launcher
bvi-1.3.1 -- A vi-like binary file (hex)editor
bwbasic-2.20p2 -- The Bywater Basic interpreter
bwidget-1.4.1 -- A high-level widget set for Tcl/Tk
byaccj-1.1 -- A java extension of BSD YACC-compatible parser generator
bytebench-3.1 -- The BYTE magazine benchmark suite
bzflag-1.7g.2 -- A multiplayer 3D tank battle game
bzip-0.21 -- A block-sorting file compressor
bzip2-1.0.2 -- A block-sorting file compressor
c-hey-2.0 -- Terminal based instant messaging utility
c-nocem-3.7 -- NoCeM for C News and INN
c2html-0.9.2 -- C-language sources to HTML converter
c2lib-1.4.2 -- Library of basic structures and memory allocators for C
c2man-2.0.42 -- Generates man pages from C sources
c2ps-a4-4.0 -- A PostScript pretty-printer for C source
c2ps-letter-4.0 -- A PostScript pretty-printer for C source
c4-1.6 -- A CVS-like Frontend to Perforce
c_c++_reference-2.0.2 -- C/C++ reference manual for KDevelop
c_parser-0.2.5 -- A C99 Parser
ca-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Catalan dictionary
ca-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
ca-ooodict-ES-1.2 -- Catalan MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
ca-openoffice-1.1.0_1 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
ca-roots-1.0_1 -- A list of SSL CA root certificates
cabextract-0.6_1 -- A program to extract Microsoft cabinet (.CAB) files
cadaver-0.22.0 -- Commandline client for DAV
cadubi-1.2 -- ASCII drawing utility
cal-3.5 -- Enhanced color version of standard calendar utility
calamaris-2.58 -- A perl script to produce statistics out of Squid log files
calc-2.11.5_1 -- Arbitrary precision calculator
calcoo-1.3.15 -- Gtk-based scientific calculator
calctool-2.4.13 -- A multi-GUI (text, X, xview, NeWS, sunview) calculator program
calibrator-0.9 -- Cache Profiling Tool
calife-2.8.5 -- A lightweight alternative to sudo
cam-1.02 -- Cpu's Audio Mixer [curses based]
camediaplay-20010211_1 -- Digital camera downloading tool for Epson/Sanyo/Olympus/Agfa camera
caml-0.74 -- A strongly typed functional language belonging to the ML family
caml-mode-3.01 -- An EMACS mode for editing OCaml programs
camlp4-3.06 -- Pre-Processor-Pretty-Printer for Objective Caml
camserv-0.42 -- Camserv is a free program to do streaming video via the web
cantus-1.07 -- Tool for tagging and renaming MP3 and OGG/Vorbis files
cap-6.0.198_1 -- Columbia AppleTalk Package for UNIX
carthage-1.0 -- A parser and clean-up tool for SGML DTDs
cascade-1.4 -- A simple tool to analyze noise and distortion of a RF system
catdoc-0.91.5 -- Convert MS Word/Excel documents to plain ASCII or TeX. TK viewer included
catdvi-0.14 -- A DVI to text/plain translator
caudium-devel-1.3.19.20030917,1 -- A free webserver which is based on the Roxen Challenger 1.3 code base (development branch)
caudium10-1.0.56 -- A free webserver which is based on the Roxen Challenger 1.3 code base
caudium12-1.2.26 -- A free webserver which is based on the Roxen Challenger 1.3 code base
cave-1.0b -- Character Animation Viewer for Everyone
cbb-0.8.1 -- Checkbook balancing tool
cbedic-1.2 -- An English-to-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-to-English dictionary
cbrowser-0.8 -- Graphical front end for cscope and cscope clones
cc65-2.9.1 -- Cross-compiler for 6502-based systems, includes 65816 assembler
ccache-2.3 -- A tool to minimize the compile time of C programs
ccaudio-1.0.6 -- "C++ class framework for manipulating audio files"
cccc-2.1.1 -- C and C++ Code Counter
ccdoc-0.7a -- Extracting comments from C++ source and generating HTML
cclient-2002d,1 -- Mark Crispin's C-client mail access routines
ccmalloc-0.3.9_1 -- C/C++ memory profiler and memory leak tracer
ccmath-2.2.0 -- A mathematics library with many different functions
ccmsn-0.3p3 -- A Tcl/Tk-based MSN messenger
ccrypt-1.3_2 -- A command-line utility for encrypting and decrypting files and streams
ccscript-2.4.3 -- State-event driven class extendible C++ script interpreter
ccze-0.2.1_1 -- Fast log colorizer
cd-console-2.4 -- A curses-based console CD player
cd-discid-0.8 -- Backend utility to retrieve CDDB discid information
cd-write-1.4.1_1 -- A X11 based CD-burner
cd2mp3-0.82,1 -- Easy to use CD Ripping and MP3 Encoding tool
cd9660_unicode-1.0 -- A kernel driver for reading CD disks with non-English filenames
cdb-0.75 -- A fast lookup database library & utilities
cdbakeoven-1.8.9_3 -- KDE frontend for cdrecord and mkisofs/mkhybrid
cdecl-2.5 -- Explains complicated C/C++ declarations in plain English
cdialog-0.9b.20030308_1,1 -- An enhanced version of 'dialog' to work with ncurses
cdif-1.15 -- Display word context diff
cdiff-1.4 -- Diff readability enhancher for color terminals
cdk-4.9.10.20020809_1,1 -- Curses Development Kit for speedy development of full screen programs
cdlabelgen-1.5.0 -- Generate postscript for frontcards and traycards for CDs
cdoc-0.9.7 -- Extracts documentation from C source code comments
cdonkey-0.8.9 -- An open and free core client for the eDonkey protocol
cdparanoia-3.9.8_6 -- A CDDA extraction tool (also known as ripper)
cdpd-1.0.2 -- CDPdaemon - sends Cisco Discovery Protocol announces over ethernet
cdplay-0.92_2 -- CD-player with text-based user interface
cdplayer.app-1.7 -- A CD player with CDDB support resembling OpenStep's OmniCD
cdpr-2.0.0 -- Cisco Discovery Protocol Reporter
cdrdao-1.1.7_4 -- Record CD-R[W]s in disk-at-once mode
cdroot-1.2.5 -- Scripts to automate setting up a bootable CD-ROM based FreeBSD system
cdrtools-2.0.3 -- Cdrecord, mkisofs and several other programs to record CD-R[W]
cdrtools-devel-2.01a19 -- Cdrecord and other programs to extract and record CDs/CD-R[W]s
cel-0.6 -- A small, simple prototype-based OO language
celestia-1.2.4 -- Scriptable space flight simulator for X
centericq-4.9.8 -- A text mode menu- and window-driven IM interface
cfe-0.12 -- Console font editor
cfengine-1.6.3_4 -- GNU cfengine - a systems administration tool for networks
cfengine2-2.0.8p1 -- GNU cfengine - a systems administration tool for networks
cfgstoragemk-1.0 -- MRTG configuration generator for storage monitoring via SNMP
cflow-2.0 -- A call graph generator for C code
cflow2vcg-0.5_1 -- Convert the result of the cflow utility in a VCG format
cflowd-2.1.b1_7,1 -- Flow analysis tool used for analyzing Cisco's NetFlow switching
cfm-0.5_1 -- Quick Perl/Tk file manager with support for regular expressions
cfs-1.4.1 -- A cryptographic file system implemented as a user-space NFS server
cftp-0.12_2 -- Comfortable FTP, a full screen ftp client
cfv-1.13 -- Utility to both test and create .sfv, .csv and md5sum files
cgi-lib-1.4_1 -- ANSI C Library for CGI Programming
cgi-lib_pl-2.18 -- De facto standard library for creating CGI in perl
cgic-2.02 -- ANSI C library for CGI programming
cgicc-3.2.1_2 -- A C++ class library for writing CGI applications
cgichk-2.60 -- A web site vulnerability scanner
cgihtml-1.69_2 -- Library that simplifies the task of writing CGI programs in C
cgiparse-0.9b -- C library to parse CGI Forms
cgiwrap-3.8 -- Securely execute ~user CGI scripts
cgoban-1.9.14 -- Internet Go Server client and game editor
cgoban-2.5.3 -- Internet Go Server client and game editor
chameleon-03.08 -- A Haskell-style language
charm-1.3.0 -- A menu-driven python-based livejournal client
chbg-1.5_3 -- Change Background Picture with time period
cheatah-1.5.5 -- Temporary gtk GUI to the SWORD project
checkbot-1.73 -- A WWW link verifier, similar like momspider
checkpassword-0.90 -- A simple password-checking interface
checkpassword-pam-0.98 -- Implementation of checkpassword authentication program
checkrdf-38.7143 -- A tool for RDF site summaries based news-check
checkservice-1.2.0 -- Checkservice is written to check the status of the services
cheesetracker-0.9.1 -- An Impulse Tracker clone
cheetah-0.05 -- GTK+ based light-weight web browser
chef-19930426 -- Feelter thet cunferts Ingleesh text tu Muck Cheenese-a
chemeq-1.10_1 -- Outputs LaTeX code for chemical reaction
chemtool-1.6_1 -- Draw organic molecules easily and store them
chemtool-devel-1.6.1 -- Drawing organic molecules easily and store them (developer version)
cherokee-0.4.2 -- Cherokee is an extremely fast and tiny web server
chexedit-0.9.7 -- Full screen text mode Hex editor using the [n]curses library
chgrep-1.2.2 -- Fast string substitution across multiple files
chicken-1.22 -- A Scheme-to-C compiler
chimera-1.70p0_1 -- X/Athena World-Wide Web client
chipmunk-5.59 -- An electronic CAD system
chipvault-200211 -- A project organizer for VHDL and Verilog RTL hardware designs
chk4mail-2.15 -- A utility to quickly check multiple folders for new email
chkrootkit-0.42b -- A tool to locally check for signs of a rootkit
chmlib-0.3.1_1 -- A library for dealing with Microsoft ITSS/CHM format files
chmview-1.0_1 -- Extractor from .chm files
choparp-20021107 -- Simple proxy arp daemon
chora-1.2 -- The Horde CVS web-viewer
chord-3.6 -- Produce PS sheet-music from text input
chord2html-1.3 -- Convert CHORD input files to HTML
chordpack-0.8.0 -- Script to convert ChordPro files to HTML, ASCII, and TeX
chpp-0.3.5 -- Non-intrusive full-featured text preprocessor
chrootuid-1.3 -- A simple wrapper that combines chroot(8) and su(1) into one program
chtml-0.0 -- Chunked HTML templating engine
cider-1.b1_2 -- A mixed-level circuit and device simulator (includes SPICE3)
cidr-2.3.2 -- RFC 1878 subnet calculator / helper
cil-1.2.1_1 -- Infrastructure for C Program Analysis and Transformation
cim-3.36 -- Compiler for the SIMULA programming language
cinc-2.1.3 -- Bell Laboratories cardiac computer emulator
cingb-0.28 -- Yet another Nintendo GameBoy(tm) emulator
circuslinux-1.0.3 -- "Circus Linux!" is a clone of the Atari 2600 game "Circus Atari"
cisco_conf-1.1 -- Simple configuration editor for Cisco devices
ciscoconf-1.1 -- Fetches configuration from Cisco routers and stores them under RCS
citadel-5.80_1 -- Citadel/UX Communications Server
citrix_ica-7.00_1 -- Citrix(R) client for the Microsoft Windows Terminal Server
civ2demo-1.0 -- The free demo of Civilization: Call to Power
cjk-lyx-1.2.3_1 -- Document processor interfaced with LaTeX, with CJK support
cksfv-1.3 -- Create or manipulate Simple File Verification (SFV) checksum files
cl-asdf-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-asdf-clisp-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-asdf-cmucl-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-asdf-sbcl-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-lml-2.5.2 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-lml-clisp-2.5.2 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-lml-cmucl-2.3.4 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-lml-sbcl-2.3.4 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-meta-0.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-meta-clisp-20011114.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-meta-cmucl-0.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-meta-sbcl-20011114.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-port-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-port-clisp-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-port-cmucl-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-port-sbcl-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-ppcre-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-ppcre-clisp-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-ppcre-cmucl-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-ppcre-sbcl-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-split-sequence-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
cl-split-sequence-clisp-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
cl-split-sequence-cmucl-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
cl-split-sequence-sbcl-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
clamav-0.60_4 -- Command line virus scanner written entirely in C
clamav-devel-20031112 -- Command line virus scanner written entirely in C
clanbomber-1.01a_1 -- A bomberman-like multiplayer game
clanlib-0.7.5.2 -- Cross-platform game SDK
claraocr-0.9.9_1 -- Optical character recognition (OCR) utility
clarence-0.2.2 -- Programmer's calculator
clean-theme-gtk-1.2.x -- The Clean GTK theme engine
clean_-3.2 -- Automatically remove unwanted files
cleanfeed-20020501 -- Spam filter for Usenet news servers
cleanscore-0.9.8.1 -- A perl script to clean up your slrn score file
clementine-0.0.7 -- Has title bars, iconizing, and styles (unstable)
clex-3.1.8 -- A commandline file manager
clhep-1.8.0.0 -- Object-oriented toolkit for particle physics applications by CERN
cli-20021101 -- An implementation of the ECMA CLI and the ECMA C# language
clibpdf-2.02.r1 -- A library for creating PDF (Acrobat) files directly via C language programs
click-1.2.3 -- The Click Modular Router
clig-1.1.3 -- Auto-generate an (argc, argv) processor, usage message, and manpage
clint-0.1.2_2 -- A static source code checker for C++
clip-1.1.5.1 -- xBase and Clipper language compatible compiler
clips-6.1 -- CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system tool
clisp-2.30_1 -- An ANSI Common Lisp
clisp-hyperspec-6.0 -- A Common Lisp reference in HTML format, from Xanalys
cln-1.1.5_1 -- Class Library for Numbers
clo++-0.6.3 -- Command line parser generator
clockspeed-0.62_2 -- Uses a hardware tick counter to compensate for deviant system clock
clockspeed-conf-0.4.5 -- Supervise scripts for clockspeed to use daemontools
clog-1.6 -- Tcp connection logger daemon
clustalw-1.83 -- CLUSTAL W Multiple Sequence Alignment Program
clusterit-2.0_1 -- A collection of clustering tools
cmail-4.01 -- A simple mail counter, useful for multiple mailfiles
cmake-1.4.7 -- A cross-platform make
cmatrix-1.2a -- Show a scrolling 'Matrix' like screen
cmd5checkpw-0.22 -- Checkpassword compatible authentication program that uses CRAM-MD5
cmdwatch-0.2.0 -- Watches the output from a command at specified intervals
cmios9-1.6 -- Ftp-like access to Fairlight OS9/MDR-DOS devices and image files
cmp3-2.0.p5_1 -- An ncurses based frontend to mpg123
cmpsfont-1.0_1 -- Computer Modern PostScript Fonts (Adobe Type 1 format)
cmt-1.15 -- The Computer Music Toolkit (CMT) is a collection of LADSPA plugins
cmucl-18e -- The CMU implementation of Common Lisp
cmucl-extra-18e -- Optional extras for the CMU implementation of Common Lisp
cn2jp-1.4b_3 -- A library for code translation between Chinese and Japanese
cnet-1.7.7_1 -- A networking simulator
cnews-cr.g_6 -- An nntp server
cnslock-1.02_1 -- A visual indicator of the states of the three "lock" buttons
coalesce-1.50 -- A program to fit population models
coco-2.3 -- Code converter for any of Mule's code
cocoon-1.8.2_3 -- 100% pure Java publishing framework servlet
cocor-1.7 -- A compiler generator that combines the functionality of lex and yacc
coda-client-5.3.20_1 -- Client programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
coda-client-6.0.2_1 -- Server programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
coda-doc-4.6.5.3 -- An experimental, replicated, high-performance network file system
coda-doc-5.2.0.1 -- An experimental, replicated, high-performance network file system
coda-intro-4.6.6.1 -- An experimental, replicated, high-performance network file system
coda-server-5.3.20_1 -- Server programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
coda-server-6.0.2_1 -- Server programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
code2html-0.9 -- Sourcecode to HTML converter
code_crusader-2.1.4_1 -- A UNIX IDE for X inspired by MetroWerks CodeWarrior
coldsync-2.2.5_1 -- Synchronize a PalmPilot with a Unix workstation
cole-2.0.1 -- A free C OLE library
collections-1.1 -- JDK1.2 Collections' API for JDK1.1 environments
color-mate-10.5 -- Color customizing module for Emacsen
colorize-0.3.3 -- A robust log colorizer
colorstep-0.6 -- A theme engine based on GtkStep and Step-pastel
colortail-0.3.0_1 -- A colour-able replacement for tail(1)
columns-1.2b -- Nice little implementation of columns game for X Window System
comclear-1.2 -- "A history cleaner for Netscape Navigator and Communicator"
comconsole-0.1 -- Setup your PC to use serial port COM1 as its console device
commoncpp2-1.0.8_1,1 -- GNU project portable class framework for C++
compaq-cc-6.4.9.005.1_2 -- Compaq Alpha Tru64 C compiler
compat22-i386-4.6.2 -- A convenience package to install the compat22 libraries
compat3x-i386-4.4.20020925 -- A convenience package to install the compat3x libraries
compat4x-i386-4.7 -- A convenience package to install the compat4x libraries
compupic-5.1.1063 -- Digital content manager
comserv-1.4.3 -- Provide network access to local serial ports and make remote ports appear local
concorde-1.0_1 -- Combinatorial Optimization package
cone-0.55 -- Console based mail client with POP3/IMAP/SMAP support
confregdecode-1.0.1 -- Cisco Systems IOS(tm) configuration register decoder
conglomerate-0.7.6 -- GNOME2 visual XML editor with emphasis on DocBook editing
connect4-3.2_1 -- A curses version of the classic game
conquest-7.2 -- A multi-player curses space warfare game similar to Netrek
cons-2.2.0 -- A Perl-based Make Replacement
cons-test-2.2.0 -- A test bed for `Cons' development
conserver-8.5 -- Manage remote serial consoles via TCP/IP
conserver-com-8.0.5 -- Application that allows multiple users to watch serial consoles
consolehm-1.31_1 -- Console based hardware monitor for FreeBSD
contool-3.3a -- Console tool for openlook
cook-2.23_1 -- Like make(1), but more powerful and clean
cooledit-3.17.7_1 -- Suite of utilities, including a GUI editor
coolmail-1.3 -- A Xbiff like mail tool with animated 3D graphics
cops-1.04 -- A system secureness checker
copytape-1.0 -- A program that is used to duplicate magtapes
corewars-0.9.12 -- A simulation game where the goal is to crash each other's programs
corkscrew-2.0 -- A HTTP tunnelling utility for SSH
cos-2002.11.05,1 -- The O'Reilly package of utility classes for servlet developers
cosmo-2.0.4_2 -- Clone of Cosmo Gang the Puzzle (Namco)
cost-2.2p1 -- SGML/XML application programming tool
cotty-0.4c -- Simple command-line pseudo terminal manager
courier-0.42.2 -- Courier SMTP IMAP POP3 HTTP mail server suite
courier-imap-2.2.0,1 -- IMAP (and POP3) server that provides access to Maildir mailboxes
cowsay-3.03_1 -- Configurable talking characters in ASCII art
cp2fwb-0.6 -- Checkpoint FW1 to Firewall Builder ruleset converter
cpbk-2.0 -- Backup Copy programm
cpdup-1.04 -- A comprehensive filesystem mirroring program
cphone-0.3.1 -- H323 Video Conferencing Program which uses QT
cplay-1.48 -- A curses based front-end for various audio players
cpmemu-0.2.1.1 -- Cpm emulator
cpmtools-1.1 -- Utility to transfer files from/to CP/M (R) diskettes
cpp2latex-2.3 -- Convert C++ source to a file you can input in an LaTeX-document
cppadvio-2.6 -- Advanced i/o, networking, and arithmetic compression C++ classlib
cppunit-1.8.0 -- C++ port of the JUnit framework for unit testing
cproto-4.6 -- Generate C function prototypes and convert function definitions
cpuburn-1.4 -- CPU/memory stress testing utilities
cpuid-3.3 -- CPU identification utility
cqcam-0.91_1 -- Color Quickcam control program
crack-5.0 -- The "Sensible" Unix Password Cracker
cracklib-2.7_1 -- Password-checking library
crafty-19.1 -- A chess programm for playing and analyzing games
crafty-open-large-19960910 -- The large opening book for crafty
crafty-open-medium-19960910 -- The medium opening book (about 1.9 MByte) for crafty
crafty-open-small-19970301 -- The small opening book (about 600 KByte) for crafty
crank-0.2.1 -- CRyptANalysis toolKit
crashecho-0.2.14 -- An FTN JAM and *.MSG tosser
crashmail-0.62 -- CrashMail II FTN mail tosser
crashme-2.4 -- A tool to test an operating system's robustness
crawl-0.3_2 -- A small, efficient web crawler with advanced features
crescendo-1.1.7_1 -- A gnome frontend for tinyfuge
cricket-1.0.4.p2 -- A high performance, extremely flexible monitoring system
crimap-2.4 -- Creation of multilocus linkage maps
crimson-1.1.3_1 -- Implements the Java API for XML Processing (JAXP)
crimson-fields-0.3.7 -- Tactical war game in the tradition of Battle Isle
crip-3.4 -- Terminal-based ripper/encoder/tagger
criticalmass-0.98 -- An SDL/OpenGL space shoot\'em up game
cronolog-1.6.2 -- A web log rotation utility that provides datestamp filenames
crossfire-client-1.5.0 -- Multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game made for X11
crossfire-server-1.5.0 -- Server for multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game
crossgo32-1.3 -- Cross Development Environment for 32-bit DOS
crossgo32-djgpp2-2.01 -- DJGPP V2 libraries and compatability for crossgo32 crosscompiler
crossgo32-djgpp2-pdcurses-2.2 -- PD curses for crossgo32 crosscompiler with djgpp v2 libraries
crossgo32-f77-2.95.2 -- G2c libraries and compatibility for DJGPP V2 crossgo32 crosscompiler
crosspad-19991202 -- Crosspad data downloader/converter
crossword-0.8.3 -- Crossword Generator
crw-1.03 -- A utility to process Canon camera RAW (.crw) files
cryptcat-2.0 -- Standard netcat enhanced with twofish encryption
cryptix-jce-20011118 -- JCE(Java Cryptograph Extension) by Cryptix
cryptlib-3.1.b5 -- A powerful security programming toolkit
cryptopp-5.1_1 -- A free C++ class library of Cryptographic Primitives
cryptoslam-1.1 -- A curses-based tool for creating and solving the cryptograms
cryptplug-0.3.16 -- A collection of plug-ins to cryptographic engines
cs-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Czech dictionary
cs-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
cs-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
cs-ooodict-CZ-1.2 -- Czech (Czech Republic) MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
cs-openoffice-1.1.0_1 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
cscope-15.5 -- An interactive C program browser
cscout-1.16 -- Source code analyzer and refactoring browser for collections of C programs
csmash-0.6.5 -- A 3D tabletennis game
csound-4.23 -- Sound synthesizer
csound-manual-4.23 -- Manuals for Csound
css-mode-elisp-0.11 -- A CSS(Cascade Style Sheet) editing mode for Emacsen
cssc-0.15a.0_1 -- A workalike for the source code control system SCCS
cstream-2.3 -- dd(1)-like tool, precise bandwidth limiting/reporting, fifo, TCP, audio support
csv2latex-20030501 -- Converts a well formed csv file to a LaTeX document
ct-2.1.1_1 -- IPv6 Conformance Test Kit
ctags-5.5.2 -- A feature-filled tagfile generator for vi and emacs clones
cthumb-4.1 -- cthumb - a themable web picture album generator
ctrace-0.9 -- Multiprotocol traceroute tool
ctrlproxy-2.5_1 -- Flexible IRC proxy
ctwm-3.6_1 -- An extension to twm, with support for multiple virtual screens, etc
cu-prolog-3.94 -- Experimental constraint logic programming language
cube-2002.10.20 -- An OpenGL 3D First Person Shooter game
cucipop-1.31_2 -- Cubic Circle's POP3 daemon (fully RFC1939 compliant)
cue2toc-0.0 -- Perl script that converts CUE files into TOC files for cdrdao
cuecat-1.1 -- Tools for decoding and using the output of a :Cue:Cat(TM) wand scanner
cups-1.1.19.0 -- The Common UNIX Printing System: Metaport to install complete system
cups-base-1.1.19.0 -- The Common UNIX Printing System: headers, libs, & daemons
cups-lpr-1.1.19.0 -- The CUPS BSD and system V compatibility binaries (lp* commands)
cups-pstoraster-7.07 -- GNU Postscript interpreter for CUPS printing to non-PS printers
curl-7.10.7 -- Non-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S) servers
curly-3.4 -- Generalize listed filenames to csh-extended glob patterns
cursive-1.0 -- Create ASCII character cursive handwriting
custom-emacs-1.9962 -- The Custom Library for emacs
custom-mule-1.9962 -- The Custom Library for mule
cutils-1.6 -- Miscellaneous C programmer's utilities
cvs+ipv6-1.11.5_1 -- IPv6 enabled cvs. You can use IPv6 connection when using pserver
cvs2cl-2.49 -- CVS-log-message-to-ChangeLog conversion script
cvs2html-1.96 -- Perl script to turn ``cvs log'' output into HTML
cvs2p4-1.3.3 -- CVS to Perforce Converter
cvsadmin-1.0.3_1 -- A simple program to administrate users of a CVS repository
cvsbook-1.21 -- A tutorial and reference for CVS
cvsd-1.0.0 -- CVS pserver daemon
cvsdelta-1.6.7 -- Cvsdelta summarizes differences between local and in-cvs files
cvsdiff2patch-1.0.1 -- Turn cvs diff output into patch input.
cvsgraph-1.4.0 -- Graph the life story of a file under CVS or RCS
cvslines-1.6.7 -- Wrapper to ease merging of changes between CVS branches
cvsmail-2.2 -- A small program to add cvsweb links to FreeBSD commit messages
cvsmapfs-1.3 -- Helps keep track of modes and permissions of files in cvs
cvsmonitor-0.6.2 -- Monitor activity on a CVS Repository
cvspadm-0.1.2 -- Tool for CVS pserver user administration
cvsplot-1.7.1 -- A perl script which analyses the history of a CVS-managed project
cvsps-1.3.3 -- CVS patchsets
cvsstat-2.23 -- Transforms the output of 'cvs status' to a sorted ASCII table
cvstrac-1.1.2 -- Web-Based Bug And Patch-Set Tracking System For CVS
cvsup-16.1h -- General network file distribution system optimized for CVS (GUI version)
cvsup-mirror-1.2_1 -- A kit for easily setting up a FreeBSD mirror site using CVSup
cvsup-without-gui-16.1h -- General network file distribution system optimized for CVS (non-GUI version)
cvsutils-2003.02.03 -- CVS utilities which facilitate working with local working directories
cvsweb-2.0.6 -- WWW CGI script to browse CVS repository trees
cvsweb-converters-0.2 -- Create hyperlinks to cvsweb from cvs[up] output or FreeBSD commitlogs
cvswrap-0.2 -- Helper for multiple CVS repositories.
cvsync-0.24.12 -- A portable CVS repository synchronization utility
cweb-3.63 -- Literate programming tools for the C language
cwish-3.52 -- Curses based user friendly windowing shell
cwtext-0.94 -- Morse Code Generator
cxmon-3.0 -- Interactive file manipulation tool and disassembler
cxref-1.5e -- C program cross-referencing & documentation tool
cxsc-2.0b -- C++ class library for eXtended Scientific Computing
cy-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Welsh dictionary
cybercalendar-1.8.2 -- CyberCalendar is a web based calendar program written in perl
cybervrml97-1.0.6 -- A development library of VRML97/2.0 applications
cyclone-0.6 -- A safe dialect of C from Cornell and AT&T Research
cymbaline-0.9r_1 -- mpg123 console frontend
cyr-rfx-koi8-o-1.1 -- Cyrillic X11 bitmap fonts from CYR-RFX project
cyrus-1.6.24_4 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3, KPOP, and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imapd-2.0.17 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3 and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imapd-2.1.15_2 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3 and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imapd-2.2.2.b_1 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3 and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imspd-1.6a3_1 -- The cyrus IMSP (Internet Message Support Protocol) server
cyrus-sasl-1.5.28_2 -- RFC 2222 SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer)
cyrus-sasl-2.1.15 -- RFC 2222 SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer)
cyrus-sasl-saslauthd-2.1.15_3 -- SASL authentication server for cyrus-sasl2
da-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Danish dictionary
da-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
da-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
da-ooodict-DK-1.2 -- Danish (Denmark) MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
daapd-0.2.1c_1 -- Server for Digital Audio Access Protocol
daaplib-0.1.1a -- A C++ library for DAAP memory streams
dact-0.8.11_1 -- Dynamic Adaptive Compression Tool
dadadodo-1.04 -- Text processor which analyses text and generates random sentences
daemontools-0.53 -- Service monitoring and logging utilities by djb
daemontools-0.76_3 -- "Service monitoring and logging utilities by djb"
dagrab-0.3.5_1 -- Read audio tracks from a CD into wav sound files
dailystrips-1.0.28 -- Utility to download or view your favorite online comic strips daily
danamics-1.1 -- Petri Net editor for correctness and performance analysis
dancer-4.16 -- An IRC bot written in C for UNIX, Windows, and AmigaOS
dancer-ircd-1.0.32 -- An irc daemon based on hybrid ircd
dancer-services-1.8.0.6.9 -- The IRC services (nickserv, chanserv, etc.) for dancer-ircd
dansguardian-2.4.6.5 -- A fast, simple web content filter for Squid proxy servers
dansguardian-2.6.1.3 -- A fast, featureful web content filter for Squid proxy servers
dante-1.1.14 -- A circuit-level firewall/proxy
dap-2.1.4 -- Audio sample editing and processing suite
darcnes-9b0401 -- multi-system emulator
darcs-0.9.13 -- Yet another replacement for CVS, written in Haskell
darkbot-6f6.r6,1 -- IRC talking bot with a very fast algorithm for its database
darkice-0.13.1 -- An IceCast, IceCast2 and ShoutCast live audio streamer
darkstat-2.6 -- Network statistics gatherer, similar to ntop
darts-0.1 -- A C++ template library that implements Double-Array
datapipe-1.0 -- A simple program to bind a local port and connect it to a remote socket
dataplot-20030530_1 -- A free software system for statistical visualization
datedif-0.9.1.4 -- Calculates the number of days between two dates
db-2.7.7_1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 2
db3-3.3.11,1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 3.3
db4-4.0.14_1,1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 4
db41-4.1.25_1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 4.1
db41-nocrypto-4.1.25_1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 4.1
dbXML-1.0b2 -- Java Native XML Database
dbacl-1.4 -- Digramic Bayesian classifier
dbconnect-0.2.4 -- Use C++ object API to allow applications to connect to databases
dbench-1.3 -- A simulation of the Ziff-Davis netbench benchmark
dbf-0.8 -- Show and convert the content of dBASE III, IV, and 5.0 files
dbf2mysql-1.14 -- Programs to convert .dbf files to MySQL tables and vice versa
dbh-1.0.17 -- Disk Based Hashtables
dbmail-mysql-1.2.1 -- An SQL database-based mail system (POP3 and IMAP)
dbmetrix-0.1.9 -- Another GTK+ frontend for mysql
dbs-1.1.5 -- A distributed network benchmarking system
dbtool-1.6 -- Store and retrieve data in a key/value format in a hash database
dbview-1.0.3_1 -- View dBase III files
dc20ctrl-0.4_1 -- Digital camera control and download tool for Kodak DC20 camera
dc20pack-1.0 -- Digital camera control and download tool for Kodak DC20/25 camera
dc3play-19991202_1 -- Digital camera downloading tool for Ricoh DC-3
dcc-2.5.6_1 -- DCC support program for irchat-pj
dcc-dccd-1.2.4 -- Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse procmail, sendmail support
dcdflib.c-1.1 -- Library of C Routines for Cumulative Distribution Functions
dcetest-1.2 -- Utility to dump MSRPC endpoint information from Windows systems
dcgui-0.2.19 -- A Direct Connect client QT GUI
dclib-0.2.19 -- Direct connect interface library for dcgui
dclock-pl6 -- A 7-segment digital clock with optional military time and alarm
dcons-20031025 -- Dumb CONSole device driver
dctc-0.84.1 -- A DirectConnect (www.neo-modus.com) text client for file sharing
dctc-gui-0.66_1 -- A GUI to DirectConnect (www.neo-modus.com) text client
dctc-gui-qt-0.0.6 -- A Qt GUI for the Direct Connect (TM) dctc text client
ddc-1.0 -- Control your DHCP daemon a la apachectl
ddclient-3.6.3 -- Update dynamic DNS entries
ddd-3.3.1 -- Data Display Debugger -- a common graphical front-end for GDB/DBX/XDB
ddos_scan-1.6 -- Scans for a limited set of distributed denial of service agents
ddup-3.0.1_3 -- A DynDNS.org client for UNIX (Now support NIC v2.0)
de-BBBike-3.12 -- A route-finder for cyclists in Berlin and Brandenburg
de-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with German dictionary
de-citrix_ica-6.30.1054 -- Citrix(R) client for the Microsoft Windows Terminal Server
de-dict-1.2 -- Simple english/german dictionary
de-ding-1.2_1 -- A German-English dictionary program for X windows/Unix
de-frontpage-5.0.2.2623 -- Microsoft Frontpage German Web Administration
de-ispell-20001109-3.2.06_3 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
de-ispell-alt-19991219-3.2.06_3 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
de-ispell-neu-20001109-3.2.06_3 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
de-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
de-kheisereg-0.7 -- KDE utility to search within the Heise Register
de-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
de-ksteak-0.9.4 -- KDE frontend for steak, an english - german dictionary

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Prima Art Cartoonizer 1.9.1

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Copyright and Fan Productivity in China

About the authors

Tianxiang He (China P. R. 1984) is Assistant Professor at the School of Law, City University of Hong Kong. He holds an LL.B. degree (Huaqiao University, China, 2007) and a Master degree in International Law (Jinan University, China, 2009). Tianxiang received his degree of Ph.D. at Maastricht University (the Netherlands, 2016), and Renmin University of China (2017). He is a recipient of Japan Foundation Fellowship, and of an Honorable Mention in the Ius Commune Prize 2014.

Bibliographic information

  • Book TitleCopyright and Fan Productivity in China
  • Book SubtitleA Cross-jurisdictional Perspective
  • AuthorsTianxiang He
  • DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6508-8
  • Copyright InformationSpringer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.2017
  • Publisher NameSpringer, Singapore
  • eBook PackagesLaw and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN978-981-10-6507-1
  • Softcover ISBN978-981-13-4893-8
  • eBook ISBN978-981-10-6508-8
  • Edition Number1
  • Number of PagesXII, 265
  • Number of Illustrations1 b/w illustrations, 4 illustrations in colour
  • TopicsPrivate International Law, International & Foreign Law, Comparative Law
    IT Law, Media Law, Intellectual Property
    IT Law, Media Law, Intellectual Property
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Prima Art Cartoonizer 1.9.1

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0verkill-0.16 -- 0verkill is a bloody 2D action deathmatch-like game in ASCII-ART
2bsd-diff-2.11 -- 2.11BSD diff utility
2dhf-2003.02 -- A Numerical Hartree-Fock Program for Diatomic Molecules
3dc-0.8.1 -- 3-Dimensional Chess for X Window System
3ddesktop-0.2.5_1 -- 3D Virtual Desktop Switcher
3dm-1.10.0.011_1,1 -- 3ware ATA RAID monitoring daemon and web server
3dpong-0.4 -- X Window 3D Pong game for 1 or 2 players with a ball and paddles
3proxy-0.4.1b -- Proxy servers set (support HTTP(S), FTP, SOCKS, POP3, TCP & UDP)
44bsd-csh-20001106 -- The traditional 4.4BSD /bin/csh C-shell
44bsd-more-20000521 -- The pager installed with FreeBSD before less(1) was imported
44bsd-rdist-20001111 -- The traditional 4.4BSD rdist
4va-1.21 -- Four-Dimensional graphics tumbler for X11
54321-1.0.2001.11.16 -- 54321 is five games in four- three- or two-dimensions for one player
6tunnel-0.09 -- TCP proxy for application that don't speak IPv6
9box-0.2.1 -- 9box can "pack" windows inside itself
9e-1.0 -- Explode Plan9 archives
9libs-1.0 -- Plan9 compatibility libraries
9menu-1.6 -- A simple menu patterened after plan9
9term-1.6.3 -- An X11 program which emulates a plan9 window
9wm-1.1 -- An 8 1/2-like Window Manager for X
ADMsmb-0.3 -- Security scanner for Samba
ADMsnmp-0.1 -- SNMP audit scanner
AbiWord2-2.0.1 -- An open-source, cross-platform WYSIWYG word processor
AquaGatekeeper-1.17 -- Aqua H323 Gatekeeper and proxy
Atlas-0.4.6_1 -- A C++ reference implementation of the Atlas protocol
BitchX-1.0c19_3 -- "An alternative ircII color client with optional GTK/GNOME support"
CalculiX-1.1 -- A Three-Dimensional Structural Finite Element Program
CaribbeanStud-1.0 -- Caribbean Stud gambling game for X Window System
Cgraph-2.04_1 -- A Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download plotting library in C
Coin-2.1.0 -- C++ 3D graphics library based on the Open Inventor 2.1 API
DarwinStreamingServer-4.1.3g -- Darwin Streaming Server, a MP3, MPEG4 and QuickTime streaming server
E-FancyLauncher-0.7 -- A flexible and easily configurable button bar for Enlightenment
E-Run-1.2 SENRAN KAGURA Bon Appetit PC full crack - Free Download - Repack - Hiu Games A simple epplet for launching arbitrary programs
E-Weather-0.4a -- Weather epplet for Enlightenment similar to wmWeather
E-buttons-0.2 -- A simple epplet that contains several buttons used to launch programs
ELFIO-1.0.0 -- C++ library for reading and generating files in the ELF binary format
EZWGL-1.50_1 -- The EZ Widget and Graphics Library
FSViewer.app-0.2.5 -- X11 file manager using WINGS library. Dockable in WindowMaker
FlightGear-0.9.2 -- The FlightGear flight simulator
Fudgit-2.41 -- Multi-purpose data-processing and fitting program
GSubEdit-0.4.p1 -- GNOME Subtitle Editor is a tool for editing/converting video subtitles
GTKsubtitler-0.2.0.p1 -- A small GNOME program for editing and converting subtitles
Gdtclft-2.2.5_4 -- A TCL interface to the Thomas Boutell's Gd library
Generic-NQS-3.50.9_2 -- Generic Network Queuing System
GeoIP-1.2.2 -- Find the country that any IP address or hostname originates from
GiNaC-1.1.5 -- A C++ library for symbolic mathematical calculations
GimpUserManual-HTML-2 -- The user manual for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP)
GimpUserManual-PDF-2 -- The user manual for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP)
Goggles-0.5.6 -- A FOX frontend to the Ogle DVD player
HVSC-Update-2.8.2 -- Update program for the HVSC C= 64 SID tune collection
Hermes-1.3.3 -- Fast pixel formats conversion library
HeroesOfMightAndMagic-3 -- BSD Installation of the Linux game "Heroes of Might and Magic III"
Howto-1.0_4 -- Linux HOW-TOs modified for applicablity on FreeBSD
Hyperlatex-2.6 -- Produce HTML and printed documents from LaTeX source
IMHear-1.0 -- An MSN Messenger event/message sniffer
IPA-1.00 -- Image Processing Algorithms
IglooFTP-0.6.1 -- Easy to use FTP client for X Window System
ImageMagick-5.5.7.11_1 -- Image processing tools
Ipe-5.0 -- Extensible drawing editor
JX-1.5.3_1 -- A C++ application framework and widget library for X11
KSubeditor-0.13.r1 -- A video subtitle editor for KDE
L-Breeder-1.0 -- Allows you to display and breed L-system forms
LDAP-Account-Manager-0.4 -- Webfrontend for managing accounts stored in an OpenLDAP server
LPRng-3.8.21 -- An Enhanced Printer Spooler
LPRngTool-1.3.2 -- Configuration Tool for LPRng
LaBrea-2.4 -- Security tarpit defense tool
LinNeighborhood-0.6.5_2 -- GTK+ gui for browsing and mounting SMB filesystems
MT-2.64_1 -- A web-based personal publishing system like weblogs
Maaate-0.3.1 -- MPEG audio analysis toolkit
Mail-Mbox-MessageParser-1.12 -- A fast and simple mbox folder reader
MathPlanner-3.1.2 -- A mathematical design and publishing application
Mesa-5.0.1_2 -- A graphics library similar to SGI's OpenGL
Mowitz-0.2.1_1 -- This is the Mowitz ("More widgets") library
MuSE-0.8.1_1 -- Multiple Streaming Engine
NeTraMet-4.4_1 -- Implementation of the Internet Accounting Architecture
NetPIPE-3.5 -- A self-scaling network benchmark
NetRexx-2.02_2 -- Human-oriented programming language for writing/using Java classes
NetSpades-4.2.0 -- Very popular card game for 1-4 players over a network
NuppelVideo-0.52.a -- A very low CPU usage VCR/DVR application
OQTEncoder-0.1 -- A simple encoder using OpenQuicktime (TM)
OQTPlayer-0.5 -- A very very small, not functionnal, video OpenQuicktime (TM) player
ORBacus-3.2.1_1 -- A CORBA 2 implementation
ORBit-0.5.17_1 -- High-performance CORBA ORB with support for the C language
ORBit2-2.8.2 -- High-performance CORBA ORB with support for the C language
OpenEXR-1.0.5_3 -- OpenEXR, a high dynamic-range (HDR) image file format developed by ILM
OpenSP-1.5_4 -- This package is a collection of SGML/XML tools called OpenSP
OpenSSH-askpass-1.2.2.2001.02.24 -- Graphical password applet for entering SSH passphrase
OpenVerse-0.8.3 -- A visual chat program written in Tcl/Tk
ParMetis-3.1 -- A package for parallel (mpi) unstructured graph partitioning
PicMonger-0.9.6 -- An automated USENET (NNT) picture decoding client
QtPixmap-0.26 -- Modifed GTK pixmap engine to obtain Theme information from Qt
QuakeForge-0.5.4 -- Cleaned up copy of the GPLd Quake 1 source code
R-a4-1.8.0 -- A language for statistical computing and graphics
R-letter-1.8.0 -- A language for statistical computing and graphics
Radiator-3.6 -- Radiator Radius Server by Open System Consultants
RealTimeBattle-1.0.4_1 -- Robot programming game for UNIX
SETISupport-0.75 -- JAVA application that shows current state of [email protected] client
SSLtelnet-0.13_1 -- SSL enhanced telnet/telnetd
STk-4.0.1 -- A scheme interpreter with full access to the Tk graphical package
Sablot-1.0 -- XML toolkit implementing XSLT 1.0, XPath 1.0 and DOM Level2
SimGear-0.3.3 -- A toolkit for 3D games and simulations
Slay-1.2 -- Kills a login shell and process(es) of a user
SoQt-1.0.2_1 -- Qt toolkit library for Coin
SoXt-1.1.0 -- GUI binding for using Open Inventor with Xt/Motif
SpecTcl-1.1_3 -- Free drag-and-drop GUI builder for Tk and Java from Sun
TclExpat-1.1_2 -- The TCL interface to Expat library
Tee-3.4 -- An enhanced version of tee(1)
TekNap-1.3.g -- Console napster client
TenDRA-4.20030825 -- A portable BSD-licensed compiler suite
Tk-FileDialog-1.3 -- Tk::FileDialog - A file selector dialog for perl/Tk
VisualOS-1.0.4 -- A visual simulator of an operating system to help understand how OSes work
WMxmms-0.1.4 -- A dockable XMMS interface
WWWdb-0.8.2 -- A Perl based generic WWW DB interface / frontend
WebMagick-2.03p3_7,1 -- Image Web Generator - recursively Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download HTMLs, imagemaps, thumbnails
WhistlerK-200010142358 -- A GTK theme engine inspired by the Windows Whistler
Wingz-142_1 -- A Commercial Spreadsheet
WordNet-1.7.1 -- Dictionaries and thesauri with devel, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. libraries (C, TCL) and browsers
XBone-2.0_1 -- A system for dynamic internet overlay deployment and management
XFree86-3.3.6_11 -- X11R6.3/XFree86 core distribution
XFree86-4.3.0,1 -- X11/XFree86 core distribution (complete, using mini/meta-ports)
XFree86-FontServer-4.3.0_2 -- XFree86-4 font server
XFree86-NestServer-4.3.0_3 -- XFree86-4 nested X server
XFree86-PrintServer-4.3.0_1 -- XFree86-4 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download server
XFree86-Server-4.3.0_12 -- XFree86-4 X server and related programs
XFree86-Server-4.3.99.15 -- XFree86-4 X server and related programs
XFree86-VirtualFramebufferServer-4.3.0_3 -- XFree86-4 virtual framebuffer server
XFree86-aoutlibs-3.3.6.9 -- XFree86 a.out compatibility libraries
XFree86-clients-4.3.0_5 -- XFree86-4 client programs and related files
XFree86-contrib-3.3.6 -- XFree86 contrib programs
XFree86-documents-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 documentation
XFree86-font100dpi-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 bitmap 100 dpi fonts
XFree86-font75dpi-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 bitmap 75 dpi fonts
XFree86-fontCyrillic-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 Cyrillic fonts
XFree86-fontDefaultBitmaps-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 default bitmap fonts
XFree86-fontEncodings-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 font encoding files
XFree86-fontScalable-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 scalable fonts
XFree86-libraries-4.3.0_6 -- XFree86-4 libraries and headers
XFree86-manuals-4.3.0 -- XFree86-4 man pages
XNap-2.5.p1 -- A pure java napster client; also, supports OpenNap & giFT (FastTrack)
XPostitPlus-2.3_1 -- PostIt (R) messages onto your X11 screen
XSB-2.5 -- A tabled Logic Programming and Deductive Database system
Xaw3d-1.5 -- A 3-D Athena Widget set that looks like Motif
XawPlus-3.1.0_1 -- A replacement for Xaw with a nicer 3-D look and some extensions
Xft-2.1.2 -- A client-sided font API for X applications
XmHTML-1.1.7_1 -- A Motif fraps free full version Archives set for displaying HTML 3.2 documents
a2dev-1.2 -- Apple II 6502 assembler, linker, loader, and object file viewer
a2ps-a4-4.13b_1 -- Formats an ascii file for printing on a postscript printer
a2ps-letter-4.13b_1 -- Formats an ascii file for printing on a postscript printer
a2ps-letterdj-4.13b_1 -- Formats an ascii file for printing on a postscript printer
aXe-6.1.2_1 -- Simple to use text editor for X
aaccli-1.0 -- Adaptec SCSI RAID administration tool
aafid2-0.10 -- A distributed monitoring and intrusion detection system
aalib-1.4.r5_1 -- An ascii art library
aap-1.040 -- A build tool alternative to make with internet access and CVS support
abacus-0.9.13_1 -- Spread sheet for X Window System
abc2mtex-1.6.1 -- Music TeX converter from "abc" to MusiXTeX format
abcache-0.14 -- A tool to cache applications written in PHP
abcde-2.1.8 -- Front-end shell script to encode CDs in flac/mp3/ogg/speex format
abck-2.2 -- Manage intrusion attemps recorded 72(t) Distribution Software 5.00 crack serial keygen the system log
abclock-1.0c -- Clock for X that displays hours and minutes in an analog fashion
abcm2ps-2.11.3 -- Converts ABC to music sheet in PostScript format
abcmidi-36 -- Convert abc music files to MIDI and PostScript
abcselect-1.5 -- Extract parts, movements, etc from abc music files
abntex-0.5 -- Both classes and styles for both LaTex and bibtex for ABNT rules
abook-0.5.0 -- An addressbook program with mutt mail client support
abridge-0.4.0 -- Bridge game
abs-0908 -- A free spreadsheet with graphical user interface
abuse-2.0_1 -- The classic 2D action game Abuse
abuse_sdl-0.7.0 -- An SDL port of the Abuse game engine
ac-archive-0.5.55 -- A set of useful GNU autoconf macros
ac3dec-0.6.1 -- Software for research in digital audio coding/decoding
accessx-0.950_1 -- Customise accessibility features for X
accrete-1.0 -- Accrete is a physical simulation of solar system planet formation
acfax-0.981011_1 -- Recieve faxes using sound card and radio
achievo-0.8.4 -- A flexible web-based resource management tool
acid-0.9.6b23 -- Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases (ACID) with Snort and MySQL
acidlaunch-0.5 -- An application launcher with simple XML-based configuration syntax
acidwarp-1.0 -- SVGAlib demo which displays trippy mathematical images in cycling colors
aclgen-2.02 -- Optimize Cisco routers ip access lists
acm-5.0 -- A flight simulator for X11
acme-2.4.1 -- Tool to make multimedia keys work on laptops
acpicatools-20030523.0 -- Some utilities for Intel ACPICA (Debugger, ASL Compiler and etc.).
acrobatviewer-1.1 -- Viewer for the PDF files written in Java(TM)
acron-1.0 -- Database of acronyms and abbreviations
acroread-3.02 -- View, distribute and print PDF documents
acroread-5.08 -- View, distribute and print PDF documents
acroread5-commfont-2002.5 -- Asian Font Packs for Acrobat Reader 5.0 (for common files)
act-2.0 -- A DNA sequence comparison viewer based on Artemis
actx-1.23 -- Window sitter for X11
adabindx-0.7.2 -- An Ada-binding to the X Window System and *tif
adabooch-20020602 -- Library which provide container classes as well as powertools for Ada
adabooch-doc-20020602 -- Manual for adabooch
adacurses-5.2 -- Curses library for Ada
adamem-1.0 -- ADAMEm is a portable Coleco ADAM and ColecoVision emulator
adasdl-20010504 -- An Ada thin binding to SDL
adasockets-1.8.2 -- Sockets library for Ada
adcomplain-3.52 -- Complain about inappropriate commercial use (f.e. SPAM) of usenet/e-mail
add-1.0 -- Full-screen editing calculator
adgali-0.2.3 -- An open source game library useful for 2D games programmation
admesh-0.95 -- Program for processing STL triangulated solid meshes
adns-1.0 -- Easy to use, asynchronous-capable DNS client library and utilities
adobe-cmaps-200204 -- Adobe CMap collection
adodb-3.60_1 -- A database library for PHP4
adom-1.1.1 -- An rogue-like advanced rpg with color support (binary port)
adonthell-0.3.3 -- A free role playing game
adpcm-1.2 -- An Intel/DVI IMA ADPCM codec library
adtool-1.2 -- Active Directory administration tool
adzap-20031105 -- Filter out animated ad banners from web pages
ae_fonts1_ttf-1.0 -- A collection of truetype Arabic fonts created by Arabeyes.org
ae_fonts_mono-1.0 -- A collection of PCF fonts that include Arabic glyphs
aee-2.2.15b -- An easy editor with both curses and X11 interfaces
aescrypt-0.7 -- "A command-line AES encryption/decryption suite"
aewm++-1.0.24 -- The C++ version of aewm
aewm-1.2.3 -- ICCCM-compliant window manager based on 9wm
af-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
af-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
afbackup-3.3.5_2 -- AF's backup system
afbackup-client-3.3.5_2 -- AF's backup system
afbackup-server-3.3.5_2 -- AF's backup system
afbinit-1.0 -- Sun AFB aka Sun Elite 3D microcode firmware loader
affenspiel-1.0 -- Little puzzle game with monkey for X Window System
afio-2.4.7_1 -- Archiver & backup program w/ builtin compression
afm-1.0 -- Adobe Font Metrics
afsp-7.1 -- Audio file conversion utilities and library
aft-5.09,1 -- A document preparation system using an Almost Free Text input format
afternoonstalker-1.0.3 -- A clone of Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download 1981 Night Stalker video game
afterstep-1.0_1 -- Window manager originally based on the Bowman NeXTSTEP clone
afterstep-1.8.11 -- A stable version of the AfterStep window manager
afterstep-i18n-1.0_1 -- The NeXTSTEP clone window manager with Fontset support
aftp-1.0 -- A ftp-like shell for accessing Apple II disk images
agenda-headers-1.2.0 -- All headers which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
agenda-libs-1.2.0 -- All libraries which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
agenda-snow-libs-1.2.0 -- SNOW libraries which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
agenda-static-libs-1.2.0 -- Static libraries which are needed to develop for Agenda VR3 PDA
aget-0.4 -- A multithreaded HTTP download accelerator
aggregate-1.6 -- Optimise a list of route prefixes to help make nice short filters
agrep-2.04_1 -- Approximate grep (fast approximate pattern-matching tool)
aguri-0.7 -- An Aggregation-based Traffic Profiler
ah-tty-0.3.12 -- Ah-tty is an automatic helper for command prompts and shells
ahwm-0.90 -- An X11 window manager
aide-0.9 -- A replacement and extension for Tripwire
aileron-0.1.3 -- WINGs mail client
aim-1.5.234 -- AOL's Instant Messenger (AIM) client
airoflash-1.7 -- Flash utiltity for Cisco/Aironet 802.11 wireless cards
airport-2.0.1 -- Apple Airport / Lucent RG-1000 configuration program
aish-1.13 -- Ish/uuencode/Base64 converter
akpop3d-0.7.4 -- POP3 daemon aimed to be small and secure
ald-0.1.5 -- Debugger for assembly level programs
aleph-0.9.0 -- Aleph is a multi-threaded functional programming language
alephone-0.12.0 -- The open source version of Bungie's Marathon game
alephone-data-1.0 -- Data files for the alephone port
alevt-1.6.0 -- X11 Teletext decoding and display program. (reads from /dev/vbi)
alf-0.1 -- Abstract Large File
algae-4.1.3 -- A programming language for numerical analysis
alienwah-1.13 -- "Paul Nasca's AlienWah LADSPA Plugin"
align-1.5.1 -- Text column alignment filter
alisp-8 -- A tail-recursive interpreter for purely symbolic LISP
allegro-4.1.4 -- A cross-platform library for games and multimedia programming
alloywm-0.4.0 -- Has title bars, shading, resizing, automatic placement, window list
alsaplayer-0.99.75 -- Audio player with pitch control and a GNOME GUI
althea-0.5.7 -- Yet another GTK-based mail reader for X. Supports IMAP
altivore-0.9.3 -- A publically disclosed (neither GPL nor open-source) ala Carnivore src
amanda-client-2.4.4_1,1 -- The Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (client)
amanda-server-2.4.4_4,1 -- The Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (server)
amap-4.3 -- Application mapper
amaterus-0.34.1 -- A GTK+ window manager
amavis-perl-11 -- Mail Virus Scanner (uses external antivirus)
amavisd-0.1,1 -- The daemonized version of amavis-perl
amavisd-new-20030616.p5 -- Performance-enhanced daemonized version of amavis-perl
amaya-8.1b -- The W3C's testbed web editor/browser
amiwm-0.20.p48 -- A window manager that makes your desktop look like an Amiga(TM)
amp-0.7.6 -- Another mp3 player
amphetamine-0.8.10_1 -- A 2D - Jump'n'run shooter
ample-0.5.4 -- Allows you to listen to your own MP3's away from home
amsn-0.83_1 -- MSN Messenger
amspsfnt-1.0 -- AMSFonts PostScript Fonts (Adobe Type 1 format)
amy-0.8.4 -- A chess program for playing and analyzing games
amyc-0.9.159_3 -- Display the contents of your Netscape cache
an-0.95_1 -- Fast anagram generator
anacron-2.3 -- Schedules periodic jobs on systems that are not permanently up
analog-5.32_1,1 -- An extremely fast program for analysing WWW logfiles
and-1.0.9 -- Auto Nice Daemon
angband-3.0.3 -- Rogue-like game with color, X11 support
angst-0.4b -- An active sniffer
animabob-1.3.0b -- Interactive 3D volume renderer
anjuta-1.0.2 -- Integrated Development Environment for C and C++
anjuta-1.1.98 -- Integrated Development Environment for C and C++
annextools-10.0 -- BSD tools for the MicroAnnex-XL Terminal Server
ant-xinclude-task-0.2 -- XInclude task for Jakarta Ant
anteater-0.4.5 -- A MTA log analyzer
antipolix-2.1 -- Simple multiplayer game for X Window System
antivir-milter-1.0.6_1 -- AntiVir Milter mail virusscanner for Sendmail
antiword-0.34 -- "An application to display Microsoft(tm) Word files"
antlr-2.7.2 -- ANTLR: ANother Tool for Language Recognition
anubis-3.6.2_1 -- Outgoing SMTP mail processor
aoi-1.6 -- An open source Java written 3D modelling and rendering studio
aolserver-3.4.2 -- A multithreaded web server with embedded TCL interpreter
ap-utils-1.3.1_1 -- A set of utilities to configure and monitor wireless access points
apache+ipv6-1.3.29 -- The extremely popular Apache http server. Very fast, very clean
apache+mod_ssl-1.3.29+2.8.16 -- The Apache 1.3 webserver with SSL/TLS functionality
apache+ssl-1.3.28.1.51_1 -- Apache-SSL: Apache secure webserver integrating OpenSSL
apache-1.3.29_1 -- The extremely popular Apache http server. Very fast, very clean
apache-2.0.48_1 -- Version 2 of the extremely popular Apache http server
apache-ant-1.5.4_1 -- Java- and XML-based build tool, conceptually similar to make
apache-contrib-1.0.8 -- Third-party modules contributed to the Apache HTTP server project
apache-jserv-1.1.2_1 -- Loadable servlet module for apache
apache-soap-2.3.1 -- The Apache SOAP implementation in Java
apache_fp-1.3.27 -- The Apache webserver with MS Frontpage Module
apachetop-0.7 -- Apache RealTime log stats
apc-1.0 -- An xforms based Auto Payment Calculator
apcpwr-1.2 -- Control APC 9211 MasterSwitchs via snmp
apcupsd-3.8.6_1 -- A daemon for controlling APC UPS
apel-emacs19-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for emacs19
apel-emacs20-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for emacs20
apel-emacs21-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for emacs21
apel-mule-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for mule
apel-xemacs21-mule-10.6 -- A Portable Emacs Library for xemacs21-mule
apg-2.3.0b -- An automated password generator
apinger-0.6.1_1 -- An IP device monitoring tool
apotheke-0.2_1 -- A CVS view for Nautilus
apr-0.9.4_3 -- The Apache Group's Portability Library
apsfilter-7.2.5_3 -- Magic print filter with file type recognition, print preview, duplex printing
aqmoney-0.6.2 -- AqMoney uses openhbci to manage your credit institute accounts
aqsis-0.8.0 -- A photorealistic rendering system
ar-frontpage-5.0.2.2623 -- Microsoft Frontpage Arabic Web Administration
ar-katoob-0.3.5 -- Light-weight, bidirectional editor for arabic texts
ar-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
ar-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
ar-openoffice-1.0.3_2 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
ar-openoffice-1.1.0_1 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
arc-5.21j -- Create & extract files from DOS .ARC files
arcexplorer-4.0 -- Lightweight java-based GIS data viewer
arch-1.0.p16 -- A distributed source code management / revision control system
archie-1.4.1 -- Prospero client for the archie service
archie.el-3.0.2 -- A mock-interface to Archie for Emacs
archivemail-0.6.1 -- Search mailbox files and archive or delete mail older than N days
arena-i18n-beta3b -- Experimental HTML 3 browser, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, supports math and style sheets
ares-1.1.1 -- An asynchronous DNS resolver library
argouml-0.14 -- A UML design tool with cognitive support
argparse-1.0.1 -- A tool for commandline parsing for shell scripts
argus-2.0.5 -- A generic IP network transaction auditing tool
ari-yahoo-1.10 -- A console Yahoo! messenger client
aria-1.0.0 -- Yet another download tool
arirang-1.6,1 -- Powerful webserver security scanner
arj-3.10g -- Open-source ARJ
arla-0.35.6 -- A free AFS client implementation
arm-aout-binutils-2.12.1 -- FSF Binutils for embedded ARM cross-development
arm-elf-binutils-2.14 -- GNU binutils for vanilla ARM cross-development
arm-elf-gcc-2.95.3 -- GNU cross compiler suite for vanilla ARM targets.
arm-rtems-binutils-2.13.2.1 -- FSF binutils-2.13.2.1 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-g77-3.2.3 -- FSF F77-gcc-3.2.3 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-gcc-3.2.3 -- FSF C/C++-gcc-3.2.3 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-gcj-3.2.1 -- FSF JAVA-gcc-3.2.1 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-gdb-5.2_1 -- FSF gdb-5.2 base-port for RTEMS development
arm-rtems-objc-3.2.3 -- FSF OBJC-gcc-3.2.1 base-port for RTEMS development
arpack-96 -- Argand Library: large eigenvalue subroutines (serial version)
arpd-0.2 -- A daemon to service arp replies
arping-1.07 -- ARP level "ping" utility
arprelease-1.0 -- Libnet tool to flush arp cache entries from devices (eg. routers)
arpwatch-2.1.a11_3 -- Monitor arp & rarp requests
arrow-1.0.8 -- Mail Reader for X: view, compose and organize; e.g, PGP, GnuPG, POP & APOP
artemis-4.0 -- A DNA sequence viewer and annotation tool
arts++-1.1.a8_1,1 -- A network data storage and analysis library from CAIDA
arts-1.1.4,1 -- Audio system for the KDE integrated X11 desktop
artwiz-fonts-1.0_1 -- A set of free fonts for X11 desktops
as80-0.8 -- A lightweight 8080/8085 assembler
asWedit-4.0.1 -- An easy to use HTML and text editor
asapm-2.13 -- Laptop battery status display for X11
asbutton-0.3 -- A dockapp that displays 4 or 9 buttons to run apps of your choice
asc-1.13.8.0 -- A turn based, multiplayer strategic game with very nice graphics
ascd-0.13.2 -- A dockable cd player for AfterStep or WindowMaker
ascii2pdf-0.9.1 -- A perl script to convert text files to PDF files
asclock-1.0 -- Afterstep clock with some language extentions
asclock-gtk-2.1.10 -- New flavor of asclock (GTK version)
asclock-xlib-2.0.11 -- New flavor of asclock
ascpu-1.9 -- CPU statistics monitor utility for XFree86
asedit-1.3.2_1 -- Text editor for X/Motif
asfiles-1.0 -- X11 file manager. Dockable in WindowMaker
asfrecorder-1.1.20010307 -- Tool for downloading streaming media from the Internet
asfsm-1.0.p15 -- File-system monitor for the AfterStep window manager
ashe-1.3 -- A simple HTML editor
asir-20030825 -- The system Risa/Asir is a general computer algebra system
asis-3.15p -- GNAT implementation of the Ada Semantic Interface Specification
asl-1.41r8 -- Assembler for a variety of microcontrollers/-processors
aslookup-0.12 -- Tool that searches the sequence of AS numbers
asm2html-1.4 -- Converts NASM syntax assembly code to HTML code
asmail-1.6 -- Biff-type program, designed to match AfterStep
asmem-1.8 -- An AfterStep look-n-feel memory utilization monitor
asmix-1.4 -- Volume control dock-app for the AfterStep Window Manager
asmixer-0.5 -- A mixer control for X, and specifically the AfterStep Window Manager
asmodem-0.6.1 -- Displays the modem status, designed to match AfterStep
asmon-0.60 -- A swallowable applet monitors the CPU usage, memory and swap, etc
asmutils-0.14 -- A set of UNIX utilities written in assembly language
asp2php-0.76.17 -- Converts ASP scripts to PHP
aspathtree-4.2 -- Checks IPv6 routes' stability and correctness on IPv6 internet
aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Spelling checker with better suggestion logic than ispell
aspostit-1.3 -- An AfterStep dockable version of XPostIt
asprint-1.0 -- A simple browser to allow a user to print
asr-manpages-20000406 -- alt.sysadmin.recovery man page distribution.
asr-utils-3.04 -- Adaptec ASR RAID Management Software
asterisk-0.5.0_2 -- An Open Source PBX and telephony toolkit
astime-2.8 -- Time/Date applet for WindowMaker
astk-client-1.0.14_2 -- Graphical interface for Code_Aster (client side)
astk-serveur-1.0.14_2 -- Graphical interface for Code_Aster (server side)
astrolog-5.40_1 -- An astrology program for X11 and alpha-numeric terminals
astyle-1.15.3 -- A reindenter and reformatter of C++, C and Java source code
aswiki-1.0.1_2 -- WikiWikiWeb clone written in Ruby
at-1.0 -- The Acoustic ToolBox includes four acoustic models
at-spi-1.3.8 -- An Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface
atari800-1.3.1 -- Atari 8-bit computer emulator
aterm-0.4.2 -- A color vt102 terminal emulator Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download transparency support
atitd-1.0 -- The Linux "A Tale in the Desert" (ATITD) client
atk-1.4.1_1 -- A GNOME accessibility toolkit (ATK)
atlas-3.5.5,1 -- Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS)
atlas-devel-3.5.12 -- Development version of math/atlas
atlast-1.0_1 -- Autodesk Threaded Language Application System Toolkit
atlc-4.0.1 -- A tool to calculate the impedance of transmission lines
atomix-0.4.3 -- A yet another little mind game
atp-1.50 -- A QWK message packet reader and composer for FreeBSD
atr3d-0.6 -- 3D asteroids-like multiplayer game
aub-2.1.3 -- Assemble usenet binaries
aube-0.30.2 -- System for sound generation and processing
auctex-11.13 -- Integrated environment for writing LaTeX using GNU Emacs
audacity-1.0.0_2 -- Audacity is a GUI editor for digital audio waveforms
audit-1.0_1 -- Tools for remote and centralized audit data collection
august-0.63b_1 -- HTML editor for the experienced Web author
aumix-2.8_1 -- Audio Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download for X11, terminal, or command line
aunit-1.01 -- A unit testing framework for the Ada '95 programming language
aureal-kmod-1.3_4 -- A FreeBSD Driver for Aureal Vortex based soundcards
auth_ldap-1.6.0_2 -- Apache module to authenticate against an LDAP directory
authforce-0.9.6_2 -- HTTP authentication brute forcer
authpf-2.00 -- Authentification shell for pf gateways
autobench-2.0.1 -- Automating the process of benchmarking a web server
autobook-1.3 -- GNU autoconf, automake and libtool - The Book
autocd-3.02.10a -- Compact disc control utility
autoconf-2.13.000227_5 -- Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms (legacy 2.13 version)
autoconf-2.53_1 -- Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms
autoconf-2.57 -- Automatically configure source code on many Un*x platforms
autocutsel-0.6.2 -- Synchronizes the two copy/paste buffers used by X applications
autodia-1.6 -- Automatic Dia XML - from Source Code and Data
autogen-5.5.6 -- The Automated Program Generator
automake-1.4.5_9 -- GNU Standards-compliant Makefile generator (legacy version 1.4)
automake-1.5,1 -- GNU Standards-compliant Makefile generator
automake-1.7.5_1 -- GNU automake generates input files for GNU autoconf
autools-1.2.0 -- A collection of programs to manipulate audio files
autopsy-1.73 -- The Autopsy Forensic Browser is Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download GUI for Sleuthkit
autorespond-2.0.4 -- Simple autoresponder for qmail
autosig-2.3 -- A random .signature generator with header file included
autossh-1.2e -- Automatically restart SSH sessions and tunnels
autotrace-0.31.1_1 -- Convert bitmap to vector graphics
autozen-1.3.1 -- Adjust brain waves with sound
avarice-2.0.20030403 -- Atmel AVR JTAG programmer and debugging interface for avr-gdb
avcheck-0.9 -- A simple antivirus solution for a mail system
avida-1.6.0 -- Avida is an auto-adaptive genetic system designed EVEREST Ultimate Edition 5.50.2100 crack serial keygen ALife research
avidemux-0.9.0.110 -- Simple GUI-based video editor
aview-1.3.0.r1 -- Graphics viewer for viewing netpbm format on console or X using aalib
avifile-0.7.34.20030319,2 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download AVI player/converter with numerous codecs, including MPEG-4(DivX ;-))
avinfo-0.7.3 -- A utility for displaying AVI header information
avltree-1.1 -- An in-memory index w/ binary and string keys and key counts
avmailgate-6.12.0.0 -- AntiVir MailGate mail virusscanner
avr-binutils-2.14 -- GNU binutils for Atmel AVR 8-bit RISC cross-development
avr-gcc-3.3.1 -- FSF GCC 3.3.1 for Atmel AVR 8-bit RISC cross-development
avr-gdb-5.3 -- GNU GDB 5.2.1 for the AVR target
avr-libc-2003.09.09 -- A C and math library for the Atmel AVR controller family
avrdude-4.2.0 -- Program for programming the on-chip memory of Atmel AVR CPUs
avrprog-3.0.0 -- Program to drive a simple parallel port programmer for Atmel AVR CPUs
awele-1.0 -- An african board game
awka-0.7.5 -- Converts the AWK script to C, then compiles it
awstats-5.9 -- Free real-time logfile analyzer to get advanced web statistics
axel-1.0a_2 -- A download accelerator
axelq-0.80 -- A queue manager for the download accelerator axel
axis-1.1_2 -- SOAP implementation by APACHE project
axpoint-1.30 -- XML Based Presentations
axyftp-0.5.1 -- X Window System FTP client, with WSftp-like UI
az-kde-i18n-3.0.5 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
b2bua-1.5.0_1 -- A back-to-back (B2B) SIP user agent
babel-1.6_3 -- Converts among various molecular file formats
babytrans-0.9.1_1 -- GTK+/GNOME front-end for Babylon Translator .dic files
backfract-1.1.2 -- Fractal image animated wallpaper program
bacula-1.32c -- The network backup solution
baduki-0.2.9 -- The game of Go
badwm-0.06 -- Window manager based on eviwm
bakery-1.0.2 -- A C++ Application Framework for use with Gnome--
balance-3.11 -- Simple but powerful generic tcp proxy with Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download robin features
balsa-1.4.4 -- A mail reader for the GNOME desktop
balsa2-2.0.15 -- A mail reader for the GNOME 2 desktop
bandwidthd-1.1.6 -- Tracks bandwidth usage by IP address
barcode-0.97 -- A barcode generation library along with a command line frontend
barrage-1.0.1 -- Destroy as many targets as possible
barry-0.6 -- A nice KDE frontend to the ports system
base64-1.3 -- Simple program to convert binary files to base64
bash-1.14.7 -- The GNU Bourne Again Shell -- old version
bash-2.05b.007 -- The GNU Bourne Again Shell
bash-completion-20031022 -- Programmable completion library for Bash 2.04 and up
basiliskII-1.0 -- A free, portable, Open Source 68k Mac emulator
basket-0.3.3 -- Desktop organization tool
battalion-1.4_1 -- Monsters, explosions, destruction game for X Window System
battfink-0.6.1 -- An energy saving preferences app for GNOME
battleball-2.1 -- 3D single/multiplayer military soccer game for X Window System
bayespam-0.9.2 -- qmail spam filter written in Perl using Bayesian classification
bb-1.3.r1 -- High quality audio-visual demonstration for Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download terminal
bbapm-0.0.1 -- APM monitor for the Blackbox slit
bbconf-1.8 -- Configurator for the Blackbox window manager
bbdate-0.2.4 -- A tool made for Blackbox that displays the date in a decorated window
bbdb-emacs20-2.34 -- Big Brother Database
bbdb-emacs21-2.34 -- Big Brother Database
bbjd-1.01 -- Beat the blackjack dealer
bbkeys-0.8.5 -- A keygrabber for the Blackbox window manager
bblimage-0.66 -- A set of software tools for medical image processing
bbmail-0.8.2 -- A tool intended for Blackbox that checks for new mail
bbpager-0.3.1 -- A pager for the Blackbox window manager
bbrb-0.4.1 -- A graphical background manager for the Blackbox window manager
bbrun-1.4_1 -- A Run box for Blackbox
bbsmount-0.3.0p1 -- Graphical disk mounter for Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download Blackbox slit
bbsnet-2.8 -- A front-end of telnet client for multiple users or in private
bcc-1995.03.12 -- Bruce's C compiler (with as and ld); can do 16-bit code
bchunk-1.1.1 -- Converts .bin/.cue files to .iso/audio
bclock-1.0 -- A round, analog X11 clock with bezier curve hands
bcpp-20020518 -- A utility similar to indent for C++ code
bcwipe-1.2.3 -- BCWipe securely erase data from magnetic and solid-state memory
bdfresize-1.5 -- A tool for resizing BDF format font
beav-1.40.15 -- Binary Editor And Viewer, a full featured binary file editor
beaver-0.3.1_1 -- A programmer's text editor for GTK+ 2.0
bebocd-0.4 -- GTK2 CD Player
bed-0.2.19 -- Variable dataformat binary editor
bedic-data-0.1.b1 -- Data (dictionary) files for the kbedic and cbedic ports
beecrypt-3.1.0 -- BeeCrypt is an open source cryptography library
beep-1.0 -- Beeps a certain duration and pitch out of the PC Speaker
beep-media-player-1.0.0_1 -- GTK2 mp3 player
bestfit-0.2.0 -- Optimally choose files to be put on a CD (or other media)
bf2c-1.2.2 -- Optimizing BrainF*ck to C compiler
bfbtester-2.0.1 -- A security tool for testing binaries for overflows
bfe2-20030124 -- X11 GUI for the bochs debugger (revision 2)
bfilter-0.8.2a -- Smart filtering HTTP proxy
bforce-0.22.8 -- Simple ifcico like Fidonet technology mailer
bforce-kst-0.22.7.5 -- Simple ifcico like Fidonet technology mailer
bftpd-1.0.24 -- Very configurable FTP server that can do chroot easily
bg-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
bg-ooodict-BG-1.2 -- Bulgarian (Bulgaria) MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
bglibs-1.009_1 -- One stop library package by Bruce Guenter
bgpq-1.0.7.6_1 -- Bgpq - lightweight access-list generator for cisco routers
bgrab-1.3.6 -- Binary Grabber - downloads binaries from newsgroups
bgrot-1.30 -- A program to handle your X background to prevent boredom
biabam-0.9.2 -- A command-line attachment mailer
bibcard-0.6.4 -- X11 interface for ediing BibTeX files
bibcursed-2.0.0 -- A simple curses-based editor for BibTeX bibliography files
bibelot-0.9.4 -- Formats and converts text documents into compressed PalmDoc .pdb files
biblereader-0.3.3 -- A GUI based Bible program for X11
bibletime-1.2.2 -- A powerful Bible study application for KDE3
bibletime-doc-1.2.2 -- Documentation for bibletime, a powerful Bible study program for KDE3
bibtex2html-1.65 -- A collection of tools for searching BibTeX and translating from BibTeX to HTML
bibview-2.2 -- Graphical interface for manipulating BibTeX bibliography databases
bicom-1.01 -- Data compressor in the PPM family
bicyclerepair-0.7.1 -- A python refactoring tool
bidiv-1.4 -- A bidirectional text filter
bidwatcher-1.3.10 -- Bid monitor for eBay
biew-5.5.0 -- Binary vIEWer + editor for binary, hexadecimal and dis-asm modes
biffer-1.0 -- A better mail notification server
biggles-1.6.2 -- Create publication-quality 2D scientific plots
bigloo-2.5a -- A Scheme interpreter and native code compiler
bigyear-20010226,1 -- A program to print a large (one month per page) calendar
bin86-0.16.13 -- 16-bit assembler and loader (conflicts with devel/bcc)
bincimap-1.2.3 -- Light-weight IMAP server for Maildir
bind-8.3.6 -- The Berkeley Internet Name Domain, an implementation of DNS
bind84-8.4.1 -- The Berkeley Internet Name Domain, an implementation of DNS
bind9-9.2.3 -- Completely new version of the BIND DNS server
bind9-dlz-9.2.2+0.6.0_1 -- The Berkeley Internet Name Daemon, with DLZ extensions
bind9-sdb-mysql-9.2.2_1 -- BIND DNS 9 server which supports a MySQL backend
binder-1.3 -- A file manager on X window with TkStep
bing-1.0.4_1 -- A point-to-point bandwith measurement tool
binkd-0.9.6 -- Fidonet TCP/IP mailer
bins-1.1.20 -- Tool to generate HTML photo albums with XML support
biojava-1.01 -- Open-source java tools for processing biological data
biorythm-1.1.2 -- Simple biorythm calculation program
birda-1.00_2 -- Bohlin's IrDA utilities, ported from NetBSD's pkgsrc
birthday-1.5 -- A program that outputs reminders for upcoming events (e.g. birthdays)
bison-1.75_1 -- A parser generator from FSF, (mostly) compatible with Yacc
bison-1.875_1 -- A parser generator from FSF, (mostly) compatible with Yacc
bitedit-0.9.4 -- Bitedit is a simple ncurses program for editing a file
bitlbee-0.74a -- An IRC to other chat networks gateway
bitmap-emacs20-8.5 -- Bitmap-mule, Package to use bitmap in Emacs20
bitmap-emacs21-8.5 -- Bitmap-mule, Package to use bitmap in Emacs21
bitmap-fonts-1.0 -- Bitmap font, (6x12, 7x14, 8x16, 12x24) dots bitmap font
bitmap-mule-8.5 -- Package to use bitmap in MULE
bitstream-vera-1.10 -- Bitstream Vera TrueType font collection
bjfilter360-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F360
bjfilter850-1.3 -- Canon Bubble FILE SCAVENGER 4.3 crack serial keygen Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F850
bjfilter850ug-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F850 (supported BCI-6 inks)
bjfilter860-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F860
bjfilter870-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ F870
bjfiltercom-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- Common files
bjfilters600-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ S600
bjfilters630-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ S630
bjfilters6300-1.3 -- Canon Bubble Jet Print Filter for Linux -- BJ S6300
bjorb-0.5.5p1 -- Secure TCP relay software with SSL
bk2site-1.1.9 -- Transforms Netscape bookmarks into a Yahoo-like website
bkmrkconv-1.10 -- Netscape bookmarks.html converter
bkpupsd-1.0a -- A simple UPS daemon for APC BK Pro(TM)
bksh-1.3 -- Backup-only shell
blackbox-0.65.0 -- A small and fast window manager for X11R6
blackened-1.8.1 -- The Blackened IRC Client
blackjack-1.2 -- One of the better implementations of blackjack, based on QT
blacs-1.7 -- UltraEdit 26.20.066 licennse key Archives BLACS (Basic Linear Algebra Communication Subprograms)
bladeenc-0.94.2 -- MP3 encoder
blas-1.0 -- Basic Linear Algebra, level 1, 2, and 3
blast-1.0 -- Blast blows holes through windows
blender-2.25 -- Fully functional 3D modeling/rendering/animation/gaming package
blender-devel-2.28c -- 3D modeling/rendering/animation/gaming package
blimitd-0.1_1 -- Daemon to enforce login.conf limits
blitz++-0.7 -- A C++ class library for scientific computing
block-0.6 -- Small text based maze game
blockade-1.00 -- An X version of the `blockade' Macintosh game
blop-0.2.7 -- Bandlimited oscillator plugins for LADSPA-aware audio applications
blt-2.4z -- A Tk extension (with shared libs)
blue-2.6 -- A Blue Moon card solitaire
bluefish-0.11.20031031 -- HTML editor designed for the experienced web designer
bluefish-0.7_1 -- HTML editor designed for the experienced web designer
bluej-1.2.2 -- BlueJ is an integrated Java environment designed for introductory teaching
blwm-1.0.4 -- Portuguese derivative of qvwm, simplified to conserve resources
bmf-0.9.4_1 -- A fast Bayesian Mail Filter compatible with maildrop and procmail
bmon-1.2.1 -- "BMON - bandwidth monitor using curses lib"
bnc-2.8.4 -- A simple IRC relay proxy with support for virtual hosting
bnf-1.6.9 -- Generate C parser given a grammar in BNF notation
boa-0.94.14.r17,1 -- High performance single-tasking web server
boaconstructor-0.2.3 -- A cross platform RAD GUI Building IDE for wxPython
bobot++-1.99.2 -- An IRC bot written in C++
bochs-2.0.2,2 -- An IA-32 (x86) PC emulator that runs DOS, Win 95, and more
boclient-1.21 -- Client program for the Back Orifice Windows program
boehm-gc-6.2 -- Garbage collection and memory leak detection for C and C++
bogged-1.0.0 -- Word game for X Window System
bogofilter-0.15.7 -- "Fast, teachable, learning spam detector"
bogofilter-tdb-0.15.7 -- "Fast, teachable, learning spam detector"
bogosort-0.4.1 -- "Sort (or not) stdin using the bogo-sort algorithm"
boiling-egg-0.02_1 -- A front-end of Egg V4
bomb-1.0 -- Interactive display hack for SVGAlib or X
bomberclone-0.10.1 -- Reimplementation of Atomic Bomber Man
bomberinstinct-0.8.9 -- A nice Bomberman-like multiplayer game
bombermaze-0.6.6 -- A Bomberman clone for GNOME
bonk-0.6 -- Lossy/lossless audio compressor
bonnie++-1.93.03 -- Performance Test of Filesystem I/O
bonnie-2.0.6 -- Performance Test of Filesystem I/O
bonobo-1.0.22 -- The component and compound document system for GNOME
bonobo-conf-0.16 -- Bonobo configuration moniker
bookcase-0.7.1 -- Personal book collection manager for KDE
boost-1.30.2 -- Free peer-reviewed portable C++ source libraries
borzoi-1.0.1 -- An Elliptic Curve Cryptography Library
botan-1.2.7 -- A portable, easy to use, and efficient C++ crypto library
bottlerocket-0.04c -- Home Automation Software for the X10 FireCracker kit
bounce-1.0 -- Bounce tcp connections to another machine/port
bouncycastle-1.16 -- Cleanroom build of Java Cryptography Extensions
boxes-1.0.1 -- Draws ASCII-art configurable boxes around text or code
boxtools-0.65.0 -- Style tools for the blackbox family of window managers
bozohttpd-20031005 -- The bozotic HTTP server
bpatch-1.0 -- A hex editor that doesn't load the whole file at once
bpft-4.20031028 -- The BPF Traffic collector
bpl+-1.0_1 -- B Plus file transfer protocol
br-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Breton dictionary
braa-0.41 -- Tool for making SNMP queries
braincurses-0.2 -- A clone of the Mastermind game
bricons-3.0 -- Quick start up utility for applications on an X display
briquolo-0.4.2 -- Breakout clone with an OpenGL 3D representation
british-ispell-3.1_1 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
bro-0.8 -- System for detecting Network Intruders in real-time
brs-4.03 -- An interactive King James Bible
bs-2.4 -- Battleships solitaire game with a color interface
bs-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
bs-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
bsd-airtools-0.2 -- BSD Wireless Scanning Tools
bsdftpd-ssl-0.6.3 -- FTP server with TLS/SSL support
bsdiff-4.1 -- Generates and applies patches to binary files
bsdproxy-0.03 -- "A TCP proxy, demonstrating use of the kevent(2)/kqueue(2) API"
bsdsar-1.10_2 -- System Activity Reporter for FreeBSD
bsdtris-1.1 -- BSD version of Text-based tetris game
bsh-1.2.b7 -- A Java scripting environment
bsmtp-1.02_4 -- Batch SMTP support for sendmail, incoming and outgoing
bsp-5.1 -- Node builder for Doom
bsvc-2.1 -- An extensible hardware simulation framework with MC68K support
btc-258 -- A tool for creating bass tablature
btoa-5.2_1,1 -- Encode/decode binary to printable ASCII
bubblegum-1.12 -- Watch a file for changes
bubblemon-dockapp-1.40 -- X eye candy for displaying CPU and memory load in a dock
bubblemon2-2.0.1 -- Bubblemon2 is a system CPU and memory load monitor for GNOME2
buffer-1.17.1 -- Buffer sporadic I/O for faster tape and pipe throughput
buffy-0.2 -- A GTK theme engine looking like SGI enhanced Motif (aka Roxy)
bugbuddy2-2.4.1.1 -- A bug reporting tool for GNOME 2
bugs-4.1.1 -- Great cryptography library and sample programs
bugseeker-1.0.2_1 -- BugSeeker for Java 2, a debugger for Java applications
bugseeker-demo-1.0.2 -- A debugger for Java software
bugsx-1.08 -- Breed bugs using genetic algorithims
bugzilla-2.16.3_1 -- Bug-tracking system developed by Mozilla Project
buildtool-0.14 -- A set of portable software build utilities
buildtool-doc-0.14 -- Buildtool User's and Developer's manuals
bulk_mailer-1.13 -- Speeds delivery to mailing lists by sorting & batching addresses
burgerspace-1.6.1_1 -- A BurgerTime clone
buttonbox-0.03 -- Xlib-based application launcher
bvi-1.3.1 -- A vi-like binary file (hex)editor
bwbasic-2.20p2 -- The Bywater Basic interpreter
bwidget-1.4.1 -- A high-level widget set for Tcl/Tk
byaccj-1.1 -- A java extension of BSD YACC-compatible parser generator
bytebench-3.1 -- The BYTE magazine benchmark suite
bzflag-1.7g.2 -- A multiplayer 3D tank battle game
bzip-0.21 -- A block-sorting file compressor
bzip2-1.0.2 -- A block-sorting file compressor
c-hey-2.0 -- Terminal based instant messaging utility
c-nocem-3.7 -- NoCeM for C News and INN
c2html-0.9.2 -- C-language sources to HTML converter
c2lib-1.4.2 -- Library of basic structures and memory allocators for C
c2man-2.0.42 -- Generates man pages from C sources
c2ps-a4-4.0 -- A PostScript pretty-printer for C source
c2ps-letter-4.0 -- A PostScript pretty-printer for C source
c4-1.6 -- A CVS-like Frontend to Perforce
c_c++_reference-2.0.2 -- C/C++ reference manual for KDevelop
c_parser-0.2.5 -- A C99 Parser
ca-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Catalan dictionary
ca-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
ca-ooodict-ES-1.2 -- Catalan MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
ca-openoffice-1.1.0_1 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
ca-roots-1.0_1 -- A list of SSL CA root certificates
cabextract-0.6_1 -- A program to extract Microsoft cabinet (.CAB) files
cadaver-0.22.0 -- Commandline client for DAV
cadubi-1.2 -- ASCII drawing utility
cal-3.5 -- Enhanced color version of standard calendar utility
calamaris-2.58 -- A perl script to produce statistics out of Squid log files
calc-2.11.5_1 -- Arbitrary precision calculator
calcoo-1.3.15 -- Gtk-based scientific calculator
calctool-2.4.13 -- A multi-GUI (text, X, xview, NeWS, sunview) calculator program
calibrator-0.9 -- Cache Profiling Tool
calife-2.8.5 -- A lightweight alternative to sudo
cam-1.02 Removewat 2.2.9 Windows Activator Download Cpu's Audio Mixer [curses based]
camediaplay-20010211_1 -- Digital camera downloading tool for Epson/Sanyo/Olympus/Agfa camera
caml-0.74 -- A strongly typed functional language belonging to the ML family
caml-mode-3.01 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download An EMACS mode for editing OCaml programs
camlp4-3.06 -- Pre-Processor-Pretty-Printer for Objective Caml
camserv-0.42 -- Camserv is a free program to do streaming video via the web
cantus-1.07 -- Tool for tagging and renaming MP3 and OGG/Vorbis files
cap-6.0.198_1 -- Columbia AppleTalk Package for UNIX
carthage-1.0 -- A parser and clean-up tool for SGML DTDs
cascade-1.4 -- A simple tool to analyze noise and distortion of a RF system
catdoc-0.91.5 -- Convert MS Word/Excel documents to plain ASCII or TeX. TK viewer included
catdvi-0.14 -- A DVI to text/plain translator
caudium-devel-1.3.19.20030917,1 -- A free webserver which is based on the Roxen Challenger 1.3 code base (development branch)
caudium10-1.0.56 -- A free webserver which is based on the Roxen Challenger 1.3 code base
caudium12-1.2.26 -- A free webserver which is based on the Roxen Challenger 1.3 code base
cave-1.0b -- Character Animation Viewer for Everyone
cbb-0.8.1 -- Checkbook balancing tool
cbedic-1.2 -- An English-to-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-to-English dictionary
cbrowser-0.8 -- Graphical front end for cscope and cscope clones
cc65-2.9.1 -- Cross-compiler for 6502-based systems, includes 65816 assembler
ccache-2.3 -- A tool to minimize the compile time of C programs
ccaudio-1.0.6 -- "C++ class framework for manipulating audio files"
cccc-2.1.1 -- C and C++ Code Counter
ccdoc-0.7a -- Extracting comments from C++ source and generating HTML
cclient-2002d,1 -- Mark Crispin's C-client mail access routines
ccmalloc-0.3.9_1 -- C/C++ memory profiler and memory leak tracer
ccmath-2.2.0 -- A mathematics library with many different functions
ccmsn-0.3p3 -- A Tcl/Tk-based MSN messenger
ccrypt-1.3_2 -- A command-line utility for encrypting and decrypting files and streams
ccscript-2.4.3 -- State-event driven class extendible C++ script interpreter
ccze-0.2.1_1 -- Fast log colorizer
cd-console-2.4 -- A curses-based console CD Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download -- Backend utility to retrieve CDDB discid information
cd-write-1.4.1_1 -- A X11 based CD-burner
cd2mp3-0.82,1 -- Easy to use CD Ripping and MP3 Encoding tool
cd9660_unicode-1.0 -- A kernel driver for reading CD disks with non-English filenames
cdb-0.75 -- A fast lookup database library & utilities
cdbakeoven-1.8.9_3 -- KDE frontend for cdrecord and mkisofs/mkhybrid
cdecl-2.5 -- Explains complicated C/C++ declarations in plain English
cdialog-0.9b.20030308_1,1 -- An enhanced version of 'dialog' to work with ncurses
cdif-1.15 -- Display word context diff
cdiff-1.4 -- Diff readability enhancher for color terminals
cdk-4.9.10.20020809_1,1 -- Curses Development Kit for speedy development of full screen programs
cdlabelgen-1.5.0 -- Generate postscript for frontcards and traycards for CDs
cdoc-0.9.7 -- Extracts documentation from C source code comments
cdonkey-0.8.9 -- An open and free core client for the eDonkey protocol
cdparanoia-3.9.8_6 -- A CDDA extraction tool (also known as ripper)
cdpd-1.0.2 -- CDPdaemon - sends Cisco Discovery Protocol announces over ethernet
cdplay-0.92_2 -- CD-player with text-based user interface
cdplayer.app-1.7 -- A CD player with CDDB support resembling OpenStep's OmniCD
cdpr-2.0.0 -- Cisco Discovery Protocol Reporter
cdrdao-1.1.7_4 -- Record CD-R[W]s in disk-at-once mode
cdroot-1.2.5 -- Scripts to automate setting Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download a bootable CD-ROM based FreeBSD system
cdrtools-2.0.3 -- Cdrecord, mkisofs and several other programs to record CD-R[W]
cdrtools-devel-2.01a19 -- Cdrecord and other programs to extract and record CDs/CD-R[W]s
cel-0.6 -- A small, simple prototype-based OO language
celestia-1.2.4 -- Scriptable space flight simulator for X
centericq-4.9.8 -- A text mode menu- and window-driven IM interface
cfe-0.12 -- Console font editor
cfengine-1.6.3_4 -- GNU cfengine - a systems administration tool for networks
cfengine2-2.0.8p1 -- GNU cfengine - a systems administration tool for networks
cfgstoragemk-1.0 -- MRTG configuration generator for storage monitoring via SNMP
cflow-2.0 -- A call graph generator for C code
cflow2vcg-0.5_1 -- Convert the result of the cflow utility in a VCG format
cflowd-2.1.b1_7,1 -- Flow analysis tool used for analyzing Cisco's NetFlow switching
cfm-0.5_1 -- Quick Perl/Tk file manager with support for regular expressions
cfs-1.4.1 -- A cryptographic file system implemented as a user-space NFS server
cftp-0.12_2 -- Comfortable FTP, a full screen ftp client
cfv-1.13 -- Utility to both test and create .sfv, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. csv and md5sum files
cgi-lib-1.4_1 -- ANSI C Library for CGI Programming
cgi-lib_pl-2.18 -- De facto standard library for creating CGI in perl
cgic-2.02 -- ANSI C library for CGI programming
cgicc-3.2.1_2 -- A C++ class library for writing CGI applications
cgichk-2.60 -- A web site vulnerability scanner
cgihtml-1.69_2 -- Library that simplifies the task of writing CGI programs in C
cgiparse-0.9b -- C library to parse CGI Forms
cgiwrap-3.8 -- Securely execute ~user CGI scripts
cgoban-1.9.14 -- Internet Go Server client and game editor
cgoban-2.5.3 -- Internet Go Server client and game editor
chameleon-03.08 -- A Haskell-style language
charm-1.3.0 -- A menu-driven python-based livejournal client
chbg-1.5_3 -- Change Background Picture with time period
cheatah-1.5.5 -- Temporary gtk GUI to the SWORD project
checkbot-1.73 -- A WWW link verifier, similar like momspider
checkpassword-0.90 -- A simple password-checking interface
checkpassword-pam-0.98 -- Implementation of checkpassword authentication program
checkrdf-38.7143 -- A tool for CCleaner Pro 5.84 Crack 2021 Free Download site summaries based news-check
checkservice-1.2.0 -- Checkservice is written to check the status of the services
cheesetracker-0.9.1 -- An Impulse Tracker clone
cheetah-0.05 -- GTK+ based light-weight web browser
chef-19930426 -- Feelter thet cunferts Ingleesh text tu Muck Cheenese-a
chemeq-1.10_1 -- Outputs LaTeX code for chemical reaction
chemtool-1.6_1 -- Draw organic molecules easily and store them
chemtool-devel-1.6.1 -- Drawing organic molecules easily and store them (developer version)
cherokee-0.4.2 -- Cherokee is an extremely fast and tiny web server
chexedit-0.9.7 -- Full screen text mode Hex editor using the [n]curses library
chgrep-1.2.2 -- Fast string substitution across multiple files
chicken-1.22 -- A Scheme-to-C compiler
chimera-1.70p0_1 -- X/Athena World-Wide Web client
chipmunk-5.59 -- An electronic CAD system
chipvault-200211 -- A project organizer for VHDL and Verilog RTL hardware designs
chk4mail-2.15 -- A utility to quickly check multiple folders for new email
chkrootkit-0.42b -- A tool to locally check for signs of a rootkit
chmlib-0.3.1_1 -- A library for dealing with Microsoft ITSS/CHM format files
chmview-1.0_1 -- Extractor from .chm files
choparp-20021107 -- Simple proxy arp daemon
chora-1.2 -- The Horde CVS web-viewer
chord-3.6 -- Produce PS sheet-music from text input
chord2html-1.3 -- Convert CHORD input files to HTML
chordpack-0.8.0 -- Script to convert ChordPro files to HTML, ASCII, and TeX
chpp-0.3.5 -- Non-intrusive full-featured text preprocessor
chrootuid-1.3 -- A simple wrapper that combines chroot(8) and su(1) into one program
chtml-0.0 -- Chunked HTML templating engine
cider-1.b1_2 -- A mixed-level circuit and device simulator (includes SPICE3)
cidr-2.3.2 -- RFC 1878 subnet calculator / helper
cil-1.2.1_1 -- Infrastructure for C Program Analysis and Transformation
cim-3.36 -- Compiler for the SIMULA programming language
cinc-2.1.3 -- Bell Laboratories cardiac computer emulator
cingb-0.28 -- Yet another Nintendo GameBoy(tm) emulator
circuslinux-1.0.3 -- "Circus Linux!" is a clone of the Atari 2600 game "Circus Atari"
cisco_conf-1.1 -- Simple configuration editor for Cisco devices
ciscoconf-1.1 -- Fetches configuration from Cisco routers and stores them under RCS
citadel-5.80_1 -- Citadel/UX Communications Server
citrix_ica-7.00_1 -- Citrix(R) client for the Microsoft Windows Terminal Server
civ2demo-1.0 -- The free demo of Civilization: Call to Power
cjk-lyx-1.2.3_1 -- Document processor interfaced with LaTeX, with CJK support
cksfv-1.3 -- Create or manipulate Simple File Verification (SFV) checksum files
cl-asdf-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-asdf-clisp-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-asdf-cmucl-2003.05.16 -- A Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-asdf-sbcl-2003.05.16 -- A system definition facility for Common Lisp
cl-lml-2.5.2 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-lml-clisp-2.5.2 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-lml-cmucl-2.3.4 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-lml-sbcl-2.3.4 -- Lisp Markup Language
cl-meta-0.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-meta-clisp-20011114.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-meta-cmucl-0.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-meta-sbcl-20011114.1 -- A parser generator for Common Lisp
cl-port-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-port-clisp-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-port-cmucl-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-port-sbcl-2002.10.02.1 -- Cross-Lisp portability package
cl-ppcre-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-ppcre-clisp-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-ppcre-cmucl-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-ppcre-sbcl-0.5.4 -- Portable Perl-Compatible Regular Expression for Common Lisp
cl-split-sequence-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
cl-split-sequence-clisp-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
cl-split-sequence-cmucl-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
cl-split-sequence-sbcl-20011114.1 -- Partinitoning Common Lisp sequences
clamav-0.60_4 -- Command line virus scanner written entirely in C
clamav-devel-20031112 -- Command line virus scanner written entirely in C
clanbomber-1.01a_1 -- A bomberman-like multiplayer game
clanlib-0.7.5.2 -- Cross-platform game SDK
claraocr-0.9.9_1 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download Optical character recognition (OCR) utility
clarence-0.2.2 -- Programmer's calculator
clean-theme-gtk-1.2.x -- The Clean GTK theme engine
clean_-3.2 -- Automatically remove unwanted files
cleanfeed-20020501 -- Spam filter for Usenet news servers
cleanscore-0.9.8.1 -- A perl script to clean up your slrn score file
clementine-0.0.7 -- Has title bars, iconizing, and styles (unstable)
clex-3.1.8 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download A commandline file manager
clhep-1.8.0.0 -- Object-oriented toolkit for particle physics applications by CERN
cli-20021101 -- An implementation of the ECMA CLI and the ECMA C# language
clibpdf-2.02.r1 -- A library for creating PDF (Acrobat) files directly via C language programs
click-1.2.3 -- The Click Modular Router
clig-1.1.3 -- Auto-generate an (argc, argv) processor, usage message, and manpage
clint-0.1.2_2 -- A static source code checker for C++
clip-1.1.5.1 -- xBase and Clipper language compatible compiler
clips-6.1 -- CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system tool
clisp-2.30_1 -- An ANSI Common Lisp
clisp-hyperspec-6.0 -- A Common Lisp reference in HTML format, from Xanalys
cln-1.1.5_1 -- Class Library for Numbers
clo++-0.6.3 -- Command line parser generator
clockspeed-0.62_2 -- Uses a hardware tick counter to compensate for deviant system clock
clockspeed-conf-0.4.5 -- Supervise scripts for clockspeed to use daemontools
clog-1.6 -- Tcp connection logger daemon
clustalw-1.83 -- CLUSTAL W Multiple Sequence Alignment Program
clusterit-2.0_1 -- A collection of clustering tools
cmail-4.01 -- A simple mail counter, useful for multiple mailfiles
cmake-1.4.7 -- A cross-platform make
cmatrix-1.2a -- Show a scrolling 'Matrix' like screen
cmd5checkpw-0.22 -- Checkpassword compatible authentication program that uses CRAM-MD5
cmdwatch-0.2.0 -- Watches the output from a command at specified intervals
cmios9-1.6 -- Ftp-like access to Fairlight OS9/MDR-DOS devices and image files
cmp3-2.0.p5_1 -- An ncurses based frontend to mpg123
cmpsfont-1.0_1 -- Computer Modern PostScript Fonts (Adobe Type 1 format)
cmt-1.15 -- The Computer Music Toolkit (CMT) is a collection of LADSPA plugins
cmucl-18e -- The CMU implementation of Common Lisp
cmucl-extra-18e -- Optional extras for the CMU implementation of Common Lisp
cn2jp-1.4b_3 -- A library for code translation between Chinese and Japanese
cnet-1.7.7_1 -- A networking simulator
cnews-cr.g_6 -- An nntp server
cnslock-1.02_1 -- A visual indicator of the states of the three "lock" buttons
coalesce-1.50 -- A program to fit population models
coco-2.3 -- Code converter for any of Mule's code
cocoon-1.8.2_3 -- 100% pure Java publishing framework servlet
cocor-1.7 -- A compiler generator that combines the functionality of lex and yacc
coda-client-5.3.20_1 -- Client programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
coda-client-6.0.2_1 -- Server programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
coda-doc-4.6.5.3 -- An experimental, replicated, high-performance network file system
coda-doc-5.2.0.1 -- An experimental, replicated, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, high-performance network file system
coda-intro-4.6.6.1 -- An experimental, replicated, high-performance network file system
coda-server-5.3.20_1 -- Server programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
coda-server-6.0.2_1 -- Server programs for a replicated high-performance network file system
code2html-0.9 -- Sourcecode to HTML converter
code_crusader-2.1.4_1 -- A UNIX IDE for X inspired by MetroWerks CodeWarrior
coldsync-2.2.5_1 -- Synchronize a PalmPilot with a Unix workstation
cole-2.0.1 -- A free C OLE library
collections-1.1 -- JDK1.2 Collections' API for JDK1.1 environments
color-mate-10.5 -- Color customizing module for Emacsen
colorize-0.3.3 -- A robust log colorizer
colorstep-0.6 -- A theme engine based on GtkStep and Step-pastel
colortail-0.3.0_1 -- A colour-able replacement for tail(1)
columns-1.2b -- Nice little implementation of columns game for X Window System
comclear-1.2 -- "A history cleaner for Netscape Navigator and Communicator"
comconsole-0.1 -- Setup your PC to use serial port COM1 as its console device
commoncpp2-1.0.8_1,1 -- GNU project portable class framework for C++
compaq-cc-6.4.9.005.1_2 -- Compaq Alpha Tru64 C compiler
compat22-i386-4.6.2 -- A convenience package to install the compat22 libraries
compat3x-i386-4.4.20020925 -- A convenience package to install the compat3x libraries
compat4x-i386-4.7 -- A convenience package to install the compat4x libraries
compupic-5.1.1063 -- Digital content manager
comserv-1.4.3 -- Provide network access to local serial ports and make remote ports appear local
concorde-1.0_1 -- Combinatorial Optimization package
cone-0.55 -- Console based mail client with POP3/IMAP/SMAP support
confregdecode-1.0.1 -- Cisco Systems IOS(tm) configuration register decoder
conglomerate-0.7.6 -- GNOME2 visual XML editor with emphasis on DocBook editing
connect4-3.2_1 -- A curses version of the classic game
conquest-7.2 -- A multi-player curses space warfare game similar to Netrek
cons-2.2.0 -- A Perl-based Make Replacement
cons-test-2.2.0 -- A test bed for `Cons' development
conserver-8.5 -- Manage remote serial consoles via TCP/IP
conserver-com-8.0.5 -- Application that allows multiple users to watch serial consoles
consolehm-1.31_1 -- Console based hardware monitor for FreeBSD
contool-3.3a -- Console tool for openlook
cook-2.23_1 -- Like make(1), but more powerful and clean
cooledit-3.17.7_1 -- Suite of utilities, including a GUI editor
coolmail-1.3 -- A Xbiff like mail tool with animated 3D graphics
cops-1.04 -- A system secureness checker
copytape-1.0 -- A program that is used to duplicate magtapes
corewars-0.9.12 -- A simulation game where the goal is to crash each other's programs
corkscrew-2.0 -- A HTTP tunnelling utility for SSH
cos-2002.11.05,1 -- The O'Reilly package of utility classes for servlet developers
cosmo-2.0.4_2 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download Clone of Cosmo Gang the Puzzle (Namco)
cost-2.2p1 -- SGML/XML application programming tool
cotty-0.4c -- Simple command-line pseudo terminal manager
courier-0.42.2 -- Courier SMTP IMAP POP3 HTTP mail server suite
courier-imap-2.2.0,1 -- IMAP (and POP3) server that provides access to Maildir mailboxes
cowsay-3.03_1 -- Configurable talking characters in ASCII art
cp2fwb-0.6 -- Checkpoint FW1 to Firewall Builder ruleset converter
cpbk-2.0 -- Backup Copy programm
cpdup-1.04 -- A comprehensive filesystem mirroring program
cphone-0.3.1 -- H323 Video Conferencing Program which uses QT
cplay-1.48 -- A curses based front-end for various audio players
cpmemu-0.2.1.1 -- Cpm emulator
cpmtools-1.1 -- Utility to transfer files from/to CP/M (R) diskettes
cpp2latex-2.3 -- Convert C++ source to a file you can input in an LaTeX-document
cppadvio-2.6 -- Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download i/o, networking, and arithmetic compression C++ classlib

cppunit-1.8.0 -- C++ port of the JUnit framework for unit testing
cproto-4.6 -- Generate C function prototypes and convert function definitions
cpuburn-1.4 -- CPU/memory stress testing utilities
cpuid-3.3 -- CPU identification utility
cqcam-0.91_1 -- Color Quickcam control program
crack-5.0 -- The "Sensible" Unix Password Cracker
cracklib-2.7_1 -- Password-checking library
crafty-19.1 -- A chess programm for playing and analyzing games
crafty-open-large-19960910 -- The large opening book for crafty
crafty-open-medium-19960910 -- The medium opening book (about 1.9 MByte) for crafty
crafty-open-small-19970301 -- The small opening book (about 600 KByte) for crafty
crank-0.2.1 -- CRyptANalysis toolKit
crashecho-0.2.14 -- An FTN JAM and *.MSG tosser
crashmail-0.62 -- CrashMail II FTN mail tosser
crashme-2.4 -- A tool to test an operating system's robustness
crawl-0.3_2 -- A small, efficient web crawler with advanced features
crescendo-1.1.7_1 -- A gnome frontend for tinyfuge
cricket-1.0.4.p2 -- A high performance, extremely flexible monitoring system
crimap-2.4 -- Creation of multilocus linkage maps
crimson-1.1.3_1 -- Implements the Java API for XML Processing (JAXP)
crimson-fields-0.3.7 -- Tactical war game in the tradition of Battle Isle
crip-3.4 -- Terminal-based ripper/encoder/tagger
criticalmass-0.98 -- An SDL/OpenGL space shoot\'em up game
cronolog-1.6.2 -- A web log rotation utility that provides datestamp filenames
crossfire-client-1.5.0 -- Multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download for X11
crossfire-server-1.5.0 -- Server for multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game
crossgo32-1.3 -- Cross Development Environment for 32-bit DOS
crossgo32-djgpp2-2.01 -- DJGPP V2 libraries and compatability for crossgo32 crosscompiler
crossgo32-djgpp2-pdcurses-2.2 -- PD curses for crossgo32 crosscompiler with djgpp v2 libraries
crossgo32-f77-2.95.2 -- G2c libraries and compatibility for DJGPP V2 crossgo32 crosscompiler
crosspad-19991202 -- Crosspad data downloader/converter
crossword-0.8.3 -- Crossword Generator
crw-1.03 -- A utility to process Canon camera RAW (.crw) files
cryptcat-2.0 -- Standard netcat enhanced with twofish encryption
cryptix-jce-20011118 -- JCE(Java Cryptograph Extension) by Cryptix
cryptlib-3.1.b5 -- A powerful security programming toolkit
cryptopp-5.1_1 -- A free C++ class library of Cryptographic Primitives
cryptoslam-1.1 -- A curses-based tool for creating and solving the cryptograms
cryptplug-0.3.16 -- A collection of plug-ins to cryptographic engines
cs-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Czech dictionary
cs-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
cs-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
cs-ooodict-CZ-1.2 -- Czech (Czech Republic) MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
cs-openoffice-1.1.0_1 -- Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadheet/drawing/chart/browser
cscope-15.5 -- An interactive C program browser
cscout-1.16 -- Source code analyzer and refactoring browser for collections of C programs
csmash-0.6.5 -- A 3D tabletennis game
csound-4.23 -- Sound synthesizer
csound-manual-4.23 -- Manuals for Csound
css-mode-elisp-0.11 -- A CSS(Cascade Style Sheet) Flvto Youtube Downloader Activated License Key Archives mode for Emacsen
cssc-0.15a.0_1 -- A workalike for the source code control system SCCS
cstream-2.3 -- dd(1)-like tool, precise bandwidth limiting/reporting, fifo, TCP, audio support
csv2latex-20030501 -- Converts a well formed csv file to a LaTeX document
ct-2.1.1_1 -- IPv6 Conformance Test Kit
ctags-5.5.2 -- A feature-filled tagfile generator for vi and emacs clones
cthumb-4.1 -- cthumb Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download a themable web picture album generator
ctrace-0.9 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download Multiprotocol traceroute tool
ctrlproxy-2.5_1 -- Flexible IRC proxy
ctwm-3.6_1 -- An extension to twm, with support for multiple virtual screens, etc
cu-prolog-3.94 -- Experimental constraint logic programming language
cube-2002.10.20 -- An OpenGL 3D First Person Shooter game
cucipop-1.31_2 -- Cubic Circle's POP3 daemon (fully RFC1939 compliant)
cue2toc-0.0 -- Perl script that converts CUE files into TOC files for cdrdao
cuecat-1.1 -- Tools for decoding and using the output of a :Cue:Cat(TM) wand scanner
cups-1.1.19.0 -- The Common UNIX Printing System: Metaport to install complete system
cups-base-1.1.19.0 -- The Common UNIX Printing System: headers, libs, & daemons
cups-lpr-1.1.19.0 -- The CUPS BSD and system V compatibility binaries (lp* commands)
cups-pstoraster-7.07 -- GNU Postscript interpreter for CUPS printing to non-PS printers
curl-7.10.7 -- Non-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S) servers
curly-3.4 -- Generalize listed filenames to csh-extended glob patterns
cursive-1.0 -- Create ASCII character cursive handwriting
custom-emacs-1.9962 -- The Custom Library for emacs
custom-mule-1.9962 -- The Custom Library for mule
cutils-1.6 -- Miscellaneous C programmer's utilities
cvs+ipv6-1.11.5_1 -- IPv6 enabled cvs. You can use IPv6 connection when using pserver
cvs2cl-2.49 -- CVS-log-message-to-ChangeLog conversion script
cvs2html-1.96 -- Perl script to turn ``cvs log'' output into HTML
cvs2p4-1.3.3 -- CVS to Perforce Converter
cvsadmin-1.0.3_1 -- A simple program to administrate users of a CVS repository
cvsbook-1.21 -- A tutorial and reference for CVS
cvsd-1.0.0 -- CVS pserver daemon
cvsdelta-1.6.7 -- Cvsdelta summarizes differences between local and in-cvs files
cvsdiff2patch-1.0.1 -- Turn cvs diff output into patch input.
cvsgraph-1.4.0 -- Graph the life story of a file under CVS or RCS
cvslines-1.6.7 -- Wrapper to ease merging of changes between CVS branches
cvsmail-2.2 -- A small program to add cvsweb links to FreeBSD commit messages
cvsmapfs-1.3 -- Helps keep track of modes and permissions of files in cvs
cvsmonitor-0.6.2 -- Monitor activity on a CVS Repository
cvspadm-0.1.2 -- Tool for CVS pserver user administration
cvsplot-1.7.1 -- A perl script which analyses the history of a CVS-managed project
cvsps-1.3.3 -- CVS patchsets
cvsstat-2.23 -- Transforms the output of 'cvs status' to a sorted ASCII table
cvstrac-1.1.2 -- Web-Based Bug And Patch-Set Tracking System For CVS
cvsup-16.1h -- General network file distribution system optimized for CVS (GUI version)
cvsup-mirror-1.2_1 -- A kit for easily setting up a FreeBSD mirror site using CVSup
cvsup-without-gui-16.1h -- General network file distribution system optimized for CVS (non-GUI version)
cvsutils-2003.02.03 -- CVS utilities which facilitate working with local working directories
cvsweb-2.0.6 -- WWW CGI script to browse CVS repository trees
cvsweb-converters-0.2 -- Create hyperlinks to cvsweb from cvs[up] output or FreeBSD commitlogs
cvswrap-0.2 -- Helper for multiple CVS repositories.
cvsync-0.24.12 -- A portable CVS repository synchronization utility
cweb-3.63 -- Literate programming tools for the C language
cwish-3.52 -- Curses based user friendly windowing shell
cwtext-0.94 -- Morse Code Generator
cxmon-3.0 -- Interactive file manipulation tool and disassembler
cxref-1.5e -- C program cross-referencing & documentation tool
cxsc-2.0b -- C++ class library for eXtended Scientific Computing
cy-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Welsh dictionary
cybercalendar-1.8.2 -- CyberCalendar is a web based calendar program written in perl
cybervrml97-1.0.6 -- A development library of VRML97/2.0 applications
cyclone-0.6 -- A safe dialect of C from Cornell and AT&T Research
cymbaline-0.9r_1 -- mpg123 console frontend
cyr-rfx-koi8-o-1.1 -- Cyrillic X11 bitmap fonts from CYR-RFX project
cyrus-1.6.24_4 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, KPOP, and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imapd-2.0.17 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3 and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imapd-2.1.15_2 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3 and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imapd-2.2.2.b_1 -- The cyrus mail server, supporting POP3 and IMAP4 protocols
cyrus-imspd-1.6a3_1 -- The cyrus IMSP (Internet Message Support Protocol) server
cyrus-sasl-1.5.28_2 -- RFC 2222 SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer)
cyrus-sasl-2.1.15 -- RFC 2222 SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer)
cyrus-sasl-saslauthd-2.1.15_3 -- SASL authentication server for cyrus-sasl2
da-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with Danish dictionary
da-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
da-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
da-ooodict-DK-1.2 -- Danish (Denmark) MySpell dictionary for OpenOffice.org
daapd-0.2.1c_1 -- Server for Digital Audio Access Protocol
daaplib-0.1.1a -- A C++ library for DAAP memory streams
dact-0.8.11_1 -- Dynamic Adaptive Compression Tool
dadadodo-1.04 -- Text processor which analyses text and generates random sentences
daemontools-0.53 -- Service monitoring and logging utilities by djb
daemontools-0.76_3 -- "Service monitoring and logging utilities by djb"
dagrab-0.3.5_1 -- Read audio tracks from a CD into wav sound files
dailystrips-1.0.28 -- Utility to download or view your favorite online comic strips daily
danamics-1.1 -- Petri Net editor for correctness and performance analysis
dancer-4.16 -- An IRC bot written in C for UNIX, Windows, and AmigaOS
dancer-ircd-1.0.32 -- An irc daemon based on hybrid ircd
dancer-services-1.8.0.6.9 -- The IRC services (nickserv, chanserv, etc.) for dancer-ircd
dansguardian-2.4.6.5 -- A fast, simple web content filter for Squid proxy servers
dansguardian-2.6.1.3 -- A fast, featureful web content filter for Squid proxy servers
dante-1.1.14 -- A circuit-level firewall/proxy
dap-2.1.4 -- Audio sample editing and processing suite
darcnes-9b0401 -- multi-system emulator
darcs-0.9.13 -- Yet another replacement for CVS, written in Haskell
darkbot-6f6.r6,1 -- IRC talking bot with a very fast algorithm for its database
darkice-0.13.1 -- An IceCast, IceCast2 and ShoutCast live audio streamer
darkstat-2.6 -- Network statistics gatherer, similar to ntop
darts-0.1 -- A C++ template library that implements Double-Array
datapipe-1.0 -- A simple program to bind a local port and connect it to a remote socket
dataplot-20030530_1 -- A free software system for statistical visualization
datedif-0.9.1.4 -- Calculates the number of days between two dates
db-2.7.7_1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 2
db3-3.3.11,1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 3.3
db4-4.0.14_1,1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 4
db41-4.1.25_1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 4.1
db41-nocrypto-4.1.25_1 -- The Berkeley DB package, revision 4.1
dbXML-1.0b2 -- Java Native XML Database
dbacl-1.4 -- Digramic Bayesian classifier
dbconnect-0.2.4 -- Use C++ object API to allow applications to connect to databases
dbench-1.3 -- A simulation of the Ziff-Davis netbench benchmark
dbf-0.8 -- Show and convert the content of dBASE III, IV, and 5.0 files
dbf2mysql-1.14 -- Programs to convert .dbf files to MySQL tables and vice versa
dbh-1.0.17 -- Disk Based Hashtables
dbmail-mysql-1.2.1 -- An SQL database-based mail system (POP3 and IMAP)
dbmetrix-0.1.9 -- Another GTK+ frontend for mysql
dbs-1.1.5 -- A distributed network benchmarking system
dbtool-1.6 -- Store and retrieve data in a key/value format in a hash database
dbview-1.0.3_1 -- View dBase III files
dc20ctrl-0.4_1 -- Digital camera control and download tool for Kodak DC20 camera
dc20pack-1.0 -- Digital camera control and download tool for Kodak DC20/25 camera
dc3play-19991202_1 -- Digital camera downloading tool for Ricoh DC-3
dcc-2.5.6_1 -- DCC support program for irchat-pj
dcc-dccd-1.2.4 -- Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse procmail, sendmail support
dcdflib.c-1.1 -- Library of C Routines for Cumulative Distribution Functions
dcetest-1.2 -- Utility to dump MSRPC endpoint information from Windows systems
dcgui-0.2.19 -- A Direct Connect client QT GUI
dclib-0.2.19 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download Direct connect interface library for dcgui
dclock-pl6 -- A 7-segment digital clock with optional military time and alarm
dcons-20031025 -- Dumb CONSole device driver
dctc-0.84.1 -- A DirectConnect (www.neo-modus.com) text client for file sharing
dctc-gui-0.66_1 -- A GUI to DirectConnect (www.neo-modus.com) text client
dctc-gui-qt-0.0.6 -- A Qt GUI for the Direct Connect (TM) dctc text client
ddc-1.0 -- Control your DHCP daemon a la apachectl
ddclient-3.6.3 -- Update dynamic DNS entries
ddd-3.3.1 -- Data Display Debugger -- a common graphical front-end for GDB/DBX/XDB
ddos_scan-1.6 -- Scans for a limited set of distributed denial of service agents
ddup-3.0.1_3 -- A DynDNS.org client for UNIX (Now support NIC v2.0)
de-BBBike-3.12 -- A route-finder for cyclists in Berlin and Brandenburg
de-aspell-0.50.4.1 -- Aspell with German dictionary
de-citrix_ica-6.30.1054 -- Citrix(R) client for the Microsoft Windows Terminal Server
de-dict-1.2 -- Simple english/german dictionary
de-ding-1.2_1 -- A German-English dictionary program for X windows/Unix
de-frontpage-5.0.2.2623 -- Microsoft Frontpage German Web Administration
de-ispell-20001109-3.2.06_3 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
de-ispell-alt-19991219-3.2.06_3 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
de-ispell-neu-20001109-3.2.06_3 -- An interactive spelling checker for multiple languages
de-kde-i18n-3.1.4 -- Localized messages and documentation for KDE3
de-kheisereg-0.7 -- KDE utility to search within the Heise Register
de-koffice-i18n-1.2.1 -- Localized messages and documentation for koffice
de-ksteak-0.9.4 -- KDE frontend for steak, an english - german dictionary

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157 documents found (search tips)

Download all chapters : WormBook.zip (380 MB)



Behavior [HTML]
Behavior
.nic strains 1.10. RNAi 1.11. Summary 1.12. Acknowledgements 2. Mechanosensation 2.1. Gentle touch to the body 2.2. Harsh touch to the body 2.3. Precipice response 2.4. Nictation 2.5. Head withdrawal and foraging 2.6. Tap reflex and habituation to tap (including tap reflex).

.s, chemoaversion and plasticity-quadrant plate, version 1 4.2. Chemotaxis and chemoaversion-quadrant assay, version 2 4.3. Drop assay 4.4. Chemotaxis to volatile point source 4.

.1. Introduction 1.1. Considerations for behavioral assays 1.2. Controls for behavioral assays 1.3. Feeding status and cul.

. Tap reflex and habituation to tap (including tap reflex). 2.7. Nose touch 3. Osmotic avoidance 3.1. Osmotic ring assay .

Behavior : 1, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Introduction
. an assay, these variables should at least be considered. 1.2. Controls for behavioral assays Controls: Clearly, con.

.he same transgenic marker such as GFP or phenotypic rescue, 2) the same genetic background, 3) an “empty” ver.

Behavior : 2. Mechanosensation
.not touch the animals too near the tip of the head or tail. 2.1.2. Qualitative assays for touch sensitivity 2.1.2.1. Stroking with an eyebrow hair The initial and most .

.f the arrows. The six touch receptor neurons are indicated. 2.1.2.2. Tapping the plate Wild-type animals will move (adults.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.87.1 2. Mechanosensation 2.1. Gentle touch to the body Contributed by Martin Chal.

.rms of number of responses) to touches in the head or tail. 2.1.3.2. Using worm von Frey hairs von Frey hairs have been us.

Behavior : 3. Osmotic avoidance
.8220; Chemotaxis and chemoaversion, quadrant assay, version 2 ” and “ Drop assay ”. Contributed by Anne.

.number of animals leads to aberrantly low escape rates. 3.1.2. Preparing assay plates and reagents The dryness of th.

.the glycerol soak into the agar; this usually takes between 2 and 5 minutes. Lift the Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download off. Check to make sure the ann.

Behavior : 4. Chemosensation
.ickinson Labware, USA) are filled with 16 ml buffered agar (2% agar, 5 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download K 2 HPO 4 /KH 2 PO 4 MgSO 4 ) either containing a dissolved attractant or n.

.t nematodes are washed three times with CTX buffer (5 mM KH 2 PO 4 /K 2 HPO 4 pH 6, 1 mM CaCl 2 and 1 mM MgSO 4 ) and 100–200 worms are placed at the.

.sure. We found that chemotaxis to 25 mM NaCl worked best. 4.2. Chemotaxis and Microsoft Office 2013 Product Key & Crack Full Free Download assay, version 2 Contributed by Stephen Wicks, Boston College, Chestnut Hill.

., 2000 ). The assay is robust enough to characterize known mutants, or to screen for new mutants which fail to approach or avoid soluble compounds such as s.

Behavior : 5, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Learning, adaptation and habituation
.mLs of adaptation agar (3% agar, 5mM KPO 4 [pH6], 1 mM CaCl 21 mM MgSO 4 ) or chemotaxis assay agar (2% agar, 5mM KPO 4 [pH6], 1 mM CaCl 21 mM MgSO 4 ) is aliquoted into 10 cm Petri plates, and a.

.otaxis to an odorant after pretreatment with the odorant. 5.2.2. Chemotaxis assay Chemotaxis assay plates are prepared.

.assay plates are prepared as follows: 10 mLs of assay agar (2% agar, 5mM KPO 4 [pH6], 1 mM CaCl 21 mM MgSO 4 is aliquoted into 10 cm Petri plates, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, and all.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. have used benzaldehyde, butanone and isoamyl-alcohol. When making adaptation or chemotaxis agar, KP0 4CaCl 2 and MgSO 4 are prepared separately and added after autoclav.

Behavior : 6. Thermal responses
.and reagents 9-cm starvation plates. The medium consists of 2% agar, 1mM CaCl 21mM MgSO 4and 25mM pH 6.0 potassium phosphate. After a.

.02 ; Satterlee et al., 2004 ; Figure 5 ). Figure 5.  6.2.2. Thermal stage The thermal stage is designed for use o.

.or thermotaxis (Ttx) assays ( Mori and Ohshima, 1995 ). 6.1.2. Radial thermotaxis (Ttx) assay Equipment and reagents.

.at room temperature. Do not use old seeded NGM plates (over 2 weeks). C. elegans : Use the healthy adult animals from unc.

Behavior Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 7. Locomotion
.evels, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Bordering can be quantified on NGM plates containing 2.1% agar seeded 2 days before the assay with 200 l of E. coli OP50 in LB medi.

.to me to be a more direct measure of the effort the worm is making to move which should be less influenced by these factors. I.

.might be introduced by using different batches of plates. 7.2. Decreased locomotion on food Contributed by Niels Rin.

.d is easily made by holding the plate at an angle, dripping 2-3 drops of fructose at the edge of the plate, and rotating .

Behavior : 8. Feeding
.d at http://eatworms.swmed.edu/Worm_labs/Avery/MiniRig/. 8.2. Pharyngeal pumping rate Pumping rate are measured by .

Behavior : 9. Egg-laying, males and mating
.e precisely classify the phenotypes of egg-laying defective mutants. Some mutants with Jogos de Espacial de Graça para Baixar egg-laying rates (e.g., mutants defective in HSN function) show a lengthened time constant .

.ant for the short, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, intraburst intervals. In contrast, other mutants (e.g., mutants affecting muscle calcium channels) exhibit an unclustered. .

.example, cat-4 adults dissolve almost immediately, many Egl mutants dissolve okay, and N2 is difficult to dissolve; often the N.

.olve; often the N2 cuticle remains around the bunch of eggs making it difficult to resolve exactly the number of eggs in the t.

Behavior : 10. Assays of C. elegans reproductive behaviors
.ethanol containing 5 mg/ml cholesterol (Sigma), per liter H 2 O] Escherichia coli strain OP50 (OD=1.0). 10.4.2.2. Method Prepare plastic Petri plates with 10 ml agar m.

.croscope with moveable stage, video camera, and monitor. 10.2.2. Method The day before, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, put 5 μ l of bacteria fro.

.9 buffer for 4hrs before the assay, room temperature. Place 2 μ l of M9 buffer (control spot) and 2 μ l of hermaphrodite-conditioned M9 buffer (conditione.

. r/b/t/l (r= 1, l= 1/1 or 100%) or r/b/t/h/b/f/l (r=1, l= 1/2 or 50%) lov-1 mutants: x/x/r/./r/./r/b/t/p/t/b/t/p/t/b/t/l (r=1, L=1/3 or 30%). A.

Behavior : 11. Defecation
.out a second later by relaxation of the same muscles. About 2 seconds after the pBoc relaxation, specialized anal muscles.


Methods in cell biology [HTML]
Methods in cell biology
.Methods View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Visualizing cells and their components 2.1. Differential interference contrast (DIC or Nomarski) mic.

.erential interference contrast (DIC or Nomarski) microscopy 2.2. Polarized light microscopy (Denise Flaherty and Guy Benian.

.Polarized light microscopy (Denise Flaherty and Guy Benian) 2.3. Fluorescence microscopy 2.4. Electron microscopy 3. Protein-protein and protein-DNA i.

.cific methods in C. elegans cell biology 4.1. Endocytosis 4.2. Chromatin cell biology (Györgyi Csankovszki and Barba.

Methods in cell biology : 2. Visualizing cells and their components
.Reagents 4X Egg Salts   472 mM NaCl 5.517 g 160 mM KCl 2.386 g 13.6 mM CaCl 2 ·2H 2 0 0.400 g 13.6 mM MgCl 2 ·6H 2 0 0.553 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download dH 2 0 to 200 ml 1X Culture Media 1X Egg Salts 5 mM Hepes, pH 7.2 5% Fetal Calf Serum FIX 1 (Make up fresh) 0.60 ml dH 2 0 2.5 ml 2X Eggs Salts/10 mM Hepes 0.1 ml 0.5M EGTA 1.0 ml 16% .

.ES pH 5.6, room temperature for 60 min. Wash in 0.2M HEPES, 2 × 10 min; wash in 0.1M NaAcetate pH 5.2, 2 × 10 min. Stain in 1% UAc in 0.1M NaAcetate, pH 5.2, room temperature for 45 min. Wash in 0.1M NaAcetate, 2 × 10 min; wash in 0.2M HEPES, 2 × 10 min. Embed cut pieces in 3% agarose, positioning.

.; 30 ″1 × 5 ′1 × 10 ′2 × 1 hr. Post-Fix in 1% OsO 4 +1%KFe(CN) 6 in .2 M NaCacodylate for 1 to 2 hours. Wash in 0.1M NaCacodylate: 2 × 30 ″1 × 5 ′2 × 10 ′Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Post-Fix in 0.2% tannic acid in 0.1M Cacodylate for 15 ′. Wash in 0.

.@60°C. Buffer Recipes 0.2M NaCacodylate 42.8g Na(CH 3 ) 2 AsO 2 3H 2 O in 1000ml dH 2 O 0.2 M HCl [10 ml conc. HCl + 603 ml dH 2 O] 50ml A + B /18.3 → pH/6.4 Q.S. to 200 ml Protocol .

Methods in cell biology : 3. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions
.e. Trace metals Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download Per liter solution, add 1.86 g Na 2 EDTA, 0.69 g FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O, 0.2 g MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 0.29 g ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O, 0.016g CuSO 4. Autoclave to sterilize and store in the .

.suspend in 100 μL TE. Buffer Recipes M9 buffer: 6 g Na 2 HPO 43 g KH 2 PO 45 g NaCl, 0.25 g of MgSO 4 7H 2 O per liter. Autoclave. 1 M potassium citrate, pH 6.0: Per .

.ter) for 10–30 minutes. Spin in a microcentrifuge for 2 min. at 2,000 × g to pellet the Sepharose beads or IgGsorb, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Tra.

.um phosphate, pH 6.0: Per liter solution, dissolve 136 g KH 2 PO 4 in 900 mL dH 2 O and adjust pH with KOH. Autoclave to sterilize, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. 10 x S ba.

Methods in cell biology : 4. Specific methods in C. elegans cell biology
.efly at 4°C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Egg Buffer: NaCl (118 mM) KCl (48 mM) CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O (2 mM) MgCl 2 ·6H 2 O (2 mM) Hepes (25 mM) Adjust pH to 7.3 with 1N NaOH. Filter Ste.

.nbsp; 25 mM KCl   1 mM MgSO 4   45 mM NaCl   2 mM CaCl 2 PBST: 10 ml 10X PBS   2.5 ml 20% Triton X-100   0.2 ml 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8   87.3 ml ddH 2 O DABCO: 50 ml total 5 g DABCO   5 ml PBS   45 ml.

.nbsp; 25 mM KCl   1 mM MgSO 4   45 mM NaCl   2 mM CaCl 2 PBST: 10 ml 10X PBS   2.5 ml 20% Triton X-100   0.2 ml 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8   87.3 ml ddH 2 O DABCO: 50 ml total 5 g DABCO   5 ml PBS   45 ml.

. PBST 3 × 10 minutes. Place slides in 70% ethanol for 2 minutes. 80% ethanol for 2 minutes, 95% ethanol for 2 minutes, 100% ethanol for 2 minutes. Air dry. Proceed with FISH. Fixation of embryos. B.

Methods Mathematica Crack Archives cell biology : 5. Embryonic cell culture
. NaCl (118 mM) 3.448g 6.896g KCl (48 mM) 1.789g 3.578g CaCl 2 • 2H 2 O (2 mM) 0.147g 0.294g MgCl 2 • 6H 2 O (2 mM) 0.203g 0.406g HEPES (25 mM) 2.979g 5.958g It is important that these weights are exact be.

.y filling the tube with egg buffer (118 mM NaCl, 48 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl 22 mM MgCl 225 mM Hepes, pH 7.3, 340 mOsm) and immediately pellet the.

. buffer: 11.8 ml 1 M NaCl, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 4.8 ml 1 M KCl, 0.34 ml 1 M CaCl 20.34 ml 1 M MgCl 22.0 ml 0.25 M HEPES (pH 7.4), 82.5 ml dH 2 O. Filter-sterilize and store at 4°C. Chitinase/chymotr.

.–100 °C to degrade RNA. Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download on ice and then add 2 μl 10 × KFI buffer (D2) 2 μl d-NTP mix (2.5 mM each) 1 μl 100 mM DTT (Gibco) 1 μl T4 DNA po.


Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans [HTML]
Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans
.1.5. Function and pathways for individual G α subunits 2. G α s 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Phenotypes 2.3. Expression 2.4. Pathways 3. G α q 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Phenotypes 3.3. Expression 3.4. Pathways 4. Regulators of .

.ated by RGS-7. The C. elegans genome encodes 21 G αPrima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 2 G β and 2 G γ subunits. The α subunits include one ortholog.

. 1. Introduction 1.1. G protein structure/G protein cycle 1.2. C. elegans G protein genes 1.3. β subunits 1.4. γ.

.of EGL-30/G protein signaling network 4.1. RGS regulation 4.2. GEF regulation 4.3. Negative regulation of the EGL-30 path.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 1. Introduction
.sp; C. elegans G protein genes C. elegans has 21 G α2 G β and 2 G γ genes ( Jansen et al., 1999 ; Cuppen et al., 2003 .

.subunits have been identified in C. elegansgpc-1 and gpc-2 ( Jansen et al., 2002 ). GPC-1 and GPC-2 show from 22 to 79% amino acid identity to the vertebrate G.

.he α subunit, stimulating the exchange of GDP for GTP (2). Additional GEFs have been isolated that act on GDP associ.

.s higher affinity for the G α -GTP transition state. 1.2.  C. elegans G protein genes C. elegans has 21 G α.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 2. Gαs
.y ( Korswagen et al., 1998 ). The terminal phenotype of acy-2 (lf) mutants resembles that of gsa-1 (lf) mutants and clr-1 mutants ( Korswagen et al., 1998 ), which phenotypically mimic worm.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.75.1 2. G α s 2.1. Introduction GSA-1encoded by gsa-1shares over.

.MP levels over untransfected cells ( Hobson et al., 2003 ). 2.2. Phenotypes In C. elegans GSA-1 is required for viabil.

.ermined in large-scale RNAi assays ( Simmer et al., 2003 ). 2.3. Expression GSA-1 is broadly expressed in neurons an.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 3. Gαq
.lcium transients in vulval muscles ( Shyn et al., 2003 ). 3.2. Phenotypes A complete loss-of-function mutation of eg.

.ycerol kinase) can partially bypass the resistance of egl-8 mutants for aldicarb, indicating that acetylcholine release is depe.

.titutively membrane-bound restores acetylcholine release to mutants lacking EGL-8 ( Lackner et al., 1999 ). Also, the larval ar.

.999 ). Also, the larval arrest and paralysis of egl-30 null mutants are rescued by phorbol ester treatment ( Reynolds et al., 2.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 4. Regulators of EGL-30/G protein signaling network
., 2000 ). Genetic analysis using a targeted Helicon Focus serial number Archives of gpb-2 also indicates that GPB-2 modulates the EGL-30 / GOA-1 signaling network (see Figure 2 ; Chase et al., 2001 ; van der Linden et al., 2001 ). Like .

.athways. Signaling mechanisms that drive interaction of GPB-2 with either RGS protein remain to be elucidated. Figure 2.  Depicted is the G protein signaling network that con.

.drolysis in cultured cells ( Hajdu-Cronin et al., 1999 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. 4.2. GEF regulation ric-8 encodes a GEF expressed in neuro.

.on mutations in egl-30 suppress the paralysis of ric-8 (rf) mutants, even a strong gain-of-function mutation in egl-30 is unabl.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 5. Gαo
. al., 2004 ). However, RIC-8 appears to act prior to GPR-1 /2 since RIC-8 is required for the association of GPR-1 /2 with GOA-1but GPR-1 /2 is not required for the association of RIC-8 with GOA-1 ( A.

.#945; o ( Lochrie et al., 1991 ). Characterization of goa-1 mutants and intensive RNAi analysis has revealed that G α o si.

.rientation ( Fraser et al., 2000 ; Simmer et al., 2003 ). 5.2. Phenotypes Null mutations in goa-1 are mostly viable .

. ( Miller et al., 1999 ; Nurrish et al., 1999 ). goa-1 (lf) mutants display a number of behavioral defects including hyperactiv.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 6. Gα12
.et al., 1995 ; Fromm et al., 1997 ; Katoh et al., 1998 ). 6.2. Phenotypes Analysis of a gpa-12 null mutation as well.

.eal muscle, based on heterologous promoter fusions with myo-2 ( van der Linden et al., 2003 ), suggesting that these prot.

Heterotrimeric G proteins in C. elegans : 7. GPAs
.nts. In their study, butanone response was too low in odr-3 mutants to detect a redundant stimulatory function for GPA-2 ( Lans et al., 2004 ). gpa-2 (lf) mutants are partially resistant to dauer pheromone with respect to .

.ns et al., 2004 ). Chemotaxis to diacetyl also requires GRK-2. The reduced response to diacetyl seen in grk-2 (lf) mutants is significantly restored in mutants lacking the RGS protein EAT-16suggesting that EAT-16 may.

.odr-3 partially rescues the octanol avoidance defect of grk-2 (lf) mutants which lack the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK-2 ( Fukuto Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download al., 2004 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. ASH also mediates avoidance of the.

. ; Roayaie et al., 1998 ; Jansen et al., 1999 ). Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download (lf) mutants were isolated in screens for mutants defective in osmotic avoidance and in chemotaxis to benzald.


Neuropeptides [HTML]
Neuropeptides
.mitters View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Formation of mature neuropeptides 2.1. Processing of neuropeptide precursor molecules 2.2. Neuropeptides are released from dense core vesicles 3. Imm.

. Neuropeptide function 7.1. The insulin-like gene family 7.2. The flp family 7.3. The nlp family 8. Neuropeptide recepto.

Neuropeptides : 1. Introduction
.1 ; Li et al., 2003 ) and the FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH 2 )-related peptides or FaRPs, which are referred to as FLPs .

Neuropeptides : 2. Formation of mature neuropeptides
.nd decreased FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in egl-3 / kpc-2mutants, suggesting that egl-3 / kpc-2 cleaves some, but not all FLP precursors and that other pro.

.isolated from wild type and different proprotein convertase mutants. kpc-1 (gk8) and bli-4 ( e937 )/kpc-4 mutants showed a similar peptide profile as wild type, suggesting t.

.s more severe phenotypes than those seen in the egl-3 / kpc-2 proprotein convertase mutants. egl-21 null alleles show defects in egg laying, locomotion.

.involved in neuropeptide amidation has not been determined. 2.2. Neuropeptides are released from dense core vesicles B.

Neuropeptides : 4. Identification of putative neuropeptide genes
.AIM, ASE, ASG, AWA, BAG, NSM, intestine, vulval muscles DAF-2 antagonist? DAF-2? 2, 3, 4 ins-2 ZK75.2 II VQKRLCGRRLILFMLATCGECDTD SSEDLSHICCIKQCDVQDIIRVCCPNSFRK .

.LP-1-4 FLP-1-5 FLP-1-6 FLP-1-7 FLP-1-8 PF2 PF1 AF26 1-6 flp-2 W07E11.3 X * SPR EPIRFG LRG EPIRFG FLP-2-1 FLP-2-2   4, 7, 8 flp-3 W07E11.2 X SPL GTMRFG * TPL GTMRFG * EAEEPL GTMRFG NPL GTMRFG * ASED.

.EFGLM  * YPYLIFPASPSSGDSRRLV ASK, ADL, 6 head neurons, 2 tail neurons, I2, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, g1D, pm5L, pm5R, 2 RVG, processes in pharynx, intestine; HOB   1, 2, 3, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 4 nlp-9 E03D2.2 V GGARAF YGFYNAGNS  GGGRAF NHNANLFRFD GGGRAF AGSWSPYLE.

. C03G5.7 X * GA KFIRFG AGA KFIRFG APKP KFIRFG FLP-5-1 FLP-5-2 FLP-5-3   2, 7, 8 flp-6 F07D3.2 V x6 * KSAYMRFG * pQQDSEVEREMM FLP-6-1 FLP-6-2 AF8/PF3 3, 7-11 flp-7 F49E10.3 X x3 * SPMQRSS MVRFG x2 * TP.

Neuropeptides : 5. Expression and localization of neuropeptide genes
.mains and the FLPs all share a common C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH 2 ), antibodies are difficult to generate against specific ne.

.expression pattern of 60 neuropeptide genes (see Tables 12 and 3 ), including 15 insulin-like genes ( Pierce et al., 2.

.us system as well as in non-neuronal tissue (see Tables 12 and 3 ). For instance, over 160 neurons, which represent ov.

.and 9nlp-1569141824and 27and flp-210and 21 ( Nathoo et al., 2001 ; Pierce et al., 2001 .

Neuropeptides : 6. Biochemical isolation of neuropeptides
.et al., 2005 ; S. Husson and L. Schoofs, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, pers. comm.; Table 2 ). Indeed, the identification of flp-33 was based on the bi.

Neuropeptides : 7. Neuropeptide function
.ulin pathway ( Kao et al., 2007 ). Hence, activation of DAF-2 leads to reproductive growth, whereas inactivation of DAF-2 leads to dauer arrest ( Riddle and Albert, 1997 ). DAF-2 also functions to determine lifespan ( Kenyon et al., 1993 .

.her ins genes may enhance or suppress the phenotypes of daf-2 and daf-28 mutants. The phenotypes caused by overexpression of several ins gen.

.vel of dauer arrest and enhanced the dauer phenotype of daf-2 and/or daf-7 TGF β mutants, whereas no dauer effects were seen with overexpression of .

.1 and INS-18 may function to antagonize the activity of DAF-2 or to down-regulate daf-2 Adobe Photoshop CC 2020 v21 Serial Key promote dauer formation ( Pierce et al., 2001 ), while I.

Neuropeptides : 8. Neuropeptide receptors
.cits ( Keating et al., 2003 ). RNAi of six receptors, C16D6.2C25G6.5C26F1.6F35G8.1F41E7.3and F59C12.2resulted in either an increased or decreased brood size (.

. eight receptors, AC7.1 (tachykinin-like), C15B12.5C10C6.2C24A8.4F15A8.5F59D12.1T02E9.1and T05A1.1Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, ca.

.ta were confirmed in two cases by the isolation of deletion mutants in T05A1.1 and F35G8.1 ( Keating et al., 2003 ). Several of.

., 2003 ; Rogers et al., 2003 ; Mertens et al., 2004 ; Table 2 ). Different FLP ligands were applied and several assays we.

Neuropeptides : 9. Pharmacology of FLP neuropeptides
.s have been examined in a pharyngeal preparation (see Table 2 ; Rogers et al., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 2001 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Muscles of exposed pharyngeal term.


Dauer [HTML]
Dauer
., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Modifier screens 9.1. sdf ( s ynthetic d auer f ormation) mutants 9.2. eak ( e nhancer of ak t-1 ) mutants 10. The XXX cells as a site of integration of insulin-like .

.lopment View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Environmental influences on dauer arrest 3. Dauer morpholo.

.ays regulating dauer arrest 6.1. Guanylyl cyclase pathway 6.2. TGF β -like pathway 6.3. Insulin-like pathway 6.4. Gu.

.nd expression 6.5. Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download hormone pathway 7. Amphid neuron mutants 8. Regulation of dauer arrest at 27°C 9. Modifier scree.

Dauer : 1. Introduction
.years, the molecular identities of genes mutated in various mutants exhibiting dysregulation of dauer arrest ( daf mutants) have revealed the critical roles of evolutionarily conserv.

Dauer : 2. Environmental influences on dauer arrest
.10.1895/wormbook.1.144.1 2. Environmental influences on dauer arrest The dauer de.

. 1984a ), and some temperature-sensitive dauer-constitutive mutants are suppressible by an amber nonsense suppressor ( Golden a.

Dauer : 5. Pheromone
.ally isolated by Paik's group, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 5-O-ascarylosyl-5 R -hydroxy-2-hexanone and an ascaroside derivative of 8 R Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download E -nonenoic acid, are two orders of magnitude more potent t.

.the ascaroside (-)-6-(3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxy) heptanoic acid has dauer pheromone activity ( Jeong .

.re potent than (-)-6-(3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxy) heptanoic acid at inducing dauer arrest ( Butcher et.

.tiple compounds ( Butcher et al., 2007 ) suggests that each compound may bind to a distinct receptor that transduces a dauer-pro.

Dauer : 6. Molecular characterization of signaling pathways regulating dauer arrest
.11 inhibits dauer arrest at least in part by activating TAX-2 and TAX-4 through increased cGMP synthesis. tax-4 mutants have a weaker Daf-c phenotype than daf-11 mutants ( Coburn et al., 1998 ), indicating that DAF-11 probably ac.

.ore, unlike guanylyl cyclase pathway and TGF β pathway mutants, daf-2 pathway mutants exhibit extended lifespans ( Friedman and Johnson, 1988 ; H.

.ions in akt-1 and pdk-1 suppress dauer arrest in age-1 null mutants but do not efficiently suppress dauer formation in daf-2(e1370) mutants ( Inoue and Thomas, 2000a ; Paradis et al., 1999 ; Paradis .

. allele daf-18(e1375) suppresses dauer arrest in age-1 null mutants but not in daf-2(e1370) mutants ( Gil et al., 1999 ; Gottlieb and Ruvkun, 1994 ; Inoue and .

Dauer : 7. Amphid neuron mutants
.10.1895/wormbook.1.144.1 7. Amphid neuron mutants Three mutants initially isolated based on defects in dauer arrest have st.

.arvation ( Albert et al., 1981 ). daf-10 and most other Dyf mutants suppress the dauer arrest phenotype of daf-11 mutants ( Starich et al., 1995 ; Vowels and Thomas, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 1992 ), indicat.

.nt ( Albert et al., 1981 ; Perens and Shaham, 2005 ). daf-6 mutants are also unique among Dyf mutants in their inability to suppress the daf-11 dauer arrest phen.

.mphid cilia cannot access the external environment in daf-6 mutants suggests that the Daf-d phenotype of these mutants may be a result of the inability of the amphid neurons to s.

Dauer : 8. Regulation of dauer arrest at 27°C
. 25°C, including daf-3 /SMAD (as described in Section 6.2 ) and many Dyf mutants ( Ailion and Thomas, 2000 ; Apfeld and Kenyon, 1999 ). Thus.

. and Thomas, 2000 ; Apfeld and Kenyon, 1999 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Thus, in Dyf mutants, a mere 2°C elevation in ambient temperature changes the collecti.

.lion and Thomas, 2000 ; Ailion and Thomas, 2003 ). Many Hid mutants have defects in synaptic transmission ( Ailion et al., 1999.

.e nature of dauer regulation. Intriguingly, a subset of Hid mutants that form dauers at high penetrance at 27°C have a Daf.

Dauer : 9, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Modifier screens
.by promoting dafachronic acid synthesis in the XXX cells, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. 9.2.  eak ( e nhancer of ak t-1 ) mutants Based on the indirect evidence supporting the existence of .

.bsp;Modifier screens Since genetic screens for dauer arrest mutants at 25°C have been saturated, some groups have sought to.

.;C have been saturated, some groups have sought to identify mutants that exhibit dauer arrest phenotypes in specific genetic ba.

.auer arrest. 9.1.  sdf ( s ynthetic d auer f ormation) mutants unc-31 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of CAPS, a cytosolic.

Dauer : 10. The XXX cells as a site of integration of insulin-like and steroid hormone signaling
.mpared to the dauer arrest phenotype observed in strong daf-2 /InsRdaf-7 /TGF βand steroid hormone pathway mutants indicates that other cells and tissues besides XXX likely p.

.uppresses the dauer arrest phenotype of eak-4 ;akt-1 double mutants ( Hu et al., 2006 ), suggesting that insulin-like signaling.

. ( Li et al., 2003 ; Pierce et al., 2001 ) could engage DAF-2 /InsR on the XXX cell surface, activate AKT-1and promote.

.thesis by DAF-9 /CYP27A1. It remains to be seen whether daf-2 /InsR is expressed in the XXX cells, as well as whether DAF.

Dauer : 11. Expression profiling of dauers
.ion was regulated strongly in the daf-7 /TGF β pathway Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download undergoing dauer arrest (P = 0.01). Notably, daf-2 /InsR and daf-9 are downregulated and daf-12 is upregulated.

.pared gene expression profiles of daf-7 /TGF β pathway mutants undergoing dauer arrest to profiles of wild-type early L3 l.

.ated and daf-12 is upregulated in daf-7 /TGF β pathway mutants, suggesting that DAF-7 /TGF β signaling feeds forward .

Dauer : 13. RNAi-based analysis of dauer formation
.own dauer-constitutive genes does not efficiently phenocopy mutants ( Tewari et al., 2004 ). In light of the success of modifie.


Chemosensation in C. elegans [HTML]
Chemosensation in C. elegans
.G protein ODR-3 and modulatory G proteins in chemosensation 2.3. cGMP signaling and the TAX-4/TAX-2 channel 2.4, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. The TRPV channels OSM-9/OCR-2 and lipid signaling 2.5. Adaptation and modulation of chemosensation 2.6. Regulation of chemosensory gene expression 3, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Complex ch.

.body size 1.6. Oxygen sensation by URX, AQR and PQR neurons 2. Signal transduction in chemosensation 2.1. Expression, localization, and function of chemosensory G.

.n, and Half-Life CD Key crack serial keygen of chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors 2.2. The G protein ODR-3 and modulatory G proteins in chemosens.

.y neurons 1.1. Structure of chemosensory organs and cilia 1.2. ASE gustatory neurons sense salts and water-soluble attrac.

Chemosensation in C. elegans : 1. Chemosensation and its regulation by ciliated sensory neurons
.1 AWC Volatile chemotaxis, Lifespan, Navigation GPCRs ( str-2 ); odr-3 (major), gpa-3gpa-2gpa-5gpa-13 tax-4tax-2daf-11odr-1odr-4odr-8cGMP osm-9Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, egl-4grk.

.; odr-3 (major), gpa-3gpa-5 ; gpa-13 ; gpa-6 osm-9ocr-2fat-3PUFA, odr-4odr-8 egl-4grk-2tax-6ttx-4 AWB Volatile avoidance GPCRs; odr-3 tax-4 .

.minor), Chemotaxis (minor), Lifespan, Navigation GPCRs; gpa-2gpa-3Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, gpa-14gpa-15 tax-4tax-2cGMP, odr-1daf-11odr-4 kin-29 ADL Avoidance (minor).

.1986 ). At least 27 genes can mutate to this phenotype: che-2310111213Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 14daf-61019dyf-123Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 45678910Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 111213osm-13.

Chemosensation in C. elegans : 2, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Signal transduction in chemosensation
.ave defects in activity-dependent gene expression ( section 2.6.2 ) and in sensory axon structure. In tax-2 and tax-4 mutants, the ASE, ASJ, and ASI neurons either form secondary axons .

.ns ( Daniels et al., 2000 ; Fujiwara et al., 2002 ; section 2.5.22.6.23.1 ). sdf-13 encodes a transcription factor of the Tbx2 .

.ins ( Jansen et al., 1999 ), the GPCR-regulatory kinase GRK-2 ( Fukuto et al., 2004 ; see section 2.5.2 ), and the ODR-4 / ODR-8 GPCR trafficking system ( Dwyer et.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.123.1 2. Signal transduction in chemosensation 2.1. Expression, localization, and function of chemosens.

Chemosensation in C. elegans : 3, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Complex chemosensory behaviors
.ls with severe defects in the ciliated neurons, such as che-2mutants, spend almost all of Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download time dwelling. Conversely, egl-4.

. spend almost all of their time dwelling. Conversely, egl-4 mutants roam more frequently than wild-type animals. Cell type-spec.

.and-pirouette components as directed chemotaxis ( section 1.2.1 ). Over the next thirty minutes, reversals are suppressed.

.es than in the maintenance of specific behavioral states. 3.2. Chemosensory learning and imprinting Associative lear.


Immunohistochemistry [HTML]
Immunohistochemistry
.able of Contents 1. Introduction 1.1. Immunocytochemistry 1.2. Western blot analysis 1.3. General comments 2. Protocols and procedures 2.1. Protocol 1: Antigen preparation 2.2. Protocol 2: Peptide coupling 2.3. Protocol 3: Chicken antibody purification 2.4. Protocol 4: Affinity purification 2.5. Protocol 5: Fixation conditions 2.6. Protocol 6: Freeze-crack 2.7. Protocol 7: Tube fixation 2.8. Protocol 8: Bouin's tube fixation 2.9. Protocol 9: Peroxide tube fixation 2.10. Protocol 10: Picric acid + glutaraldehyde fixation 2.11. Protocol 11: Depletion of primary antibody 2.12. Protocol 12: Cleaning secondary antibody 2.13. Protocol 13: Staining slides 2.14. Protocol 14: Staining tube-fixed worms 2.15. Protocol 15: Worm protein preparation 2.16. Protocol 16: Worm protein gel 2.17. Protocol 17: Western transfer 3. References .

Immunohistochemistry : 1. Introduction
.e available to test antibody specificity. If there are null mutants or RNAi worms for the gene and protein of interest, then co.

.and Picric acid + glutaraldehyde fixation protocols ) or 2) compress and freeze worms between slides and mechanically .

.ty and morphology with the different fixation conditions. 1.2. Western blot analysis Western blot analysis is useful.

.lowed by permeabilization by collagenase treatment ( Figure 2Protocols 7 and 14 ) or other chemical permeabilization (.

Immunohistochemistry : 2. Protocols and procedures
. the top slide of the sandwich. 10X PBS (for 1 L) 80 g NaCl 2.0 g KCl 27 g Na 2 HPO 4 :7H 2 O 2.4 g KH 2 PO 4 2 g Sodium Azide TOXIC Allow salts to dissolve (with gentle h.

.d chill before using. 10X PBS, no azide (for 1 L) 80 g NaCl 2.0 g KCl 27.2 g Na 2 HPO 4 :7H 2 O 2.4 g KH 2 PO 4 Allow salts to dissolve (with gentle heat and stirring.

.ffinity purification (see Antibody purification protocol ). 2.2. Protocol 2: Peptide coupling 2.2.1. General comments This is a very simple and rapid pr.

.oupled peptide. Store at -20°C in well-sealed aliquots. 2.2.3. Solutions 100 mM NaPO 4 138 mg NaH 2 PO 4 -H 2 O 10 ml dd water Adjust pH to 7 with NaOH. 20 mM glutaralde.


Reverse genetics [HTML]
Reverse genetics
. Contents 1. Introduction to reverse genetics in C. elegans 2. Using RNAi to knockdown gene function 2.1. Which RNAi method to use? 2.2. Which worm strain to use? 2.3. Which stage of worm to use? 2.4. How do I know whether the RNAi has worked? 2.5, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Can I use RNAi to target multiple genes? 2.6. Desigining a large-scale RNAi screen 2.7. Where do I get RNAi clones? 2.8. Did I target the gene I wanted to target? 3. RNAi by inj.

.ection 3.1. Preparing template for in vitro transcription 3.2. Preparing dsRNA 3.3. Worm handling 3.4. Acknowledgements 4.

. Acknowledgements 4. RNAi by soaking 4.1. Preparing dsRNA 4.2. RNAi by soaking 4.3. Notes and troubleshooting 4.4. Acknow.

.RNAi feeding on agar plates 5.1. Preparing feeding Nitro Pro 2022 Crack With Serial Key Free [32/64 Bit] Full Download 5.2. Preparing the worms 5.3. Feeding and scoring 5.4. Feeding .

Reverse genetics : 1. Introduction to reverse genetics in C. elegans
.viduals are treated with mutagens to induce DNA lesions and mutants with djay pro serial key Archives phenotype of interest are sought. After a mutant is .

.erest in another organism, but for Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download no forward genetic mutants have yet been identified. Finally, the vast majority of gen.

. C. elegans : RNA interference and the creation of deletion mutants. Either technique can be applied to the study of individual.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. screening of loss of function phenotypes and then deletion mutants are made to study genes of particular interest. RNAi can al.

Reverse genetics : 2. Using RNAi to knockdown gene function
.re. Worms of any stage can be subjected to RNAi by feeding. 2.2. Which worm strain to use? This will depend on the nat.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.47.1 2. Using RNAi to knockdown gene function   Julie Ah.

.ailed protocols for RNAi by injection, soaking and feeding. 2.1. Which RNAi method to use? There are three ways to c.

.ention. The sterility can be overcome by mating with males. 2.3. Which stage of worm to use? Again, this will depend.

Reverse genetics : 3. RNAi by injection
.; 5'-CGTAATACGACTCACTATAG-3'. Below is a general method for making a template from an RNAi feeding clone: With a yellow tip, p.

.enzyme in a 25 μl reaction, with 1 μM T7 oligo, 0.2 mM dNTPs and the following cycling conditions: 95°C 50s.

.step, the PCR reaction should yield ~200ng/ul of product. 3.2. Preparing dsRNA For high efficiency high yield transc.

.6;l sterile DEPC water or 10mM Tris 8.0, 0.1mM EDTA and run 2 μl on a gel for quantification. The concentration shou.

Reverse genetics : 4. RNAi by soaking
., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Plate 1. Day 6 Examine the phenotypes of F1 worms on Plate 2. 4.2.2. L1-soaking Day 1: Egg preparation Collect gravid adul.

.e used for in vitro transcription without purification. 4.1.2.  In vitro transcription Use 7μl of the PCR react.

.Nase I. Extract the reaction with phenol/chloroform. Repeat 2–4 times. Alternatively, “Wizard Plus SV Minipre.

.ction. Rinse with 70% EtOH. Resuspend pellet in 40μl H 2 O. A concentration of 0.5–5 μg/μl dsRNA is .

Reverse genetics : 5. RNAi feeding on agar plates
.plates. Let dry and induce overnight at room temperature. 5.2. Preparing the worms Grow desired worm strain on stand.

. the progeny for phenotypes at appropriate time points. 5.3.2. Streamlined L3/L4 feeding protocol: scoring of asynch.

Reverse genetics : 6. RNAi feeding in liquid culture (96 well format)
.r incidence of contamination and bacteria continue to grow, making scoring more difficult, as the wells do not clear. We find .

.l produces more reproducible and easier to score results. 6.2. Worm handling Bleach adult worms using standard proce.

.ynchronized worms off plates using M9 buffer, spin 600g for 2 minutes. Repeat wash 2X. Resuspend worms in S-Basal (contai.

.nt. These may need to be adjusted to suit your screen. Note 2: Feeding of different larval stages may give different resu.

Reverse genetics : 7. Construction and screening of deletion mutant libraries to generate C. elegans gene knockouts
.terile and added to the S medium using sterile technique. 1.2 ml 1M MgSO 4 1.2 ml 1M CaCl 2 4 ml 100X trace metals solution 0.346 g FeSO 4 .7H 2 O 0.930 g Na 2 EDTA 0.098 g MnCL 2 .4H 2 O 0.144 g ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O 0.012 g CuSO 4 .5H 2 O bring up to 500 ml final Windows 10 Professional N crack serial keygen with dH20 Autoclave. Stor.

. OD 550. The OD of the diluted solution should be around 0.2. 7.2.2.2. Growing the worms Once the F1 lethality has been conf.

.ications, dilute the commercial mixture 10-fold in water to 2 mM each dNTP. 7.3.2.2.2. Setting up the test reactions Make a premix that cont.

.956;l reverse poison primer, (100 μM) – 4.3 ml H 2 0 2.2 ml H 2 0 31.8 μl Invitrogen Taq (5U/μl) 16 μl Invit.


Acetylcholine [HTML]
Acetylcholine
.Table of Contents 1. Introduction to cholinergic Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download 2. Cholinergic pharmacology and drug-resistant mutants2.1. Background 2.2. Aldicarb and Ric mutants2.3. Aldicarb, Hic mutants, and G-protein pathways 2.4. Levamisole and Lev mutants 3. Acetylcholine synthesis and vesicular loading 3.1. The C.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. and VAChT 3.4. The cholinergic locus 3.5. cha-1 and unc-17 mutants 4. Choline transport 4.1. The CHO-1 choline transporter 4.2. The cho-1 gene and mutants 4.3. Sources of choline 4.4. Other choline transporters 5. .

. transporters 5. Acetylcholinesterases 5.1. AChE proteins 5.2. AChE expression and localization 5.3. ace genes and mutants 5.4. Regulation of ace expression 6. ACh receptors - ligand.

.ceptors - ligand gated sodium channels 6.1. AChR subunits 6.2. AChR genes and mutants 7. Other ACh receptors 7.1. GAR proteins - G-protein couple.

Acetylcholine Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 2. Cholinergic pharmacology and drug-resistant mutants
.10.1895/wormbook.1.131.1 2. Cholinergic pharmacology and drug-resistant mutants2.1. Background Sydney Brenner first reported the isolat.

.act on C. elegans neurobiology are aldicarb and levamisole. 2.2. Aldicarb and Ric mutants Although lannate was initially used for such studies ( Bren.

.ptic function has been described ( Sieburth et al., 2005 ). 2.3. Aldicarb, Hic mutants, and G-protein pathways In contrast to the Ric phenotype, mutants have been described with the opposite “Hic” phe.

. critical data for the interpretation of their function(s). 2.4. Levamisole and Lev mutants Levamisole (see Figure 2 ) is a potent cholinergic agonist, and is often used as a p.

Acetylcholine webyog sqlyog ultimate 13 : 3. Acetylcholine synthesis and vesicular loading
.ors ( Brenner, 1974 ; Rand and Russell, 1984 ). Null unc-17 mutants are lethal, with a phenotype quite similar to cha-1 null mutants ( Alfonso et al., 1993 ). The lethality of unc-17 null mutants and the similarity of their phenotype to cha-1 nulls argue .

.20;cholinergic” promoter. 3.5.  cha-1 and unc-17 mutants unc-17 mutants were first described by Brenner ( Brenner, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 1974 ), and cha.

.y synaptic vesicles, because it was mislocalized in unc-104 mutants. Both the synaptic and the cytoplasmic staining were decrea.

.ich overexpress ChAT (J. Duerr and J. Rand, unpublished). 3.2. The VAChT ( UNC-17 ) protein The vesicular acetylchol.

Acetylcholine : 4. Choline transport
. to apparent synaptic vesicles ( Ferguson et al., 2003 ). 4.2. The cho-1 gene and mutants The reference allele, tm373is a precise 1695 bp deletion.

.nd development appear to be normal. However, although cho-1 mutants have little difficulty crawling on agar, they swim somewhat.

.e N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine by the PMT-1 and PMT-2 methyltransferases ( Palavalli et al., 2006 ). Choline may .

. preferentially localized to neuromuscular junctions. snf-6 mutants are somewhat uncoordinated and mildly hypersensitive to ald.

Acetylcholine Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 5. Acetylcholinesterases
.i et al., 1981 ; Johnson et al., 1988 ). Each of the single mutants is essentially wild-type, although ace-2 animals are hypersensitive to aldicarb. The ace-2 ; ace-3 and ace-3 ; ace-1 double mutants are also essentially wild-type (although ace-2 ; ace-3 animals are hypersensitive to aldicarb); however, a.

.egulation of the ace genes. In each of Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download three single ace mutants and each of the three double ace mutants, the remaining cholinesterase activities are present at the.

. have been shown to be the gene products of the ace-1ace-2and ace-3 genes, respectively ( Johnson et al., 1981 ; Cu.

.poorly characterized ( Combes et al., 2000 ). Class B ( ACE-2 ) and Class C ( ACE-3 ) subunits form glycolipid-anchored h.

Acetylcholine : 6. ACh receptors - ligand gated sodium channels
.of expression. This information is presented in Table 1. 6.2. AChR genes and mutants As might be expected, loss-of-function mutations in any of .

. are suppressed by loss-of-function mutations in either des-2 or deg-3 ( Treinin and Chalfie, 1995 ). The DEG-3 and DES-2 subunits can associate with each other to form a functional.

.ight play a role in sensory transduction, and deg-3 and des-2mutants have been shown to be deficient in chemotaxis to choline ( .

. ACR-16 α       Mongan et al., 2002 EAT-2 ACR-16 Non- α Pharyngeal muscles Slow pumping   M.

Acetylcholine : 7. Other ACh receptors
. PVM ( gar-1 only), motor neurons in the ventral cord ( gar-2 ), and HSN ( gar-2 ) ( Lee et al., 2000 ). gar-3 is expressed in pharyngeal mu.

.d subsequently verified through analysis of the gar-1gar-2and gar-3 genes. The primary transcripts from all three o.

.ropine, but not scopolamine ( Lee et al., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 1999 ), while GAR-2 binds neither atropine nor scopolamine ( Lee et al., 2000 ).

.orted. However, GFP constructs indicated that gar-1 and gar-2 are expressed in neurons, including some sensory neurons in.

Acetylcholine : 8. Cholinergic receptor-associated proteins and genes
.n the first intron of lev-10 ( Gally et al., 2004 ). eat-18 mutants resemble eat-2mutants, demonstrating the importance of EAT-18 for EAT-2 function ( McKay et al., 2004 ). CAM-1 (a Ror receptor tyro.

. maturation of at least four types of ACh receptor: the EAT-2-containing pharyngeal AChR, the DEG-3 / DES-2 neuronal AChR, the UNC-29-containing levamisole-sensitive m.

.most or all neurons, and is localized to cell bodies. ric-3 mutants Abletion Live Activation Key Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks UncRic, and Lev ( Nguyen et al., 1995 ; Miller et al.

. for proper function of pharyngeal AChRs containing the EAT-2 non- α subunit, and apparently other pharyngeal nicoti.

Acetylcholine : 9. ACh-mediated behaviors
.coordinated movement, cholinergic (i.e., cha-1 and unc-17 ) mutants have a dramatically reduced rate of wave initiation, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. 9.2. Egg laying Egg laying behavior involves the action of.

.entral nerve cord cholinergic motor neurons express the ACR-2 and ACR-5 AChR subunits ( Winnier et al., 1999 ; Hallam et .

.ls deficient in cholinergic release (e.g., cha-1 and unc-17 mutants) are constitutive for egg-laying, and retain very few embry.

.rminals of the HSN cells, and interacts with inhibitory GAR-2 (and perhaps other) cholinergic receptors ( Bany et al., 20.

Acetylcholine : 10. Additional aspects of cholinergic biology
.esicles, or if they are released from the same synapses. 10.2. Role in protein turnover One of the consequences of s.

.nput to the muscles ( Szewczyk et al., 2000 ). For example, mutants deficient in ACh release or reception (e.g., cha-1unc-17.

.diated through UNC-63 -containing receptors, because unc-63 mutants were partially resistant to the stage-specific lethality of.


Synaptic function [HTML]
Synaptic function
.>> Function View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Exocytosis 2.1. Docking 2.2. Priming 2.3. Ca-sensing 2.4. Fusion 3. Endocytosis 3.1. Recruitment 3.2, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Budding 3.3. Fission 3.4. Uncoating 4. Summary 5. Referenc.

. proteins in the C. elegans genome are highly conserved and mutants can be readily generated by forward and reverse genetics. M.

.ward and reverse genetics. Most C. elegans synaptic protein mutants are viable affording an opportunity to study the functional.

.c function in C. elegans, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. This review highlights C. elegans mutants affecting specific stages of the synaptic vesicle cycle, wi.

Synaptic function : 1. Overview
.endocytosis Jorgensen et al., 1995 ; Nonet et al., 1993 unc-2 α subunit of voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel Evoked release, Ca 2+ influx at terminals Nonet et al., 1998 ; Schafer and Kenyo.

.in Vesicle fusion Nonet et al., 1998 snt-1 Synaptotagmin Ca 2+ -sensor in exocytosis/AP-2 binding partner in endocytosis Jorgensen et al., 1995 ; Non.

. advantages of C. elegans over other organisms is that most mutants affecting synaptic transmission are viable and can be propa.

.eral muscles to establish sinusoidal body bends. C. elegans mutants defective in synaptic transmission often exhibit a locomoto.

Synaptic function : 2. Exocytosis
.fewer vesicles. In addition, the synaptic defects of unc-10 mutants are more severe than those of rab-3 mutants ( Nonet et al., 1997 ), as well as mutants in the Rab3 nucleotide exchange factor ( AEX-3 ; Iwasaki et.

.vided via voltage-gated calcium channels containing the UNC-2 alpha subunit, as unc-2mutants have reduced evoked synaptic responses ( Richmond et al., 2.

.ts based on behavioral criteria ( Whitfield et al., 1999 ). 2.2. Priming Priming refers to the molecular events follow.

.lso indicate that vesicles are fusion incompetent in unc-13 mutants. Mutants of the mouse and Drosophila homologs of unc-13Munc13-1 a.

Synaptic function : 3. Endocytosis
.e, biochemical experiments have established that the μ 2 and α -adaptin subunits of the heterotetrameric AP-2 complex bind to the C2B domain of synaptotagmin ( Fukuda et.

.en the two proteins has not been demonstrated. Unlike snt-1 mutants, endocytosis still output exhale kontakt crack Archives in unc-11 mutants based on the continued presence of vesicles, although vesic.

.cruitment During recruitment, adaptor proteins including AP-2 and AP180 are recruited to the fused vesicle membrane via i.

.gmin in vesicle recycling ( Jorgensen et al., 1995 ). snt-1 mutants are uncoordinated and exhibit impaired synaptic transmissio.

Synaptic function : 4. Summary
.cium dynamics in neurons and muscles ( Kerr et al., 2000 ). 2) The use of styryl dyes such as FM1-43 to study vesicle cyc.


The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans
.ng. 1.5. Defining relationships between age-related changes 2, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Age-related changes in C. elegans 2.1. Neuromuscular behaviors 2.2. Reproduction 2.3. Morphological changes 2.4. Biochemical changes 3. Conclusions 3.1. Relationships be.

.ges 1.1. The importance of measuring age-related changes. 1.2. Distinguishing age-related changes pertinent to developmen.

.onclusions 3.1. Relationships between age-related changes 3.2. Characterization of mutations that influence longevity 3.3.

.on (1) why it is important to measure age-related changes; (2) which age-related changes should be measured; (3) how age.

The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans : 1. Measurements of age-related changes
.re a critical component of every mechanistic aging study. 1.2. Distinguishing age-related changes pertinent to devel.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. is the generation of summary statistics for the purpose of making comparisons. Figure 1 shows the basic approaches that have .

.Table 3 summarizes age-related changes in several longevity mutants. 1.5. Defining relationships between age-related chang.

.onships as each age-related change is considered, and Table 2 summarizes the relationships between age-related changes th.

The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans : 2. Age-related changes in C. elegans
.d the age-related change in pharyngeal tissue morphology in mutants with varying rates of pharyngeal pumping. eat-2 and daf-2mutants that display reduced rates of pumping in young adults also .

.10.1895/wormbook.1.137.1 2. Age-related changes in C. elegans 2.1. Neuromuscular behaviors 2.1.1. Pharyngeal pumping The pharynx is a neuromuscular.

.cline in pharyngeal pumping is significantly delayed in daf-2 and age-1 mutants and accelerated in daf-16 mutants (see Table 3 ; Huang et al., 2004 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. These results indicate.

.scribe the effects of loss-of-function mutations in the daf-2, age-2, daf-16, eat-2and clk-1 genes; see text for references to studies that .

The measurement and analysis of age-related changes in Caenorhabditis elegans : 3. Conclusions
.difference being the delayed timing of these changes in the mutants. Mutants that fail to undergo specific age-related changes have not .

.ess these issues using rigorous longitudinal studies. Table 2 summarizes the experimentally defined Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. There .

.ed by common mechanisms and/or causally linked in series. 3.2. Characterization of mutations that influence longevit.

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Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download [HTML]
Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans
.n C. elegans * Daniel L. Chase 1 §Michael R. Koelle 2 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Univers.

.Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA 2 Department of Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry, Yale.

.mitters View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Octopamine 3. Tyramine 4. Dopamine 5. Serotonin 6. Acknowl.

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 1. Introduction
.ed based Bitwig Studio 4.0.1 Crack + Serial Number Full Version [2020 New] sequence similarity to mammalian receptors, and mutants for most of these are available (see Table 2 ). Although the specific biogenic amine that activates a gi.

.se neurotransmitters into vesicles have been identified and mutants are available in each (see Figure 1 ). Analysis of the phen.

.in each (see Figure 1 ). Analysis of the phenotypes of such mutants has shed light on the behaviors controlled by the amines an.

. to determine their likely physiological ligands (see Table 2 ). Transgenes in which the promoters for the receptors driv.

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 2. Octopamine
.10.1895/wormbook.1.132.1 2. Octopamine Octopamine is synthesized from tyramine by.

.s, ( Alkema et al., 2005 ). The behavioral defects of tbh-1 mutants have not been described in detail, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, however they share sever.

.several (though apparently not all) pleiotropies with tdc-1 mutants (which cannot synthesize tyramine or octopamine, see Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download et al., 2006 ). Behavioral defects associated with ser-3 mutants have not yet been described, however treatment of animals w.

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 3. Tyramine
.f which are similar to the behavioral defects seen in tdc-1 mutants. For example, ser-2mutants fail to suppress head oscillations in response to touch ( R.

.n for tyramine ( Tsalik et al., 2003 ). While a single tyra-2 mutant is available, an analysis of TYRA-2 effects on behavior has not yet been published. TYRA-2 is expressed in neurons of the amphid sensilla ( ASEASG .

. does inhibit egg laying it likely does not act through SER-2as tyramine still inhibits egg laying in ser-2mutants. While the synthesis of tyramine in the gonadal sheath cell.

.ramine as a neurotransmitter ( Alkema et al., 2005 ). tdc-1 mutants exhibit behavioral defects not shared with tbh-1 mutants, and characterization of these defects indicate that tyrami.

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 4. Dopamine
.aviors in addition to those revealed by the analysis of cat-2mutants, as cat-2 null mutants retain significant levels of dopamine ( Sanyal et al., 2004.

. to plate tapping is modulated by dopamine signaling as cat-2mutants and mutants of the D1-like dopamine receptor dop-1 habituate to tap mor.

.in which the dopaminergic neurons have been ablated; and 3) mutants for cat-2which encodes a tyrosine hydroxylase responsible for cata.

.220;basal slowing response” requires dopamine, as cat-2mutants or animals in which the dopaminergic neurons have been abla.

Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans : 5. Serotonin
.owing response” requires serotonin as bas-1 and cat-4 mutants (but not cat-2mutants) exhibit defects in enhanced Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download ( Sawin et al., 2000 ).

.ates egg laying. Exogenous serotonin causes egg laying, and mutants in which the HSN neurons die ( egl-1 mutants) are strongly egg-laying defective ( Egl ). Selective serot.

., 28 Inhibits locomotion 1, 13, 10. Inhibits egg laying 1, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 2. Inhibits defecation 2, 13. Increases frequency of high-angled turns 25. Seroton.

., 11 (in the presence of food or 5-HT). Inhibits defecation 2, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 3. Tyramine Tyramine receptors SER-2 5 Inhibits egg laying (5, 9) (in the presence of food or 5.


The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
.f Caenorhabditis elegans * Peter N. Inglis 1Guangshuo Ou 2Michel R. Leroux 1 §and Jonathan M. Scholey 2 1 Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon F.

.ciliumbiogenesis.html 10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans Download PDF ve.

.mistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada V5A 1S6 2 Center of Genetics and Development, University of Californi.

.st version Table of Contents 1. General definition of cilia 2. Historical perspective 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution a.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 1. General definition of cilia
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 1. General definition of cilia Cilia are slender micro.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 2. Historical perspective
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.22. Historical perspective In a letter to Max Perutz date.

. cilia present in sensory neurons, and some of the earliest mutants to be isolated were defective in their abilities to sense e.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution and architecture
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 3.  C. elegans cilia: distribution and architecture Un.

.d to the external environment ( Hall and Russell, 1991 ). 3.2. Inner/outer labial, cephalic neurons The inner labial.

. Ward et al., 1975 ; Ware et al., 1975 ). The outer labial (2 lateral outer labial, or OLL neurons, and 4 quadrant outer .

.a of these neurons, although they can be identified under a compound microscope using, for example, the GCY-36 protein fused to .

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 4, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Cilium biogenesis and intraflagellar transport (IFT)
.1033 + + + + IFT-particle B Fujiwara et al., 1999 che-3 osm-2che-8avr-1caf-2 F18C12.1 I:2.47 +/ − 0.023 e1124 + + + + IFT-dynein heavy chain Wi.

.is required for proper localization of the human polycystin-2 homolog, PKD-2to the cilium ( Peden and Barr, 2005 ). This finding indi.

.-like movement of the KLP-6 kinesin was not observed. Table 2. Components and available mutants of the intraflagellar transport machinery Component Gene mo.

.machinery Component Gene SkinFiner 2.0 Crack & License Key Full Free Download crack keygen Protein Description/function Mutants Reference Kinesin-II F20C5.2 KLP-11 95KD Motor tm324 Snow et al., 2004 Y50D7A.6 KLP-20 8.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 5. Transcriptional regulation of cilium morphogenesis
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 5. Transcriptional regulation of cilium morphogenesis .

.ole of DAF-19 as a master regulator of ciliogenesis, daf-19 mutants lack all signs of cilia ( Perkins et al., 1986 ; Swoboda et.

.d BBS proteins also possess X boxes. However, unlike daf-19 mutants, disruption of these genes leads to abnormal (truncated) ci.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 6. The C. elegans ciliome
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 6. The C. elegans ciliome Recent studies in several or.

.Further analysis of putative ciliary genes may also include making translational fusions to GFP to determine if the protein is.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 7. Understanding C. elegans ciliary functions through ciliary mutant analysis
., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. mammals ( Nauli and Zhou, 2004 ). Furthermore, the ciliary mutants che-2che-3che-13osm- 6che-12 and osm-3 all show signi.

.y have been discovered through analysis of oxidative stress mutants, which showed that mutants resistant to methyl viologen (also known as paraquat) were .

.QR and PQR neurons ( Mak et al. 2006 ). Chemotaxis in tub-1 mutants is impaired, although tub-1 mutants show no abrogation of ciliary structure based on a normal D.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 7. Understanding C. elegans ciliary functions through .

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 8. C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans as a model system to study ciliopathies
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 8.  C. elegans as a model system to study ciliopathies.

.polycystic kidney-disease loci PKD1 and PKD2, lov-1 and pkd-2were shown to produce defects in male mating behavior and.

. elegans LOV-1 is required for the proper targeting of PKD-2 to the cilium of in the male-specific neurons CEM, as well .

.disrupts IFT subcomplex A), the ciliary localization of PKD-2 is significantly altered, resulting in Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download in the.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 9. Concluding remarks
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 9. Concluding remarks Given the diverse array of in vi.

.ying intraflagellar transport, ciliary integrity, and cilia mutants, C. elegans sits in a unique position to facilitate our und.

.ciliopathies. For example, identification of additional Dyf mutants and characterization of their phenotypes may help uncover n.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 10. Acknowledgements
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.2 10. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the .


Vulval development [HTML]
Vulval development
.Contents 1. Introduction 1.1. Steps in vulval development 1.2. Phenotypes of vulval development mutants 1.3. Note on phenotypes 2. Generation of vulval precursor cells 2.1. Vulval competence group 2.2. Hox gene lin-39competence, and fusion 2.3. Other genes affecting competence 2.4. Non-equivalence of the VPCs 3. Overview of VPC 1 ° -2 ° -3 ° pattern formation 3.1. Specification and det.

.Patterning of adult cell types 9.1. aomei partition assistant standard ° lineage 9.2. Polarity of 2 ° lineages 10. The vulval-uterine connection 10.1. pi c.

.ion 3.1. Specification and determination of the VPC fates 3.2. Commitment to fates 3.3. The cell cycle and vulval develop.

.hor cell 4.1. The anchor cell is necessary and sufficient 4.2. Action at a distance 4.3. Graded action of LIN-3 4.4. Non.

Vulval development: 1. Introduction
. (1995) for morphological distinctions between 1 ° and 2 ° lineages. 1.2. Phenotypes of vulval development mutants Mutations that affect vulva development often cause defects.

.VPCs specifies three VPCs to generate vulval cells ( Figure 2 ). Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download vulval lineages are of two types, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 1 ° and 2 °each of which generate distinct sets of progeny. Th.

.their fates in a precise spatial pattern: 3 ° -3 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° -3 ° ( Figure 3 ). (3) Generation of the adult ce.

. are specified from among the ventral epidermal Pn.p cells. 2. The VPCs become specified to 1 °2 ° or 3 ° cell fates by multiple signaling pathways.

Vulval development: 2. Generation of vulval precursor cells
., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. P3.p - P8.p generate vulval cells ( Thomas et al., 1990 ). 2.2. Hox gene lin-39competence, and fusion The hox gene.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.6.1 2. Generation of vulval precursor cells The eleven Pn.p .

.gative regulation of competence. Yellow, 3 ° fate; red, 2 ° fate; blue, 1 ° fate. Figure 5. Roles of LIN-39.&.

.arrows, positive regulation; red bars, negative regulation. 2.1. Vulval competence group In the intact, wild-type he.

Vulval development: 3. Overview of VPC 1°-2°-3° pattern formation
.10.1895/wormbook.1.6.1 3. Overview of VPC 1 ° -2 ° -3 ° pattern formation The 1 °2 °and 3 ° fates occur in a precise spatial patter.

.eral signaling among induced VPCs via LIN-12 that specifies 2 ° fates and inhibits 1 ° fates. Cross inhibition ex.

.ion of three signaling pathways. Yellow, 3 ° fate; red, 2 ° fate; blue, 1 ° fate. Green arrows, positive regu.

.e Lateral signal among the induced VPCs (blue) promotes the 2 ° fate (via LIN-12 ). The negative signal is inferred f.

Vulval development: 4, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Induction of the vulva by the anchor cell
.ly located anchor cell can induce patterns such as 1 ° -2 ° -1 °1 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° or 2 ° -2 ° -2 ° -2 ° ( Thomas et al., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 1990 ). The dorsally located anchor .

.bsp; In wild-type, the six VPCs adopt the 3 ° -3 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° -3 ° pattern in each case. Animals with reduced l.

., including cases as shown here. Yellow, 3 ° fate; red, 2 ° fate ; blue, 1 ° fate. 4.2. Action at a distance The anchor cell signals at a dis.

.An individual VPC, after ablation of other VPCs, can have a 2 ° fate. Also, in a dig-1 mutant there can be 2 ° VPCs without 1 ° VPCs ( Thomas et al., 1990 ). In.

Vulval development: 5. Physiological inputs to vulval development
.e that can be scratched away by careful genetic analysis. 5.2. Zinc regulation Two genes identified by loss-of-funct.

Vulval development: 6. Negative regulation of induction
.d bars) thereby inhibiting the specification of 1 ° and 2 ° VPC fates. 6.2. Signal transduction regulators Other negative regulat.

.ctive in both A and B function have a Multivulva phenotype, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Mutants defective in only A, or in only B, have normal vulval devel.

.description of the anatomy. Figure 12. Synthetic multivulva mutants suggest signaling from hyp7 to VPCs.  lin-15blin-35.

.d four additional negative regulators, dpy-23lst-1Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, lst-2Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, lst-3and lst-4. These four regulators, and lip-1 ( Be.

Vulval development: 7. LIN-12-mediated lateral signaling
.ate ( Greenwald et al., 1983 ). Null alleles of lin-12 lack 2 ° VPCs. Gain of function lin-12 mutants cause all six VPCs to generate 2 ° lineages, even in the absence of inductive signaling.

.ttern of VPC fates in a lin-15 multitvulva mutant (1 ° -2 ° -2 ° -1 ° -2 ° -1 ° ; Figure 15 ) is reminiscent of spacing patt.

. that type and instead differentiating as some alternative (2 ° VPCs). While adjacent 2 ° VPCs are common, adjacent 1 ° VPCs are rare, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. In a.

. adjacent VPCs ( P7.p and P8.p ), they will become 1 ° -2 ° or 2 ° -1 °with approximately equal probability. Thus.

Vulval development: 8. Coupling of LET-23 and LIN-12 signaling
.LET-23 activation leads to 1 ° fates at high levels and 2 ° at low levels. The genetic requirements for this 2 ° specification has not been elucidated. LIN-12 lateral.

.d LIN-12 is fundamental to the specification of 1 ° and 2 ° fates ( Figure 16 ). As described above, LET-23 activ.

. ° ( Sternberg, 1988 ), and can induce a cell to become 2 ° ( Greenwald et al., 1983 ; Simske and Kim, 1995 ; Kog.

.in ( Shaye and Greenwald, 2002 ). Conversely, a presumptive 2 ° cell downregulates LET-23 signaling ( Berset et al. .

Vulval development: 9, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Patterning of adult cell types
.ted LET-23 bypasses this requirement for EGL-38 function. 9.2. Polarity of 2 ° lineages The cell division pattern and cell fates of .

.olarity of P7.p ( Inoue et al., 2004 ). The WNT protein MOM-2 is expressed in the anchor cell ( Inoue et al., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 2004 ) and .

.zled type receptor LIN-17 ; the second involves the WNT MOM-2 and the Ryk type receptor LIN-18 ( Ferguson et al., 1987 ; .

.ing through LIN-17 and LIN-18. Figure 19. Polarity of P7.p 2 ° lineage.  Multiple WNT signals from the anchor c.

Vulval development: 10. The vulval-uterine connection
.s the ventral uterus, inducing the uterine pi cells via LAG-2 and LIN-12 signaling ( Newman et al., 1995 ; Cinar et al. .

.uction.  The anchor cell expresses DSL-type ligand LAG-2 in a LIN-29-dependent manner and signals presumptive pi cel.

.12. LIN-12 activation leads to expression of lin-11 and cog-2two transcription factors necessary for utse development.

.0.1. pi cell induction and function egl-13 (a.k.a. cog-2 ), which encodes Sox domain transcription factor expressed .

Vulval development: 11. Morphogenesis
.ation to form is regulated by eight sqv genes ( sqv-1sqv-2sqv-3sqv-4sqv-5sqv-6sqv-7and sqv-8 ; Herma.

.toshechkin and Han, 2002 ). The Rac proteins encoded by mig-2 and ced-10 ( Kishore and Sundaram, 2002 ) are necessary for.

.vulF to vulA as the toroids fuse ( Dalpe et al., 2005 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. 11.2. Organization of neurons and muscles The vulval epithe.

.i and Chalfie, 1990 ). This is most obviously seen in dig-1 mutants in which the gonad is shifted anteriorly and the Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, vul.

Vulval development: 12. Concluding remarks
.stands in stark contrast to the variable phenotypes of many mutants and perturbations; I view these phenotypes as providing a r.


Small GTPases [HTML]
Small GTPases
. Table of Contents 1. Ras-superfamily GTPases in C. elegans 2. Ras/Ral/Rap family GTPases 2.1, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. K-Ras 2.2. Rap 2.3. Rho-family GTPases 2.4. Rho 2.5. Cdc42 2.6. Rac 2.7, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Overlapping roles of Racs in development 2.8. Modularity of Rac signaling 2.9. Rab family 2.10. Ran-family GTPase 2.11, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Arf/Sar-family GTPases 3. Summary and future directions.

Small GTPases : 1. Ras-superfamily GTPases in C. elegans
.b-8 Rab8 T23H2.5 rab-10 Rab10 F53G12.1 rab-11.1 Rab11 W04G5.2 rab-11.2 Rab11 K09A9.2 rab-14 Rab14 Y92C3B.3 rab-18 Rab18 Y62E10A.9 rab-19 Rab19 T.

. RhoA R07G3.1 cdc-42 Cdc42 C09G12.8 ced-10 Rac1 C35C5.4 mig-2 RhoG d F22E12.2   Wrch1 Y32F6B.3   conserved Cdc42-like P60953 Ra.

.21 Rab21 Y87G2A.4 rab-27 Rab27 Y11D7A.4 rab-28 Rab28 Y45F3A.2 rab-30 Rab30 F43D9.2 rab-33 Rab33 Y47D3A.25 rab-35 Rab35 W01H2.3 rab-37 Rab37 C5.

.11A5.3 – Rab2 Arf/Sar family ZK632.8 arl-5 Arf8 B0336.2 arf-1.2 Arf1 C38D4.8 arl-6 Arf6 F54C9.10 arl-1 Arf1 ZK180.4 –.

Small GTPases : 2. Ras/Ral/Rap family GTPases
.nd compensatory roles (i.e. in which they act redundantly). 2.7.1. Axon pathfinding Null mutants of mig-2 and ced-10 and rac-2(RNAi) displayed no detectable defects in axon pathfinding (.

. canonical CSI ETABS Ultimate 19.2 Crack Full Version Free Download similar to vertebrate Rac1 ( ced-10 and rac-2 ), and one Mtl Rac ( mig-2 ). Mtl Racs, defined by C. elegans MIG-2 and Drosophila Mtl, are similar to both Rac and Cdc42 but i.

.oles in embryonic elongation ( Piekny et al., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 2000 ; Figure 2 ). Figure 2. The opposing roles of RHO-1 and MIG-2 Rac in hypdermal contraction during embryonic elongation.&n.

.ons were identified in screens for cell migration-defective mutants ( Zipkin et al., 1997 ). No mutations that perturb rac-2 function exist to date. rac-2 lof is induced using RNAi, and has no apparent phenotypic c.

Small GTPases : 3. Summary and future directions
.ronal migration, axon pathfinding, vulval morphogenesis rac-2 Rac1 Neuronal migration, axon pathfinding mig-2 Mtl Cell migration (P-cells, distal tip cells, Q cells and .

.nization, vesicle trafficking, and nuclear assembly ( Table 2 ). Studies of small GTPases in C. elegans have been central.

.Rap, Rab, and Arf/Sar family remain to be discovered. Table 2. Known roles of Ras-superfamily GTPases in C. elegans C. el.


Potassium channels in C. elegans [HTML]
Potassium channels in C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans
.for abnormal behavioral phenotypes reveal potassium channel mutants2. The 6TM gene families 2.1. Voltage-gated potassium channels 2.2. KQT potassium channels 2.3. Eag- like potassium channels 2.4. Calcium-activated Slo -like potassium channels 2.5. Cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels 2.6. SK Small conductance, voltage insensitive calcium-activa.

.PDF version Potassium Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download in C. elegans * L. Salkoff 1,2, §A.D. Wei 1B. Baban 1A. Butler 1G. Fawcet.

., C.M. Santi 1 1 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology and 2 Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Med.

.m channels in C. elegans have close mammalian orthologues 1.2. Genetic screens for abnormal behavioral phenotypes reveal .

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 1. Introduction
. potassium channel subunit genes, six examples are known of mutants isolated by forward genetic screens ( egl-36[Shaw]egl-2unc-103[Eag]exp-2 [Shab-like]exp-3 [SK] and slo-1[Slo] ). Currently, no mutants have been identified of the 2TM class of potassium channels.

.on about mutant strains and cDNAs for expression studies. 1.2. Genetic screens for abnormal behavioral phenotypes re.

.for abnormal behavioral phenotypes reveal potassium channel mutants An advantage of studying potassium channels in C. elegans i.

.l C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans behavioral phenotypes have yielded examples of mutants linked to nearly every major class of potassium channel sub.

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 2. The 6TM gene families
.rs of this family follow. Shaw Channels (Kv3 family) egl-36 mutants were isolated from screens for egg-laying deficient mutants. These mutants ( n728n2332 ) are also moderately defective in generatin.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.42.1 2. The 6TM gene families 2.1. Voltage-gated potassium channels Voltage-gated pota.

.ionally and structurally diverse types of channel subunits. 2.2. KQT potassium channels KQT potassium channels are rel.

., 1999 ; Reiner et al., 1999 ; Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download et al., 2004 ). Egl-2 gf mutants exhibit pleiotropic behavioral defects. In addition to egg.

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 3. 2TM potassium channels
.they differentiated in the vertebrate line of evolution. No mutants have yet been reported to be associated with any of the thr.

Potassium channels in C. elegans : 4. 4TM potassium channels
.while in humans there are approximately fifteen genes. Four mutants are known of the 4TM “TWK” subunit class ( sup.

. response to prodding of the head, whereas loss-of-function mutants resemble wild-type, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. However, loss of function of any gene i.

. to the vertebrate K ATP channel complex formed by 2TM Kir6.2 potassium channel subunits and the SUR sulfonylurea recepto.

.ombined genetic and electrophysiological analyses of twk-18 mutants have been possible. Two separate dominant alleles of twk-18.

Potassium channels in C. elegans Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 5. Usefulness of the information in C. elegans
.ressed. A deletion mutant was generated to identify the SLO-2 current in native cells. It was shown that native SLO-2 channels were active only when intracellular Ca 2+ and Cl - were raised above normal physiological conditions.

.ter experiments also indicated that the high conductance Ca 2+ &Cl - activated SLO-2 channels are prominently expressed. A deletion mutant was g.

.tage-dependent currents can be removed either by the use of mutants or by treating cultured cells with appropriate RNAi's. GFP.

. occurs during hypoxia. However, under such conditions, SLO-2 is the largest outward current, contributing up to 87% of t.


The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
.ation History in side bar. Peter N. Inglis 1Guangshuo Ou 2Michel R. Leroux 1 §and Jonathan M. Scholey 2 1 Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon F.

.mistry, Simon Fraser University; Burnaby, BC Canada V5A 1S6 2 Center of Genetics and Development; University of Californi.

.st version Table of Contents 1. General definition of cilia 2. Historical perspective 3. C. elegans cilia: distribution a.

.ilia: distribution and architecture 3.1. Amphids/Phasmids 3.2. Inner/outer labial, cephalic neurons 3.3. Pseudocoelomic c.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 2. Historical perspective
.10.1895/wormbook.1.126.1 2. Historical perspective In a letter to Max Perutz date.

. cilia present in sensory neurons, and some of the earliest mutants to be isolated were defective Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download their abilities to sense e.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 3. C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans cilia: distribution and architecture
.d to the external environment ( Hall and Russell, 1991 ). 3.2. Inner/outer labial, cephalic neurons The inner labial.

. Ward et al., 1975 ; Ware et al., 1975 ). The outer labial (2 lateral outer labial, or OLL neurons, and 4 quadrant outer .

.a of these neurons, although they can be identified under Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download compound microscope using, for example, the GCY-36 protein fused to .

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 4. Cilium biogenesis and intraflagellar transport (IFT)
.1033 + + + + IFT-particle B Fujiwara et al., 1999 che-3 osm-2che-8avr-1caf-2 F18C12.1 I:2.47 +/ − 0.023 e1124 + + + + IFT-dynein heavy chain Sh.

.is required for proper localization of the human polycystin-2 homolog, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, PKD-2to the cilium ( Peden and Barr, 2005 ). This finding indi.

.-like movement of the KLP-6 kinesin was not observed. Table 2. Components and available mutants of the intraflagellar transport machinery Component Gene mo.

.machinery Component Gene model Protein Description/function Mutants Reference Kinesin-II F20C5.2 KLP-11 95KD Motor tm324 Signor et al. 1999b Y50D7A.6 KLP-20.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 5. Transcriptional regulation of cilium morphogenesis
.ole of DAF-19 as a master regulator of ciliogenesis, daf-19 mutants lack all signs of cilia ( Perkins et al., 1986 ; Swoboda et.

.d BBS proteins also possess X boxes. However, unlike daf-19 mutants, disruption of these genes leads to abnormal (truncated) ci.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 6. The C. elegans ciliome
.Further analysis of putative ciliary genes may also include making translational fusions to GFP to determine if the protein is.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 7, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Understanding C. elegans ciliary functions through ciliary mutant analysis
. mammals ( Nauli and Zhou, 2004 ). Furthermore, the ciliary mutants che-2che-3che-13osm- 6che-12 and osm-3 all show signi.

.y have been discovered through analysis of oxidative stress mutants, which showed that mutants resistant to methyl viologen (also known as paraquat) were .

.QR and PQR neurons ( Mak et al. 2006 ). Chemotaxis in tub-1 mutants is impaired, although tub-1 mutants show no abrogation of ciliary structure based on a normal D.

.lysis The availability of large numbers of existing ciliary mutants is in large part the result of the vision of molecular biol.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 8. C. elegans as a model system to study ciliopathies
.polycystic kidney-disease loci PKD1 and PKD2, lov-1 and pkd-2were shown to produce defects in male mating behavior and.

. elegans LOV-1 is required for the proper targeting of PKD-2 to the cilium of in the male-specific neurons CEM, as well .

.disrupts IFT subcomplex A), the ciliary localization of PKD-2 is significantly altered, resulting in accumulations in the.

.he 11 known human BBS genes possess C. elegans orthologues, making the nematode an excellent model system to study this multig.

The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans: 9. Concluding remarks
.ying intraflagellar Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, ciliary integrity, and cilia mutants, C. elegans sits in a unique position to facilitate our und.

.ciliopathies. For example, identification of additional Dyf mutants and characterization of their phenotypes may help uncover n.


Spermatogenesis [HTML]
Spermatogenesis
.rmatogenesis 3. Identification of spermatogenesis defective mutants 4. Translational control during spermatogenesis 5. Mutants that affect sperm meiosis 6, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Mutants affecting FB-MOs 7. Cytoskeletal mutants 8. Sex-specific aspects of spermiogenesis 9. Fertilization mutants 10. Post-fertilization mutants 11. Future prospects 12. Acknowledgements 13. References Ab.

.e germ line View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Wild-type spermatogenesis 3. Identification of spermatogen.

.ores her sperm and uses them to fertilize her oocytes. Many mutants have been identified where hermaphrodite self-fertility is .

.nted tests are then Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download to identify the subset of these mutants that produce defective sperm. Currently, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, more than 44 genes.

Spermatogenesis : 1. Overview
.e germ line ). Wild-type spermatogenesis and its defects in mutants can be studied in vivo because the animal is transparent an.

Spermatogenesis : 2. Wild-type spermatogenesis
.10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 2. Wild-type spermatogenesis Development of sperm in C. .

.panies meiosis I is either complete (not shown) or partial (2 in Figure 1 A). Either way, the resulting cells are seconda.

.o form secondary spermatocytes (FB-MOs are shown in green); 2, spermatids selectively retain FB-MOs as they bud from the .

.n at left) and body (b; region to the right of the collar); 2, the FB-MO complex reaches its largest size within primary .

Spermatogenesis : 3. Identification of spermatogenesis defective mutants
.1.85.1 3. Identification of spermatogenesis defective mutants C. elegans spermatogenesis mutants ( spe or fer ) have been identified because they compromise.

.ion in the germ line ), most produce defective sperm. While mutants that fail to initiate spermatogenesis lay a few oocytes, mutants that make defective sperm lay large numbers of unfertilized.

.rowth plate ( Ward and Carrel, 1979 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. In contrast, spe/fer mutants lay unfertilized oocytes, which are round, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, brown cells that.

.adily identified following mutagenesis. While some of these mutants never initiate spermatogenesis (see Sex determination in th.

Spermatogenesis : 4. Translational control during spermatogenesis
.RNAi) hermaphrodites lay unfertilized oocytes, like spe/fer mutants. Examination of the spermatheca reveals that cpb-1(RNAi) he.

Spermatogenesis : 5. Mutants that affect sperm meiosis
.10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 5. Mutants that affect sperm meiosis Like other animals, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans me.

.efects during spermatogenesis, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Six dominant wee-1.3(gf) Spe mutants have been discovered and they have no evident defects durin.

.at seen in wild-type (haploid) spermatids. wee-1.3 dominant mutants do not initiate cytokinesis and they arrest with an undivid.

.sis I, and this regulation does not occur in these dominant mutants ( Lamitina and L'Hernault, 2002 ). puf-8 encodes a pumilio.

Spermatogenesis : 6. Mutants affecting FB-MOs
.olfe, 2003 ). The SPE-4 protein resides in FB-MOs and spe-4 mutants, like spe-39 mutants, develop FBs that are not associated with MOs. spe-4 mutants accumulate aberrant spermatocytes filled with distended MOs.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 6. Mutants affecting FB-MOs Several mutants affect FB-MO morphogenesis or function. The spe-39 gene enc.

.d Ward, 1989 ). Motile spermatozoa can still form in spe-17 mutants, and some are competent to engage in fertilization. spe-10 mutants initiate FB-MO morphogenesis normally, but the membrane sur.

.ociated with FB-MOs in spermatocytes and spermatids. spe-39 mutants arrest as aberrant spermatocytes ( Figure 5 B) that lack MO.

Spermatogenesis : 7. Cytoskeletal mutants
.10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 7. Cytoskeletal mutants There are two spe genes that encode known cytoskeletal prot.

.eins. The spe-26 gene encodes an actin binding protein, and mutants usually form aberrant spermatocytes that do not become sper.

.tocytes that do not become spermatids. Occasionally, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, spe-26 mutants make spermatids that become spermatozoa, but these spermato.

.rting role as spermatids bud from the residual body. spe-15 mutants partially fail in their polarized delivery of mitochondria .

Spermatogenesis Kaspersky internet security one-month free licence crack serial keygen : 8. Sex-specific aspects of spermiogenesis
.l., 2000 ; Shakes and Ward, 1989 ). Eighteen non-null spe-6 mutants allow partial bypass of any spe-8 pathway mutant ( spe-6 nu.

.low partial bypass of any spe-8 pathway mutant ( spe-6 null mutants have defects in FB-MO morphogenesis, see above). These non.

.hrodites ( Muhlrad and Ward, 2002 ). These spe-6 suppressor mutants have also been analyzed in a background that was not mutant.

.ids show only minimal signs of necrosis in spe-6 suppressor mutants ( Muhlrad and Ward, 2002 ). These data indicate that there .

Spermatogenesis : 9. Fertilization mutants
.10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 9. Fertilization mutants Seven mutants ( fer-14spe-9spe-13spe-36spe-38spe-41 / trp.

.t et al., 2005 ). Spermatozoa derived from any of the seven mutants in this class have no detectable motility defects, and they.

.he spermatheca. Male-derived spermatozoa from five of these mutants ( fer-14spe-9spe-13spe-41 / trp-3 and spe-42 ) ren.

Spermatogenesis : 10. Post-fertilization mutants
.10.1895/wormbook.1.85.1 10. Post-fertilization mutants One mutant ( spe-11 ) forms spermatozoa that are competent .

Spermatogenesis : 11. Future prospects
.predicted male spermiogenesis pathway have been identified. Mutants with specific defects in male spermiogenesis are likely obt.

.terile hermaphrodites will not allow identification of such mutants; new screens will need to be designed for this purpose. The.


Autophagy in C. elegans [HTML]
Autophagy in C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans
.lecular machinery 1.3. Signaling regulation 1.4. Physiology 2. Tools to study autophagy in C. elegans 2.1. Genetic models 2.2. Detection of autophagy ableton live crack Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. Functions of autophagy in C. ele.

.on Autophagy in C. elegans * Alicia Meléndez 1–2,§Beth Levine 3–5 § 1 Department of Biolo.

.ueens College, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367; 2 The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, 365 F.

.rily conserved features of autophagy 1.1. Cellular events 1.2. Molecular machinery 1.3. Signaling regulation 1.4. Physiol.

Autophagy in C. elegans : 1. Introduction to evolutionarily conserved features of autophagy
.es Regulation of Induction         TOR1,2 let-363 B0261.2 PI K-related protein kinase, Rapamycin target L, LL Noda an.

.eacute;ndez et al., 2003 ; Kirisako et al., 2000   lgg-2 ZK593.6   NE Meléndez et al., 2003 ATG10 D2085.2 E2-like enzyme conjugates Atg5 and Atg12 ? Meléndez .

.tingre et al., 2005 ). The association of Beclin 1 with Bcl-2 or the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl -X LMcl-1, Bcl-w) .

.attingre et al., 2005 ). When Beclin 1 dissociates from Bcl-2, autophagy is induced. The Bcl-2-Beclin 1 association has been shown to be conserved among t.

Autophagy in C. elegans : 2. Tools to study autophagy in C. elegans
.10.1895/wormbook.1.147.1 2. Tools to study autophagy in C. elegans 2.1. Genetic models Our understanding of the role of aut.

.he regulation of autophagy and its role during development. 2.2. Detection of autophagy Prior to the identification of.

.f-1, and the p53-induced molecule, DRAM, also exist ( Table 2 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, but have not been tested for their role in autophagy in .

Autophagy in C. elegans : 3. Functions of autophagy in C. elegans
.ologs shortened the lifespan of both N2 (wild-type) and daf-2mutants, but the decrease in lifespan was greater in the daf-2mutants. Thus, multiple autophagy genes are required for lifespan e.

.en et al. (2008 ) have shown that pha-4 is required for eat-2mutants to have elevated numbers of GFP::LGG-1 foci. Reduced daf-2 / insulin/IGF-1 signaling mutants lacking daf-16 / FOXO activity still show high levels of au.

.pha-3which have abnormal pharyngeal anatomy; eat-1eat-2 and eat-3 mutants, which have reduced pharyngeal pumping rates; and eat-10 mutants, which have a slippery pharynx that inefficiently traps bac.

. autophagy genes are required for lifespan extension in daf-2 (IGF-1) mutants. Dietary restriction plays an evolutionarily conserved role.


Interactions with microbial pathogens [HTML]
Interactions with microbial pathogens
.ecology View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Bacterial infections of the intestine 2.1. Enterococcus faecalis 2.2. Escherichia coli 2.3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2.4. Salmonella enterica 2.5. Serratia marcescens 2.6. Staphylococcus aureus 2.7. Staphylococcus epidermidis 3. Bacterial infections of th.

.nfections of the cuticle 3.1. Microbacterium nematophilum 3.2. Yersinia sp. 4. Bacteria with multiple or undetermined kil.

. undetermined killing modes 4.1. Burkholderia cenocepacia 4.2. Burkholderia pseudomallei 4.3. Plant, fish and insect path.

.thogens 5, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Fungal infections 5.1. Cryptococcus neoformans 5.2. Drechmeria coniospora 6, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Toxin-mediated killing 6.1. Bacil.

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 1. Introduction
. screens have been performed in which thousands of pathogen mutants have been tested individually against worms. Of course, C. .

.decades of research has provided an extensive collection of mutants and clones that are available as off-the-shelf reagents for.

.s of the host is feasible, e.g, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. by screening C. elegans for mutants that are either resistant or hypersensitive to a pathogen. .

.or hypersensitive to a pathogen. Screens for hypersensitive mutants have been especially productive in elucidating the C. elega.

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 2. Bacterial infections of the intestine
.ction between the C. elegans model and mammalian infection. 2.2.  Escherichia coli E. coli is known to C. elegans rese.

.creened for attenuated bacteria, identifying 19 loci out of 2,300 transposon insertions tested. Fewer than half of the mutants were attenuated in a Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download melanogaster model for S. m.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.21.1 2. Bacterial infections of the intestine Numerous bacter.

.g occurs, there are specific pathogenic mechanisms at work. 2.1.  Enterococcus faecalis E. faecalis is a Gram-positi.

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 3. Bacterial infections of the cuticle
.vating ERK in response to M. nematophilum. Screens for Bus mutants have identified 20 loci, and the mutants include foxit phantompdf business activation key free Archives - Patch Cracks of sur-2 ( Nicholas and Hodgkin, 2004 ) and srf-3 ( Hoflich et al. .

.e unknown. Because M. nematophilum attaches to the cuticle, mutants with altered surface properties were examined. srf-2srf-3 and srf-5 animals were not colonized on the peri-an.

.ing protein ( ksr-1 ), and transcriptional activators ( sur-2lin-25 ). When infected, these mutants become severely constipated and their fertility is sharply .

.d a small peri-anal region of the exterior cuticle ( Figure 2 ). The area around the anus becomes distended and swollen. .

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 4. Bacteria with multiple or undetermined killing modes
.w killing, but did not significantly affect fast killing. 4.2.  Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis, an infection .

.e substance. Gan et al. screened 3,400 transposon insertion mutants of B, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. pseudomallei and obtained five with reduced killing o.

.obtained five with reduced killing of C. elegans. The five mutants were all attenuated to various degrees when inoculated intr.

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 5. Fungal infections
. lived longer on C. laurentii than on E. coli OP50. Several mutants known to be attenuated in mouse infections were also less p.

.s capsule is toxic. A screen of 350 C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. neoformans insertion mutants yielded seven with attenuated virulence ( Mylonakis et al.

.ze several tissues, and killing was substantially slowed. 5.2.  Drechmeria coniospora D. coniospora is an endoparasi.

.proteins. D. coniospora were able to bind che-12 and che-14 mutants, which have defective amphids; conidia also bound mec-1 ani.

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 6. Toxin-mediated killing
. Screening for C. elegans bre ( Bacillus toxin resistant) mutants identified five genes ( Marroquin et al., 2000 ). bre-2 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, bre-3bre-4bre-5 encode glycosyltransferases that ap.

.B to glycolipids that are absent in bre-3bre-4 and bre-5 mutants has been demonstrated ( Griffitts et al., 2005 ). 6.2.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa P. aeruginosa kills C. elegan.

.of 3,300 P. aeruginosa transposon insertions produced seven mutants with reduced killing ( Mahajan-Miklos et al., 1999 ). Four mutants had reduced levels of pyocyanin, a pigmented secondary meta.

.t least in part to oxidative stress. Analysis of C. elegans mutants lent support to this hypothesis. age-1 mutants, which are resistant to other forms of oxidative stress, we.

Interactions with microbial pathogens : 7. Conclusions
.ale screens of pathogen genomes, and thousands of bacterial mutants have been tested in screens of P. aeruginosa ( Gallagher an.

.Tan et al., 1999 ) and B. pseudomallei ( Gan et al., 2002 ) mutants defective Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download C. elegans were also attenuated in a mous.

.mouse models. On the other hand, no new mammalian virulence mutants were found in Microsoft OneNote 2106 Build 14131.20320 With Crack Product screen of S. marcescens ( Kurz et al., 2003.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. success is the work of Aroian and colleagues on C. elegans mutants resistant to a Bt toxin. The screen identified a set of gly.


Germline survival and apoptosis [HTML]
Germline survival and apoptosis Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download
.ival and apoptosis * Anton Gartner 1 §Peter R. Boag 2and T. Keith Blackwell 2 † 1 Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Exp.

.n and Expression, University of Dundee; Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK 2 Section on Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin Diab.

.e germ line View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Overview 2. Methods to assess germline apoptosis 3. Physiological germ.

.l germ cell apoptosis: the “nurse cell” model 4.2. Mechanisms that influence physiological germ cell apoptosi.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 2. Methods to assess germline apoptosis
.10.1895/wormbook.1.145.1 2. Methods to assess germline apoptosis Several methods .

.th the caveat that AO does not work in engulfment-defective mutants. A sensitive method for visualizing germ cell apoptosis rel.

.P then appears diluted among a large number of dying cells, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, making detection of individual cells difficult, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. In addition, time .

Germline survival and apoptosis : 3. Physiological germline apoptosis occurs during normal oogenesis
.ore apoptotic machinery, including CED-3 and CED-4 ( Figure 2 ; see Programmed cell death ; Lettre and Hengartner, 2006 ).

. therefore differs from other C. elegans apoptosis ( Figure 2 ). Moreover, physiological germ cell apoptosis is not preve.

.on of the core apoptosis machinery by an unknown mechanism, making it of significant interest and a topic of current research.

.ignificant interest and a topic of current research. Figure 2. Regulation of germ cell apoptosis.  At least two dist.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 4, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Functions, regulation, and conservation of physiological germ cell apoptosis
. guanine Native Instruments FM8 crack serial keygen association inhibitors N.R. RabGGT/ M57.2B0280.1 2,9 Rab Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download geranyl transferase; prenylates Rab proteins .

.al., 1999 ). When apoptosis is prevented (in ced-3 or ced-4 mutants), young animals do not produce obviously abnormal oocytes. .

.uring spermatogenesis. Sperm contain very little cytoplasm, making it possible for all sperm nuclei to form gametes without cy.

.erhaps because sperm may be more expendable than oocytes. 4.2. Mechanisms that influence physiological germ cell apo.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 5. DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis
. all DNA damage responses, and were later mapped to the mrt-2 Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, clk-2 and hus-1 loci ( Table 2 ). mrt-2 and hus-1which also function in telomere replication (se.

.t, as UV-induced apoptosis is dramatically reduced in these mutants ( Table 2 ; Stergiou et al., 2007 ). clk-2 is a functionally conserved checkpoint gene that was first .

.ls of germ cell apoptosis in DNA double strand break repair mutants such as brca-1, brca-2 and rad-51 ( Alpi et al., 2003 ; Boulton et al., 2004 ; Chi.

.ngation and is functionally conserved in C. elegans ( Table 2 ; Boerckel et al., 2007 ). Table 2. Genes implicated in germline DNA damage responses Gene Pro.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 6. cep-1 (p53/p63) and the regulation of DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis
.is. In addition, no mutator phenotype was detected in cep-1 mutants or in mutants defective in the core cell apoptosis pathway ( Harris et al.

. xpand vst crack Archives p53-like), a primordial p53 family member ( Table 2 ; Derry et al., 2001 ; Schumacher et al., 2001 ). Due to lo.

.eems unlikely that the worm genome encodes a homolog of MDM-2, an E3 ligase and the most common negative regulator of p53.

.t studies also confirmed a role of C. elegans akt-1 and akt-2 kinases, which had previously been implicated in insulin si.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 7. Meiotic recombination and pairing checkpoints
.nd Dernburg, 2005 ). Apoptosis was, however, blocked in pch-2mutants, which do not affect DNA damage-induced apoptosis ( Bhalla .

.rg, 2005 ). The DNA damage checkpoint is activated in him-8 mutants that are defective in X-chromosome pairing and in mutants containing a PC deletion on chromosomes. This may be explai.

.k repair and meiotic recombination, such as rad-51 and brca-2 ( Alpi et al., 2003 ; Gartner et al., 2000 ; Martin et al.

.esults in germ cell apoptosis that requires the cep-1clk-2 and mrt-1 checkpoint genes. Consistent with the recombinati.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 8. Other stresses that induce germ cell apoptosis
. parallel egl-1 -independent mechanism is involved ( Figure 2 ). The induction of apoptosis by oxidative, heat, or osmoti.

Germline survival and apoptosis : 9. Germ cell immortality
.s ( Ahmed, 2006 ). Unbiased genetic screens have identified mutants that are defective in germ cell immortality ( Ahmed and Hod.

.ty ( Ahmed and Hodgkin, 2000 ). These mrt (mortal germline) mutants proliferate normally for several generations, before eventu.

.due to defects in germ cell proliferation. Several of these mutants have been implicated in telomere length maintenance ( Ahmed.

. encoding the 9-1-1 DNA damage checkpoint complex (e.g. mrt-2 and hus-1 ) are needed for telomere length maintenance ( Ah.


The C. elegans intestine [HTML]
The C. elegans intestine
.e intestine 6.1. Analysis of intestine specific promoters 6.2. Intestinal GATA factors and the predominance of ELT-2 6.3. Other transcription factors in the intestine 7. Future.

.control View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The intestinal cell lineage in time and space 3. Intestina.

.stinal morphogenesis and patterning 3.1. Intestinal twist 3.2. Anterior-posterior patterning of intestinal transcription .

.4.1. Apical domain, the brush border and the terminal web 4.2. Basolateral domain 4.3. Apical junctions 4.4. Intestinal o.

The C, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elegans intestine : 2. The intestinal cell lineage in time and space
.c view of the E lineage Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download shown on the left side of Figure 2. The right side of Figure 2 depicts the more realistic view of the intestinal lineage d.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.133.1 2. The intestinal cell filmora scrn activation code Archives in time and space The ent.

. below in the section on transcriptional regulation. Figure 2. Cell lineage of the C. elegans embryonic intestine.  .

.nterior daughter Ea and a posterior daughter Ep (see Figure 2 ). Ea and Ep then migrate into the embryo during gastrulati.

The C. elegans intestine : 3. Intestinal morphogenesis and patterning
.articular MS-lineage cells expressing the LIN-12 ligand LAG-2 contact the intestine primordium on the left side, not on t.

.ernative ligand APX-1. Both of these interactions, the LAG-2 dependent imposition of LIN-12 asymmetry at the 4E stage an.

.sary to impart the helical form to the overall intestine? 3.2. Anterior-posterior patterning of intestinal transcrip.

.re the same molecules studied so intensely in the earlier P 2 -EMS contact that specifies the intestine. Overall, the ges.

The C. elegans intestine : 4. Structure of an intestinal cell
.face ( Beh et al., 1991 ; Fukushige et al., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, 2005 ), the OPT-2 /PEP-2 peptide transporter ( Nehrke, 2003 ; Meissner et al., 2004 .

.ain including brush border and terminal web; (see section 4.2 ) the basolateral domain including the basement membrane; (.

.lation of cells during intestinal morphogenesis (see Figure 2 above) or from defects in the maturation of the apical junc.

.f microvillar length. The intermediate filament protein IFB-2 is the epitope reacting with the monoclonal antibody MH33 (.

The C. elegans intestine : 5. Function: towards a molecular physiology of the intestine
.ges of the intact intestine in a living animal using the Ca 2+ -sensitive-fluorescent cameleon system. After Ca 2+ spikes at the intestine posterior, a Ca 2+ wave propagates from the posterior to the intestine anteri.

.y uptake of food-derived peptides ( Nehrke, 2003 ). The OPT-2 /PEP-2 protein is the major C. elegans dipeptide transporter and i.

.se ( Mendel et al., 2003 ; Oskouian et al., 2005 ). The ELO-2ELO-5 and ELO-6 enzymes have fatty acid elongation activi.

.stine: The NUC-1 nuclease was originally identified because mutants retained bacterial DNA undigested within the intestine ( Su.

The C. elegans intestine : 6. Transcriptional control in the intestine
.ating vitellogenin transcription will be discussed below. 6.2. Intestinal GATA factors and the predominance of ELT-2 The C. elegans genome encodes eleven zinc-finger GATA-relat.

. genes encoding the next round of GATA factors, chiefly ELT-2. The elt-2 gene (where elt stands for erythrocyte-like transcription f.

.age and persists into adulthood; maintenance of correct ELT-2 levels likely involves direct elt-2 gene autoregulation ( Fukushige et al., 1998 ; Fukushige et.

.ndant backup for a minor fraction of genes regulated by ELT-2i.e. an elt-7 ; elt-2 double knockout has a slightly more severe phenotype than d.


Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans [HTML]
Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans
.est version Table of Contents 1. Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, models and theories 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging 2.3. Statistical analysis 3. Published gene expression profil.

.evant to C. elegans aging 3.1. Studies of wild type aging 3.2. Studies involving dauer formation gene mutants 3.3. Studies of life-extension paradigms 4. What have we le.

.earned? 4.1, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Conclusions drawn from studies of worm aging 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants 5. Future directions 6. References Abstract Great inroads i.

.geneexpressionaging.html 10.1895/wormbook.1.127.2 Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 1. Aging, models and theories
.10.1895/wormbook.1.127.2 1. Aging, models and theories Aging, or organismal sen.

.imura et al., 1997 ). The best characterized of these ( daf-2Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, age-1 ) are in an insulin-like signaling pathway which cu.

.ddle et al., 1981 ). The cost to fitness of these longevity mutants predicted by evolutionary theory was observed under stressf.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis
.10.1895/wormbook.1.127.22. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology Microarray met.

.ime-course experiments that are necessary in aging studies. 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging To enable the i.

.iar with microarrays and high-dimensionality data analysis. 2.3. Statistical analysis The analysis of microarray dat.

Gene expression changes associated with Room Arranger 9.6.1.624 With Full Version Crack in C. elegans : 3. Published gene expression profiling relevant to C. elegans aging
.olism, proteases McElwee et al., 2003 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) vs. daf2( e1370 ); daf-16 ( m27 ). Pools used, 2 biological replicates, 2 technical replicates of each. cDNA (17871) 4 Arbitrary cut.

.;Mount 15” McElwee et al., 2004 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) or daf-2( m577 ) vs. daf-2 ; daf-16. Pools used, 5 biological replicates per genotype.

.0000 tags) 5 Discovery Space Platform 48 age-related in daf-2265 age-matched control vs daf-2130 physiologically matched control vs daf-2 Lipid, protein and energy metabolism, stress response, cell.

.lov, 2004 ; Halaschek-Wiener et al., 2005 ), or between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants ( McElwee et al., 2003 ; McElwee et al., 2004 ; Murphy et a.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 4. What have we learned?
. between the microarray and SAGE data related to N2 and daf-2 aging deserve further investigation, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants Interestingly, most studies have focused on differences in .

. have focused on differences in gene expression between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 rather than between N2 and daf-2. Presumably, this is because mutation of daf-16 shortens (.

., since daf-16 is required for both dauer formation and daf-2 longevity, the gene sets identified by comparing daf-2 with daf-2 ; daf-16 overlaps substantially with the gene sets identifi.

.s that several stress-response genes are upregulated in daf-2 animals relative to daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants. Dauers also have an altered metabolism, consistent with th.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 5. Future directions
.udinal studies of gene expression over the life span of daf-2 or other long-lived mutants would aid in the interpretation of the expression changes r.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.127.2 5. Future directions Much has been learned from the ex.


Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans [HTML]
Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
. version 1 latest version Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Neuronal cell lineages and neuron classification 3. Genes .

.ns 3.1. Neuronal vs. non-neuronal lineage transformations 3.2. Neuron lineage alterations and losses 4. Genes controlling.

. 4.1. Terminal selectors control terminal neuron identity 4.2. Combinatorial regulatory codes 4.3. Other regulatory routi.

.lass specification 5.1. Diversifying motor neuron classes 5.2. Diversification across the left/right axis 6. Linking neur.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 1, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Introduction
. of the worm has allowed the retrieval of a large number of mutants required for the specification of cells within the nervous .

.by John Sulston and colleagues almost 30 years ago ( Figure 2 ) ( Sulston, 1983 ; Sulston et al., 1980 ; Sulston and Horv.

.ceh-17 homeobox axon pathfinding (several head neurons) ceh-2 homeobox aspects of neuronal differentiation (pharyngeal ne.

.ects of neuronal differentiation (command interneurons) fkh-2 forkhead ciliogenesis fozi-1 Zn finger subtype identity swi.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 2. Neuronal cell lineages and neuron classification
.lops ( Table 1 provides an overview of neuronal development mutants). Below, I highlight a selected few of these mutants, grouping them by the types of defects observed. Other revi.

.10.1895/wormbook.1.12.1. 2. Neuronal cell lineages and neuron classification Suls.

.ls some key features of nervous system development ( Figure 2 ). As a quick glance at the diagram shows, C. elegans neuro.

.y derived from many different lineages (red lines in Figure 2 ). Some lineage sub-branches give rise exclusively to neuro.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 3. Genes controlling lineage decisions
.ryonic V ectoblasts transform into neuronal fates in lin-22 mutants or lose their neuronal fate in lin-32 mutants ( Horvitz et al., 1983 ; Wrischnik and Kenyon, 1997 ; Zhao .

.ons Two classic examples Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download neuronal lineage transformation mutants, lin-32 and lin-22reveal the existence of defined neuron.

.ure 3A ). Interestingly, the opposite is observed in lin-22 mutants that lack a hairy- type bHLH transcription factor ( Figure UltraISO 9.7.6.3812 With Activation Code Full Crack [ Latest ] lineages show similar re-iteration patterns in unc-86 mutants.   (C) A hypodermal cell transforms into a motorneuron.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 4. Genes controlling neuron class specification
.vidual behavior completely fails to differentiate. In mec-3 mutants mechanosensory neurons fail to differentiate, in ttx-3 mutants an interneuron class (AIY) required for processing thermose.

. neuronal migration defects are observed (e.g., mab-5ham-2mutants ( Baum et al., 1999 ; Salser and Kenyon, 1992 )). Usually t.

.ionally been identified through forward genetic screens for mutants in which individual neuron classes with easily scorable fun.

.5 ; Horvitz et al., 1983 ). Searching for viable behavioral Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download may have introduced a bias to the types of genes identified.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 5. Genes controlling neuron subclass specification
. a regulatory routine onto a subset of the class members. 5.2. Diversification across the left/right axis Neural fat.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 6. Linking neuronal class specification to lineage
.shown in Figure 5. The transiently expressed Zic- like ref-2 Zn finger transcription factor cooperates with a combinatio.

. to the coupling of the neuroblast identity determinant ref-2 to a terminal selector. For example, the nhr-67 orphan nucl.

.uron is born. One example is the HMX-type homeobox gene mls-2which is transiently expressed in the AWC neuron shortly .

. distinct lineage histories as shown in the inset to Figure 2 ). Figure 5. A Wnt signaling system contributes a lineage s.

Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans : 7. Conclusions and perspectives
.orth reiterating to underscore the common thread: in lin-22 mutants neuronal fate will be executed instead of hypodermal fate; .

.ome touch neurons adopt the fate of their sisters; in lim-4 mutants the AWB neuron switches to the AWC neuron; in unc-4 and vab.

.e AWB neuron switches to the AWC neuron; in unc-4 and vab-7 mutants ventral cord motor neuron classes execute alternative fate .

.native fate programs ( Von Stetina et al., 2006 ); in ahr-1 mutants RMEL /R neurons change their identity to RMED /V neurons ( .


Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans [HTML]
Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans
.est version Table of Contents 1. Aging, models and theories 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging 2.3. Statistical analysis 3. Published gene expression profil.

.evant to C. elegans aging 3.1. Studies of wild type aging 3.2. Studies involving dauer formation gene mutants 3.3. Studies of life-extension paradigms 4. What have we le.

.earned? 4.1. Conclusions drawn from studies of worm aging 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants 5. Future directions 6. References Abstract Great inroads i.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 1. Aging, models and theories
.imura et al., 1997 ). The best characterized of these ( daf-2age-1 ) are in an insulin-like signaling pathway which cu.

.ddle et al., 1981 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. The cost to fitness of these longevity mutants predicted by evolutionary theory was observed under stressf.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis
.10.1895/wormbook.1.127.1 2. Microarray experimental design and analysis 2.1. Microarray platforms and methodology Microarray met.

.ime-course experiments that are necessary in aging studies. 2.2. Experimental design relevant to aging To enable the i.

.iar with microarrays Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download high-dimensionality data analysis. 2.3. Statistical analysis The analysis of microarray dat.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 3. Published gene expression profiling relevant to C. elegans aging
.olism, proteases McElwee et al., 2003 First day adults, daf-2( e1370 ) vs. daf2( e1370 ); daf-16 ( m27 ). Pools used, 2 biological replicates, 2 technical replicates of each. cDNA (17871) 4 Arbitrary cut.

.;Mount 15” McElwee et al., 2004 First day adults, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, daf-2( e1370 ) or daf-2( m577 ) vs. daf-2 ; daf-16. Pools used, 5 biological replicates per genotype.

.0000 tags) 5 Discovery Space Platform 48 age-related in daf-2265 age-matched control vs daf-2130 physiologically matched control vs daf-2 Lipid, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, protein and energy metabolism, stress response, cell.

.lov, 2004 ; Halaschek-Wiener et al., 2005 ), Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, or between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants ( McElwee et al., 2003 ; McElwee et al., 2004 ; Murphy et a.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 4. What have we learned?
. between the microarray and SAGE data related to N2 and daf-2 aging deserve further investigation. 4.2. Conclusions drawn from the study of dauer formation mutants Interestingly, most studies have focused on differences in .

. have focused on differences in gene expression between daf-2 and daf-2 ; daf-16 rather than between N2 and daf-2. Presumably, this is because mutation of daf-16 shortens (.

., since daf-16 is required for both dauer formation and daf-2 longevity, the gene sets identified by comparing daf-2 with daf-2 ; daf-16 overlaps substantially with the gene sets identifi.

.s that several stress-response genes are upregulated in daf-2 animals relative to daf-2 ; daf-16 double mutants. Dauers also have an altered metabolism, consistent with th.

Gene expression changes associated with aging in C. elegans : 5. Future directions
.udinal studies of gene expression over the life span of daf-2 or other long-lived mutants would aid in the interpretation of the expression changes r.


Genomic overview of protein kinases [HTML]
Genomic overview of protein kinases
.Kinases View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The C. elegans kinome 3. Kinase evolution 4. Recent expans.

.st and most influential of gene families: constituting some 2% of the proteome, they regulate almost all biochemical path.

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 1. Introduction
.est and most important of protein families, accounting for ~2% of genes in a variety of eukaryotic genomes. By phosphoryl.

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 2. The C. elegans kinome
.10.1895/wormbook.1.60.1 2. The C. elegans kinome Most protein kinases share a co.

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 3. Kinase evolution
.c   1 5 Immunity; morphogenesis   TKL LISK LIMK 1 2 Cytoskeletal   TKL LISK TESK 1 2 Testis development   Human Atypical Alpha ChaK 0 2 Neuronal Human adds kinase to metazoan-wide channel Atypica.

. Human adds kinase to conserved protein Other NKF3   0 2 Unknown   Other NKF4   0 2 Cytoskeletal   Other NKF5   0 2 Testis development?   TK Axl   0 3 Cell growth; a.

.ich is present in fly. Splicing function? CAMK PSK   1 2 Human PSKH1 has a Golgi function. CAMK PIM   2 3 Related to PASK, which is present in fly and absent from .

.ly has closely related Ror and Musk families. TK Met   22 Worm has a clear Met homolog and a divergent family member.

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 4. Recent expansions and inventions in the worm kinome
.l 3 Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Trilogy PC full crack - Free Download - Repack - Hiu Games 0 0 CK1/TTBKL 31 22 0 0 CK1/Worm6 28 19 0 0 CK1/Worm7 2 1 0 0 CK1/Worm8 3 1 0 0 CK1/Worm9 2 0 0 0 CK1/Worm10 22 0 0 CK1/Worm11 1 2 0 0 CK1/Unique 6 3 0 0 TK/Fer 38 24 1 2 RGC group 27 20 6 5 TK/KIN-16 16 6 0 0 Other/Haspin 13 1 1 .

.10 8 4 7 CMGC/MAPK/Jnk 5 3 1 3 TK/KIN-9 5 5 0 0 Other/Worm1 2 1 0 0 Other/Worm2 3 2 0 0 Other/Worm3 2 1 0 0 Other/Worm4 1 1 0 0 Other/Worm5 3 0 0 0 Total 217 132.

. 5 TK/KIN-16 16 6 0 0 Other/Haspin 13 1 1 1 CMGC/GSK3 7 6 3 2 CAMK/CAMKL/ CHK1 7 1 1 1 Ste/Ste7 10 8 4 7 CMGC/MAPK/Jnk 5 .

.el extracellular regions. KIN-16 includes the old-1 and old-2 genes thought to be involved in age and stress resistance (.

Genomic overview of protein kinases : 5. The C. briggsae kinome
. between conserved and expanded families is shown in Figure 2 A of the nematode-specific KIN-16 family, in which Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download pair.

.s, all of which pair off in an orthologous fashion ( Figure 2 B). .

Genomic overview of protein kinases : A. Appendix A: Classification of worm kinases
.BKL   31 Nematodes M7.7B0207.7F35C11.3Y71F9AL.2C04G2.2C45G9.1F32B6.10W01B6.2C05C12.1C49C8.1Y73B6A.2D2024.1Y47G6A.13F54H5.2C56C10.6C53A5.4K06H7.8D2045.5W09C3.1R10D12.

. Wormbook entries Name/ function overview AGC     2 Nematodes, Dictyostelium F31E3.2F28C10.3     AGC AKT   2 All kinomes akt-1akt-2   PI3K signaling AGC DMPK GEK 1 All metazoans K08B12.5.

.azoans Y50D7A.3   Phosphorylase kinase CAMK PIM   2 Nematodes and vertebrates prk-1prk-2     CAMK PKD   2 All metazoans T25E12.4W09C5.5   Protein kinase D CA.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download, C09D4.3C55B7.10F41G3.5F38E1.3C27D8.1Y39G8C.2F53C3.1F33D11.7C34B2.3C49C3.2spe-6C09B9.4ZK354.2Y65B4A.9F59E12.3C38C3.4   Uncharacterized CK1 .


Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download regulation transformationmicroinjection
.biology View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Tools to study transcriptional regulation 3. Locating cis.

., Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. elements 4. Simple promoters 5. Complex promoters 5.1. myo-2 : activation of a terminal differentiation gene by the comb.

.ties of organ- and cell type-specific regulatory elements 5.2. hlh-1 : activation of gene expression by lineage-preferenc.

.ntrol of pharyngeal gene expression by a master regulator 7.2. Tissue specificity: regulation of gut gene expression by a.

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 1. Introduction
. is phosphorylated on the C-terminal domain (CTD) at serine 2 and 5 like other eukaryotes ( Seydoux and Dunn, 1997 ; Wall.

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 2. Tools to study transcriptional regulation
.10.1895/wormbook.1.45.1 2. Tools to study transcriptional regulation Reporter ge.

. There are several considerations to take into account when making reporter genes. One is the distinction between transcriptio.

.ackground hybridization or partially permeabilized animals, making it difficult to get in situ hybridization signals that are .

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 3, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. Locating cis-acting regulatory elements
. is controlled, in part, by an element located greater than 2 kb downstream of the coding region and beyond an unrelated.

.ex and distant control regions. However, a rule-of-thumb of 2 kb upstream of the ATG works well as a starting point in th.

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 4. Simple promoters
. and sex-specific expression controlled, in the case of vit-2by a 247 bp promoter ( MacMorris et al., 1992 ; MacMorris.

.er ( MacMorris et al., 1992 ; MacMorris et al., 1994 ). vit-2 promoter activity depends on GATA-factor binding sites and .

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 5. Complex promoters
. not the only factor functioning with PHA-4 to activate myo-2 expression. CEH-22 is expressed in most, but not all, myo-2 expressing pharyngeal muscles ( Okkema and Fire, 1994 ). Li.

.combination to activate pharyngeal muscle expression of myo-2. myo-2 expression is activated by the pharyngeal muscle-specific C.

.bed for the promoter region of several genes, including myo-2hlh-1 and lin-26. These studies reveal examples in which.

.ssue- and organ-type and by lineage history. 5.1.  myo-2 : activation of a terminal differentiation gene by the comb.

Transcriptional regulation transformationmicroinjection : 6. Trans-acting factors
.r TAF11 R07C12.4 185116_s_at AP-1-like F28C6.1 191919_at AP-2-like F28C6.2 191940_at AP-2-like K06A1.1 191145_at AP-2-like Y62E10A.17 186925_at AP-2-like Y73E7A.2 176887_at Apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor aha-1.

.11_s_at PHD-finger Y51H4A.12 184300_s_at PHD-finger Y53G8AR.2 174165_at, 187052_at PHD-finger ZC132.2 179825_at PHD-finger K04C1.2 182794_s_at Polycomb-group mes-2 190261_s_at Polycomb-group mes-6 187971_at Polycomb-group s.

._at E2F/DP1 F49E12.6 175552_at, 189678_at E2F/DP1 elf-1(mex-2) 186476_s_at E2F/DP1 elf-2 186271_at E2F/DP1 C24A1.2 174325_at ETS domain C33A11.4 188664_at ETS domain C42D8.4 .

.; Blackwell et al., 1994     E/Daug- hterless HLH-2 HLH-2 ; HLH-3 ; LIN-32 YES N.D. lin-3lag-2 CACCTG Hwang and Sternberg, 2004 ; Karp and Greenwald, 2003.

Transcriptional regulation Download Game PC God OF War - 3 Full Crack transformationmicroinjection : 7. Spatial specificity
.is then expressed one cell division later, beginning at the 2 E-cell stage ( Fukushige et al., 1998 ). elt-2 expression is activated by END-1 ( Zhu et al., 1998 ), but.

.l muscle-specific homeodomain factor CEH-22 to activate myo-2 expression during muscle cell differentiation ( Kalb et al.

.uld affect PHA-4 binding affinity by cooperative binding. 7.2. Tissue specificity: regulation of gut gene expression.

.ow indicates an autoregulatory mechanism that maintains elt-2 expression. The first of these gut-specific GATA factors is.


Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans [HTML]
Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans
.ecology View/Add Comments Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Taxonomic overview 2.1. The genus Caenorhabditis 2.2. The family Rhabditidae 2.3. The family Diplogastridae 2.4. Nematodes of clade IV 3. Developmental systems 3.1. Gona.

. clade IV 3. Developmental systems 3.1. Gonad development 3.2. Vulva development 3.3. Male tail and body Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download evolution 4.

Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans : 2. Taxonomic overview
.Caenorhabditis C. elegans H V: R Di Central/ − 1-step 2°-1°-2°   Oscheius O. tipulae H V: R Di Central/ − 2-step 2°-1°-2° see sections 3.1.2 / 3.2.3. Rhabditella R. axei G V: R Di Central/ − 2-step 2°-1°-2° Felix and Sternberg, 1997 Rhabditoides R. regina G V: .

.96 Pristionchus P. pacificus H V: D Di Central/+ continuous 2°-1°-2° see sections 3.1.3. / 3.2.4. Koerneria K. sp. RS 113 G V: D Di Central/+ Gonad dep.* 2°-1°-2° Sternberg and Horvitz, 1981 Diplogasteroides D. sp. RS.

.lished Panagrolaimus P. sp. PS 1732 H IV: P Mono Central /+ 2-step 2°-1°-1°-2° Felix et al., 2000 Panagrellus P. redivivus G IV: P Mo.

.00 Panagrellus P, Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download. redivivus G IV: P Mono Posterior/ − 2-step 2°-1°-1°-2° Sternberg and Horvitz, 1981 / Felix et al., 2000 Turba.

Evolution of development in nematodes related to C. elegans Prima Cartoonizer 3.1.5 With Crack Download : 3. Developmental systems
. fates are shown in grey. Note that the Cephalobina pattern 2°-1°-1°-2° is a simplification (see section 3.2.2 for details). Reprinted from Sommer (2000)Copyright (200.

.risingly conserved with the only major alteration being the 2°-1°-2° pattern (clade V) vs. 2°-1°-1°-2° pattern (clade IV; Table 1 ). At the same time however.

. death. These include P(1-4).p and P(9-11).p (see section 3.2.4. below). The vulva is formed by P(5-7).p with a 2°-1°-2° pattern ( Figure 6A ; Table 1 ; Sommer and Sternberg. .

.these cells adopt the anteroposterior pattern 3°-3°-2°-1°-2°-3°. P3.pP4.p and P8.p have an epidermal fate in.


Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology [HTML]
Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology
.omments Table of Contents 1. Ionotropic glutamate receptors 2. Glutamate-gated chloride channels: distribution and functi.

Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology : 1. Ionotropic glutamate receptors
. acid (AMPA; GluR1-4/GluRA-D), or kainate (KA; GluR5-7, KA1-2). Two other subunits, δ 1 and δ 2, which share high sequence similarity with other iGluR subu.

.most similar to either the AMPA or kainate subfamilies. The 2 NMDA subunits, NMR-1 and NMR-2
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