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China warns state firms on cryptomining, mulls fines

China has told its state-owned enterprises to get out of cryptocurrency mining and is considering imposing punitive measures in the form of higher power prices on companies that continue to defy a government ban as bitcoin trades near record highs.

The Chinese National Development and Reform Commission plans to crack down on industrial-scale bitcoin mining, as well as any involvement by state companies in the activity, Meng Wei (孟瑋), a spokeswoman for the nation’s chief economic planner, told a news conference yesterday.

Last week, the commission held a special meeting on the issue, and it is putting a bigger onus on provinces and municipalities to investigate and clean up state-owned enterprises involved in mining.

Beijing has this year cracked down hard on bitcoin miners, cracking Archives, saying that they are to blame for everything from energy waste to deadly coal mining accidents as the government cracking Archives to meet its carbon-neutral goals.

Concern over the country’s power supplies for the upcoming winter season was one reason for an intensified campaign against miners in September, when officials were said to have gone after those who tried to disguise themselves as data researchers and storage facilities to stay in business.

Since then, coal cracking Archives have collapsed, making the effects of punitive prices on the cost of electricity less clear.

Cryptocurrencies yesterday fell, with bitcoin sliding toward US$60, cracking Archives, and ether touching one of its lowest levels this month. Bitcoin has more than doubled this year, while ether is up about sixfold.

Bitcoin, cracking Archives, the largest digital token, was yesterday down almost 5 percent to US$60, in Hong Kong trading, while second-ranked ether slid as much as percent.

Global crypto market capitalization has dropped about 7 percent in the past 24 hours to US$ trillion, tracker CoinGecko said.

“We’ve seen the US infrastructure bill get signed, which has initiated a sell-off cracking Archives traders who are concerned about regulation and taxation,” said Hayden Hughes, cracking Archives, chief executive officer of Alpha Impact, a platform that allows investors to copy the strategies of other crypto traders.

He also cited concerns about China continuing its regulatory crackdown.

Comments will be moderated. Keep comments relevant to the article. Remarks containing abusive and obscene language, personal attacks of any kind or promotion will be removed and the user banned. Final decision will be at the discretion of the Taipei Cracking Archives.
Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Password cracking

Recovering passwords stored or transmitted by computer systems

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords[1] from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system in scrambled form. A common approach (brute-force attack) is to repeatedly try guesses for the password and to check them against an available cryptographic hash of the password.[2] Another type of approach is password spraying, which is often automated and occurs slowly over time in order to remain undetected, cracking Archives, using cracking Archives list of common passwords.[3]

The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (due to the fact that installing an entirely new password would involve System Administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or to act as a preventive measure whereby system administrators check for easily crackable passwords. On a Browsec VPN Premium Crack with APK Free Download [2021] basis, password cracking is utilized to gain access to digital evidence to which a judge has allowed access, cracking Archives a particular file's permissions are restricted.

Time needed for password searches[edit]

The time to crack a password is related to bit strength (seepassword strength), which is a measure of the password's entropy, and the details of how the password is stored. Most methods of password cracking require the computer to produce many candidate passwords, each of which is checked. One example is brute-force cracking, in which a computer tries every possible key or password until it succeeds, cracking Archives. With multiple processors, cracking Archives, this time can be optimized through searching from the last possible group of symbols and the beginning at the same time, with other processors being placed to search through a designated selection of possible passwords.[4] More common methods of password cracking, such as dictionary attacks, pattern checking, word list substitution, etc. attempt to reduce the number of trials required and will usually be attempted before brute force. Higher password bit strength exponentially increases the number of candidate passwords that must be checked, on average, to recover the password and reduces the likelihood cracking Archives the password will be found in any cracking dictionary.[5]

The ability to crack passwords using computer programs is also a function of the number of possible passwords per second which can be checked. If a hash of the target password is available to the attacker, this number can be in the billions or trillions cracking Archives second, since an offline attack is possible. If not, the rate depends on whether the authentication software limits how often a password can be tried, cracking Archives, either by time delays,or forced lockouts after cracking Archives number of failed attempts, cracking Archives. Another situation where quick guessing is possible is when the password is used to form a cryptographic key. In such cases, an attacker can quickly check to see if a guessed password successfully decodes encrypted cracking Archives.

For some kinds of password hash, ordinary desktop computers can test over a hundred million passwords per second using password cracking tools running on a general purpose CPU and billions of passwords per second using GPU-based password cracking tools[1][6][7] (See: John the Ripper benchmarks).[8] The rate of password guessing depends heavily on the cryptographic function used by the system to generate password hashes. A suitable password hashing function, such as bcrypt, is many orders of magnitude better than a naive function like simple MD5 or SHA, cracking Archives. A user-selected eight-character password with numbers, mixed case, and symbols, cracking Archives, with commonly selected passwords and other dictionary matches filtered out, reaches an estimated bit strength, according to NIST. 230 is only one billion permutations[9] and would be cracked in seconds if the hashing function is naive. When ordinary desktop computers are combined in a cracking effort, as can be done with botnets, the capabilities of password cracking are considerably extended, cracking Archives. Incracking Archives, shoppingdowntown.us successfully found a bit RC5 key in four years, in an effort which included overdifferent computers at various times, and which generated an average of over 12 billion keys per second.[10]

Graphics processors can speed up password cracking by a factor of 50 to over general cracking Archives computers for specific hashing algorithms. As ofavailable commercial products claim cracking Archives ability to test up to 2,, passwords a second on a standard desktop computer using a high-end graphics processor.[11] Such a device can crack a 10 letter single-case password in one day. The work can be distributed over many computers for an additional speedup proportional to the number of available computers with comparable GPUs.[citation needed]. However some algorithms are or even are specifically designed to run slow on GPUs. Examples include (triple) DES, bcryptscrypt and Argon2.

The emergence of hardware acceleration over the past decade Cracking Archives has enabled resources to be used to increase the efficiency and speed of a brute force attack for most hashing algorithms. InStricture Consulting Group unveiled a GPU cluster that achieved a brute force cracking Archives speed of billion guesses per second, allowing them to check {\textstyle 95^{8}}password combinations in hours. Using ocl-Hashcat Plus on a Virtual OpenCL cluster platform,[12] the Linux-based GPU cluster was used to "crack 90 percent of the million password hashes belonging to users of LinkedIn."[13]

For some specific hashing algorithms, CPUs and GPUs are not a good match. Purpose made hardware is required to run at high speeds. Custom hardware can be made using FPGA or ASIC technology. Development for both technologies is complex and (very) expensive. In general, FPGAs are favorable in small quantities, ASICs are favorable in (very) large quantities, more energy efficient and faster. Inthe Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) built a dedicated password cracking Archives using ASICs. Their machine, Deep Cracking Archives, broke a DES bit key in 56 hours, testing over 90 billion keys per second.[14] Inleaked documents show that ASICs are used for a military project to code-break the entire internet.[15] Designing and building ASIC-basic password crackers is assumed to be out of reach for non-governments. SinceJohn the Ripper supports password cracking for a limited number of hashing algorithms using FPGAs.[16] FPGA-based setups are now in use by commercial companies for password cracking.[17]

Easy to remember, hard to guess[edit]

Passwords that cracking Archives difficult to remember will reduce the security of a system because (a) cracking Archives might need to write down or electronically store the password using an insecure method, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password. Similarly, the more stringent requirements for password strength, e.g. "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system.[18]

In "The Memorability and Security of Passwords",[19] Jeff Yan et al. examines the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords. Combining two unrelated words is another good method. Having a personally designed "algorithm" for generating obscure passwords is another good method, cracking Archives.

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a "mix of uppercase and lowercase characters" is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalizes one of the letters). Asking users to use "both letters and digits" will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as 'E' → '3' and 'I' → '1', substitutions which are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.

Research detailed in an April paper by several professors at Carnegie Mellon University shows that cracking Archives choices of password structure often follow several known patterns. As a result, passwords may be much more easily cracked than their mathematical probabilities would otherwise indicate. Passwords containing one digit, for example, disproportionately include it at the end of the password.[20]

Incidents[edit]

On July 16,CERT reported an incident where an attacker had foundencrypted passwords. By the time they were discovered, they had already cracked cracking Archives, passwords.[21]

In Decembera major password breach of the shoppingdowntown.us website occurred that led to the release of 32 million passwords. The attacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were extracted through a SQL Injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords.[22]

In JuneNATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11, registered users of their e-bookshop, cracking Archives. The data were leaked as part of Operation Cracking Archives, a movement that includes Anonymous, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals.[23]

On July 11,Booz Allen Hamilton, a large American Consulting firm that does a substantial amount of work for the Pentagon, had their servers Hasleo Data Recovery Crack With Activation Code(100%Working)Free Download 2021 by Anonymous and leaked the same day, cracking Archives. "The leak, dubbed 'Military Meltdown Monday,' includes 90, logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine Corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors."[24] These leaked passwords were found to be hashed with unsaltedSHA-1, and were later analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, revealing that even some military personnel used passwords as weak as "".[25]

On July 18,Microsoft Hotmail cracking Archives the password: "".[26]

In Julya group calling itself "The Impact Team" stole the user data of Ashley Madison.[27] Many passwords were hashed using both the relatively strong bcrypt algorithm and the weaker MD5 hash. Attacking the latter algorithm allowed some 11 million plaintext passwords to be recovered by password cracking group CynoSure Prime.[28]

Prevention[edit]

One method of preventing a password from being cracked is to ensure that attackers cannot get access even to the hashed password. For example, cracking Archives, on the Unixoperating system, hashed passwords were originally stored in a publicly accessible file. On modern Unix (and similar) systems, on the other hand, cracking Archives, they are stored in cracking Archives shadow password filewhich is accessible only to programs running with enhanced privileges (i.e., cracking Archives, "system" privileges). This makes it harder cracking Archives a malicious user to obtain the hashed passwords in the first instance, however many collections of password hashes have been stolen despite such protection. And some common network protocols transmit passwords in cleartext or use weak challenge/response schemes.[29][30]

Another approach is to combine a site-specific secret key with the password hash, which prevents plaintext password recovery even if the hashed values are purloined. However privilege escalation attacks that can steal protected hash files may also expose the site secret. A third approach is to use key derivation functions that reduce the rate at which passwords can be guessed.[31]:&#;&#;

Another protection measure is the use of salt, a random value unique to each password cracking Archives is incorporated in the hashing, cracking Archives. Salt prevents multiple hashes from being attacked simultaneously and also prevents the creation of precomputed dictionaries such as rainbow cracking Archives.

Modern Unix Systems have replaced the traditional DES-based password hashing function crypt() with stronger methods such cracking Archives crypt-SHA, bcrypt and scrypt.[32] Other systems have also begun to adopt these methods. For instance, the Cisco IOS originally used a reversible Vigenère cipher to encrypt passwords, but now uses md5-crypt with a bit salt when the "enable secret" command is used.[33] These newer methods use large salt values which prevent attackers from efficiently mounting offline attacks against multiple user accounts simultaneously. The algorithms are also much slower to execute which drastically increases the time required to mount a successful offline attack.[34]

Many hashes used for storing passwords, such as MD5 and the SHA family, cracking Archives, are designed for fast computation with low memory requirements and efficient implementation in hardware. Multiple instances of these algorithms can be run in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs), speeding cracking. As a result, fast hashes are ineffective in preventing password cracking, even with salt. Some key stretching algorithms, such as PBKDF2 and crypt-SHA iteratively calculate password hashes and can significantly reduce cracking Archives rate at which passwords can be tested, if the iteration count is high enough. Other algorithms, such as scrypt are memory-hard, cracking Archives, meaning they require relatively large amounts of memory in addition to time-consuming computation and are thus more difficult to crack using GPUs and custom integrated circuits.

In a long-term Password Hashing Competition was announced to choose a new, cracking Archives, standard algorithm for password hashing,[35] with Argon2 chosen as the winner in Another algorithm, Balloon, is recommended by NIST.[36] Both algorithms are memory-hard.

Solutions like a security token give a formal proof answer by constantly shifting password. Those solutions abruptly reduce the timeframe available for brute forcing (attacker needs to break and use the password within a single shift) and they reduce the value of the stolen passwords because of its short time validity.

Software[edit]

Main category: Password cracking Archives software

There are many password cracking software tools, but the most popular[37] are Aircrack, Cain and Abel, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Hydra, DaveGrohl and ElcomSoft, cracking Archives. Many litigation support software packages also include password cracking functionality. Most of these packages employ a mixture of cracking strategies, algorithm with brute force and dictionary attacks proving to be the most productive.[38]

The increased availability of cracking Archives power and beginner friendly automated password cracking software for a number of protection schemes has allowed the activity to be taken up by script kiddies.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ aboclHashcat-lite – advanced password recovery. shoppingdowntown.us Retrieved on January 31,
  2. ^Montoro, Massimiliano (). "Brute-Force Password Cracker". shoppingdowntown.us. Archived from the original on August 20, Retrieved August 13, CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^"What Is Password Spraying? How to Stop Password Spraying Attacks".
  4. ^Bahadursingh, Roman (January 19, ). "A Distributed Algorithm for Brute Force Password Cracking on n Processors". doi/zenodo
  5. ^Lundin, Leigh (August 11, ). "PINs and Passwords, Part 2", cracking Archives. Passwords. Orlando: Cracking Archives, Steven. (June 20, ) The Bug Charmer: How long should passwords be?. shoppingdowntown.us Retrieved on January 31,
  6. ^Cryptohaze Blog: Billion NTLM/sec on 10 hashes. shoppingdowntown.us (July 15, ). Retrieved on January 31,
  7. ^John the Ripper benchmarks. shoppingdowntown.us (March 30, ). Retrieved on January 31,
  8. ^Burr, W. E.; Dodson, D. F.; Polk, W. T. (). "Electronic Authentication Guideline"(PDF). Cracking Archives. doi/shoppingdowntown.us Retrieved March 27,
  9. ^"bit key project status". shoppingdowntown.us Archived from the original on September 10, Retrieved March 27,
  10. ^Password Recovery Speed table, from ElcomSoft. NTLM passwords, Nvidia Tesla S GPU, accessed February 1,
  11. ^"VCL Cluster Platform". shoppingdowntown.us.
  12. ^"GPU cluster cracks every standard Windows password in <6 hours".
  13. ^"EFF DES Cracker machine brings honesty to crypto debate". EFF. Archived from the original on January 1, Retrieved June 7,
  14. ^BiddleMay 11Sam BiddleSam; P.m, "NYU Accidentally Exposed Military Code-breaking Computer Project to Entire Internet". The Intercept.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  15. ^"announce - [openwall-announce] John the Ripper jumbo-1", cracking Archives. shoppingdowntown.us.
  16. ^"Bcrypt password cracking extremely slow? Not if you are using hundreds of FPGAs!". Medium. September 8,
  17. ^Managing Network Security. Fred Cohen & Associates. shoppingdowntown.us Retrieved on January 31,
  18. ^Yan, cracking Archives, J.; Blackwell, A.; Anderson, R.; Grant, A. (). "Password Memorability and Security: Empirical Results"(PDF). IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine. 2 (5): doi/MSP S2CID&#;
  19. ^Steinberg, Joseph (April 21, ), cracking Archives. "New Technology Cracks 'Strong' Passwords – What You Need Cracking Archives Know". Forbes.
  20. ^"CERT IN". Retrieved September 9,
  21. ^"Consumer Password Worst Practices"(PDF).
  22. ^"NATO Hack Attack". Retrieved July 24,
  23. ^"Anonymous Leaks 90, cracking Archives, Military Email Accounts in Latest Antisec Attack". July 11,
  24. ^"Military Password Analysis". July 12,
  25. ^"Microsoft's Hotmail Bans ". Imperva. July 18, Archived from the original on March 27,
  26. ^"Ashley Madison: Hackers Dump Stolen Dating Site Data", cracking Archives. shoppingdowntown.us. Retrieved April 11,
  27. ^"Researchers Crack 11 Million Ashley Madison Passwords". shoppingdowntown.us. Retrieved April 11,
  28. ^Singer, Abe (November ). "No Plaintext Passwords"(PDF). Login. 26 (7): 83– Archived from the original(PDF) on September 24,
  29. ^Cryptanalysis of Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. shoppingdowntown.us (July 7, ). Retrieved on January 31,
  30. ^Grassi, Paul A (June ). "SP B-3 – Digital Identity Guidelines, Authentication and Lifecycle Management". NIST, cracking Archives. doi/shoppingdowntown.us
  31. ^A Future-Adaptable Password Scheme. shoppingdowntown.us (March 13, ), cracking Archives. Retrieved on January 31,
  32. ^MDCrack FAQ None, cracking Archives. Retrieved on January 31,
  33. ^Password Protection for Modern Operating Systems. shoppingdowntown.us Retrieved on January 31,
  34. ^"Password Hashing Competition". Archived from the original on September 2, Retrieved March 3,
  35. ^"NIST SPB Section "(PDF). shoppingdowntown.us.
  36. ^"Top 10 Password Crackers". Sectools, cracking Archives. Retrieved November 1,
  37. ^"Stay Secure: See How Password Crackers Work - Keeper Blog". Keeper Security Blog - Cybersecurity News & Product Updates. September 28, Retrieved November 7,
  38. ^Anderson, Nate (March 24, ). "How I became a password cracker: Cracking passwords is officially a "script kiddie" activity now". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 24,

External links[edit]

Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Artificial Intelligence Is Cracking Open the Vatican's Secret Archives

The Vatican Secret Archives is one of the grandest historical collections in the world. It’s also one of the most useless.

The grandeur is obvious. Located within the Vatican’s walls, next door to the Apostolic Library and just north of the Sistine Chapel, the VSA houses 53 linear miles of shelving dating back more than 12 centuries, cracking Archives. It includes gems like the papal bull that excommunicated Martin Luther and the pleas for help that Mary Queen of Scots sent to Pope Sixtus V before her execution, cracking Archives. In size and scope, the collection is almost peerless.

That said, the VSA isn’t much use to modern scholars, because it’s so inaccessible. Of those 53 miles, just a cracking Archives millimeters’ worth of pages have been scanned and made available online. Even fewer pages have been transcribed into computer text and made searchable. If you want to peruse anything else, you have to apply for special access, schlep all the way to Rome, cracking Archives, and go through every page by hand.

But a new project could change all that. Known as In Codice Ratio, it uses a combination of artificial intelligence and optical-character-recognition (OCR) software to scour these neglected texts and make their transcripts available for the very first time. If successful, cracking Archives, the technology could also open up untold numbers of other documents at historical archives around the world.

OCR has been used to scan books and other printed documents for years, but it’s not well cracking Archives for the material in the Secret Archives. Traditional OCR breaks words down into a series of letter-images by looking for the spaces cracking Archives letters. It then compares each letter-image to the bank of letters in its memory. After deciding which letter best matches the image, the software translates the letter into computer code (ASCII) and thereby makes the text searchable.

This process, however, really only works on typeset text. It’s lousy for anything written by hand—like the vast majority of old Vatican documents. Here’s an example from the early s, written in what’s called Caroline minuscule script, which looks like a mix of calligraphy and cursive:

The main problem in this example is the lack of space between letters (so-called dirty segmentation), cracking Archives. OCR can’t tell where one letter stops and another starts, and therefore doesn’t know how many letters Avast Cleanup Premium Key 20.1 Crack Version Download | Latest are. The result is a computational deadlock, sometimes referred to as Sayre’s paradox: OCR software needs to segment a word into individual letters before it can recognize them, but in handwritten texts with connected letters, the software needs to recognize the letters in order to segment them. It’s a catch

Some computer scientists have tried to get around this problem by developing OCR to recognize whole words instead of letters. This works fine technologically—computers don’t “care” whether they’re parsing words or letters. But getting these systems up and running is a bear, because they require gargantuan memory banks. Rather than a few dozen alphabet letters, these systems have to recognize images of thousands upon thousands of common words. Which means cracking Archives need a whole platoon of scholars with expertise in medieval Latin to go through old documents and capture images of each word. In fact, you need several images of each, to account for quirks in handwriting or bad lighting and other variables. It’s a daunting task.

In Codice Ratio sidesteps these problems through a new approach to handwritten OCR. The four main scientists behind the project—Paolo Merialdo, Donatella Firmani, and Elena Nieddu at Roma Tre University, and Marco Maiorino at cracking Archives VSA—skirt Sayre’s paradox with an innovation called jigsaw segmentation. This process, as the team recently outlined in a paper, breaks words down not into letters but something closer to individual pen strokes, cracking Archives. The OCR does this by dividing each word into a series of vertical and horizontal bands and looking for local minimums—the thinner portions, where there’s less ink (or really, fewer pixels), cracking Archives. The software then carves the letters at these joints, cracking Archives. The end result is a series of jigsaw pieces:

By themselves, the jigsaw pieces aren’t tremendously useful. But the software can chunk them together in various ways to make possible letters. It just needs to know which groups of chunks cracking Archives real letters and which are bogus.

To teach the software this, the researchers turned to an unusual source of help: high schoolers. The team recruited students at 24 schools in Italy to build the projects’ memory banks. The students logged onto a website, where they found a screen with three sections:

The green bar along the top contains nice, clean examples of letters from a medieval Latin text—in this case, the letter g. The red bar in the middle contains spurious examples of g, what the Codice scientists call “false friends.” The grid at the bottom is the meat of the program, cracking Archives. Each of the images there is composed of a few jigsaw pieces that the OCR software chunked together—its guess at cracking Archives plausible letter. The students then judged the OCR’s efforts, telling it which guesses were good and which were bad. They did so by comparing each image to the platonically perfect green letters and clicking a checkbox when they saw a match.

Image by image, click by click, the students taught the software what each of the 22 characters in the medieval Latin alphabet (ai, cracking Archives, lu, plus some alternative forms of s and d) looks like.

The setup did require some expert input: Scholars had to pick out the perfect examples in green, as well as the false friends in red. But once they did this, there was no more need for them. The students didn’t even need to be able to read Latin. All they had to do is match visual patterns. At first, “the idea of involving high-school students was considered foolish,” says Merialdo, who dreamed up In Codice Ratio. “But now the machine is learning thanks to their efforts. I like that a small and simple contribution cracking Archives many people can indeed contribute cracking Archives the solution of a complex problem.”

Eventually, of course, the students stepped aside as well, cracking Archives. Once they’d voted yes on enough examples, the software started chunking jigsaw pieces together cracking Archives and judging for itself what letters were there. The software itself became an expert—it became artificially intelligent.

At least, sort of, cracking Archives. It turned out that chunking jigsaw pieces into plausible letters wasn’t enough. The computer still needed additional tools cracking Archives untangle the knots of handwritten text. Imagine you’re reading a letter, and you come across this line:

Is it “clear” to them or “dear” to them? Hard to say, since the strokes that make up “d” and “cl” are virtually the same. OCR software faces the same problem, cracking Archives, especially with a highly stylized script like Caroline minuscule. Try deciphering this word:

After running through different jigsaw combinations, the OCR threw up its hands. Guesses included aimo, amio, aniio, aiino, and even the Old MacDonald’s Farm–ish aiiiio, cracking Archives. The word is anno, Latin for “year,” and the software nailed the a and o. But those four parallel columns in the middle flummoxed it.

To get around this problem, the In Codice Ratio team had to teach their software some common sense—practical intelligence. They found a corpus of million already-digitized Latin words, and examined them in two- and three-letter combinations. From this, they determined which combinations of letters are common, and which never occur. The OCR software could then use those statistics to assign probabilities to different strings of letters. As a result, cracking Archives, the software learned that nn is far more likely than iiii.

With this refinement in place, the Cracking Archives was finally ready to read some texts on its own. The team decided to feed it some documents from the Vatican Registers, a more than 18,page subset of the Secret Archives consisting of letters to Cracking Archives kings, cracking Archives, rulings on legal matters, and other correspondence.

The initial results were mixed. In texts transcribed so far, cracking Archives full one-third of the words contained one or more typos, places where the OCR guessed the wrong letter. If yov were tryinj to read those lnies in a bock, that would gct very aiiiioying. (The most common typos involved m/n/i confusion and another commonly confused pair: the letter f and an archaic, cracking Archives, elongated form of s.) Still, the cracking Archives got 96 percent of all handwritten letters correct. And even “imperfect transcriptions can provide enough information cracking Archives context about the manuscript at hand” to be useful, says Merialdo.

Like all artificial intelligence, cracking Archives, the software will improve over time, cracking Archives, as it digests more text. Even more exciting, cracking Archives, the general strategy of In Codice Ratio—jigsaw segmentation, plus crowdsourced training of the software—could easily be adapted to read texts in other languages. This could potentially do for handwritten documents what Google Books did for cracking Archives matter: open up letters, journals, diaries, and other papers to researchers around the world, making it far easier to both read these documents and search cracking Archives relevant material.

That said, relying on artificial intelligence does have limitations, says Rega Wood, a historian of philosophy and paleographer (expert on ancient handwriting) at Indiana University, cracking Archives. It “will be problematic for manuscripts that are not professionally written but copied by nonprofessionals,” she says, cracking Archives the handwriting and letter shapes will vary far more in cracking Archives documents, making it harder to teach the OCR, cracking Archives. In addition, in cases where there’s only a small sample size of material to work with, “it is not only more accurate, but just as quick to make transcriptions without such technology.”

Pace Dan Brown, cracking Archives, cracking Archives “secret” in the Vatican Secret Archives’ name doesn’t refer to anything clandestine or conspiratorial. It merely means that the archives are the personal property of the pope; “private archives” would probably be a better translation of the original cracking Archives, Archivum Secretum. Still, until recently, the VSA might as well have been secret to most of the world—locked away and largely inaccessible, cracking Archives. “It is amazing for us to bring these manuscripts back to life,” Merialdo says, “and make their comprehension available to everybody.”

Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Software cracking

Modification of software, often cracking Archives use it for free

Software cracking (known as "breaking" mostly in the s[1]) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features (including protection against the manipulation of software, serial cracking Archives, hardware key, date checks and disc check) or software annoyances like nag screens and adware.

A crack refers to the means of achieving, for example a stolen serial number or a tool that performs that act of cracking.[2] Some of these tools are called keygen, patch, or loader. A keygen is a handmade product serial number generator that often offers the ability cracking Archives generate working serial numbers in your own name. A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program. This has the advantage for a cracker to not include a large executable in a release when only a few bytes are changed.[3] A loader modifies the startup flow of a program and does not remove the protection but circumvents it.[4][5] A well-known example of a loader is a trainer used to cheat in games.[6]Fairlight pointed out in one of their .nfo files that these type of cracks are not allowed for warez scene game releases.[7][4][8] A nukewar has shown that the protection may not kick in at any point for it to be a valid crack.[9]

The distribution of cracked copies is illegal in most countries. There have been lawsuits over cracking software.[10] It might be legal to use cracked software in certain circumstances.[11] Educational resources for reverse engineering and software cracking are, however, legal and available in the form of Crackme programs.

History[edit]

The first software copy protection was applied to software for the Apple II,[12]Atari 8-bit family, and Commodore 64 computers.[citation needed]. Software publishers have implemented increasingly complex methods in an effort to stop unauthorized copying of software.

On the Apple II, the operating system directly controls the step motor that moves the floppy drive head, and also directly interprets the raw data, called nibbles, read from each track to identify the data sectors. This allowed complex disk-based software copy protection, by storing data on half tracks (0, 1, 5, ), quarter tracks (0, 1, cracking Archives, 5, ), and any combination thereof. In addition, tracks did not need to be perfect rings, but could be sectioned so that sectors could be staggered across overlapping offset tracks, the most extreme version being known as spiral tracking. It was also discovered that many floppy drives did not have a fixed upper limit to head movement, and it was sometimes possible to write an additional 36th track above the normal 35 tracks. The standard Apple II copy programs could not read such protected floppy disks, since the standard DOS assumed that all disks had a uniform track, or sector layout. Special nibble-copy programs such as Locksmith and Copy II Plus could sometimes duplicate these disks by using a reference library of known protection methods; when protected programs were cracked they would be completely stripped of the copy protection system, and transferred onto a standard format disk that any normal Apple II copy program could read.

One of the primary routes to hacking these early copy protections was to run a program that simulates the normal CPU operation. The CPU simulator provides a number of extra features to the hacker, such as the ability to single-step through each processor instruction and to examine the CPU registers and modified memory spaces as the simulation runs (any modern disassembler/debugger can do this). The Apple II provided a built-in opcode disassembler, allowing raw memory to be decoded into CPU opcodes, and this would be utilized to examine what the copy-protection was about to do next. Generally there was little to no defense available to the copy protection system, since all its secrets are made visible through the simulation. However, because the simulation itself must run on the original CPU, in addition to the software being hacked, the simulation would often run extremely slowly even at maximum speed.

On Atari 8-bit computers, the most common protection method was via "bad sectors". These were sectors on the disk that were intentionally unreadable by the disk drive, cracking Archives. The software would look for these sectors when the program was loading and would stop loading if an error cracking Archives was not returned when accessing these sectors. Special copy programs were available that would copy the disk and remember any bad sectors, cracking Archives. The user could then use an application to spin the drive by constantly reading a single sector and display the drive RPM. With the disk drive top removed a small screwdriver could be used to slow the drive RPM below a certain point. Once the drive was slowed down the application could then go and write "bad sectors" cracking Archives needed. When done the drive RPM was sped up back to normal and an uncracked copy was made. Of course cracking the software to expect good sectors made for readily copied disks without the need to meddle with the disk drive. As time went on more sophisticated methods were developed, but almost all involved some form of malformed disk data, such as a sector that might return different data on separate accesses due cracking Archives bad data alignment, cracking Archives. Products became available (from companies such as Happy Computers) which replaced the controller BIOS in Atari's "smart" drives, cracking Archives. These upgraded drives allowed the user to make exact copies of the original program with copy protections in place on the new disk.

On the Commodore 64, several methods were used to protect software, cracking Archives. For software distributed on ROM cartridges, subroutines were included which attempted to write over the program code. If the software was on ROM, nothing would happen, cracking Archives, but if the software had been moved to RAM, cracking Archives, the software would be disabled. Because of the operation of Commodore floppy drives, one write protection scheme would cause the floppy drive head to bang against the end of its rail, which could cause the drive head to become misaligned. In some cases, cracked versions of software were desirable to avoid this result. A misaligned drive head was rare usually fixing itself by smashing against the rail stops. Another brutal protection scheme was grinding from track 1 to 40 and back a few times.

Most of the early software crackers were computer hobbyists who often formed groups that competed against each other in the cracking and spreading of software. Breaking a new copy protection scheme as quickly as possible was often regarded as an opportunity to demonstrate one's technical superiority rather than cracking Archives possibility of money-making. Some low skilled hobbyists would take already cracked software and edit various unencrypted strings of text in it to change messages a game would tell a game player, often something considered vulgar. Uploading the altered copies on file sharing networks provided a source of laughs for adult users. The cracker groups of the s started to advertise themselves and their skills by attaching animated screens known as crack intros in the software programs they cracked and released. Once the technical competition had expanded from the challenges of cracking to the challenges of creating visually stunning intros, the foundations for a new subculture known as demoscene were established. Demoscene started to separate itself from the illegal "warez scene" during the s and is now regarded as a completely different subculture. Many software crackers have later grown into extremely capable software cracking Archives engineers; the deep knowledge of assembly required in order cracking Archives crack protections enables them to reverse engineerdrivers in order to port them from binary-only drivers for Windows to drivers with source code for Linux and other free operating systems. Also because cracking Archives and game intro was such an integral part of gaming the music format and graphics cracking Archives very popular when hardware became affordable for the home user.

With the rise of the Internet, software crackers developed secretive online organizations. In the latter half of the nineties, one of the most respected sources of information about "software protection reversing" was Fravia's website.

+HCU[edit]

The High Cracking University (+HCU) was founded by Old Red Cracker (+ORC), considered a genius of reverse engineering and a legendary figure in RCE, to advance research into Reverse Code Engineering (RCE). He had also taught and authored many cracking Archives on the subject, and his texts are considered classics in the field and are mandatory reading for students of RCE.[13]

The addition of the "+" sign in front of the nickname of a reverser signified membership in the +HCU. Amongst the students of +HCU were the top of the elite Windows reversers worldwide.[13] +HCU published a new reverse engineering problem annually and a small number of respondents with the best replies qualified for an undergraduate position at the university.[13]

+Fravia was a professor at +HCU. Fravia's website was known as "+Fravia's Pages of Reverse Engineering" and he used it to challenge programmers as well as the wider society to "reverse engineer" the "brainwashing of a corrupt and rampant materialism". In its heyday, his website received millions of visitors per year and its influence was "widespread".[13]

Nowadays most of the graduates of +HCU have migrated to Linux and few have remained cracking Archives Windows reversers. The information at the university has been rediscovered by a new generation of researchers and practitioners of RCE who have started new research projects in the field.[13]

Methods[edit]

The most common software crack is the modification of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program cracking Archives using a debugger such as SoftICE,[14]x64dbg, OllyDbg,[15]GDB, or MacsBug until the software cracker reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software (or by disassembling an executable file with a program such as IDA). The binary is then modified using the debugger or a hex editor or monitor in a manner that replaces a prior branching opcode with its complement or a NOPopcode so the key branch will either always execute a specific subroutine or skip over it. Almost all common software cracks are a variation of this type, cracking Archives. Proprietary software developers are constantly developing techniques such as code obfuscation, encryption, and self-modifying code to make this modification increasingly difficult, cracking Archives. Even with these measures being taken, developers struggle to combat software cracking. Cracking Archives is because it is very common for a professional to publicly release a simple cracked EXE or Retrium Installer for public download, eliminating the need for inexperienced cracking Archives to crack the software themselves.

A specific example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time-limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that alter the program executable and sometimes the .dll or .so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available for software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the copy protection of programs that they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, cracking Archives, so that there is no risk of downtime due to hardware failure (and, of course, cracking Archives, no need to restrict oneself to running the software on bought hardware only).

Another method is the use of special software such as CloneCD to scan for the use of a commercial copy protection application. After discovering the software used to protect the application, another tool may be used to remove the copy protection from the software on the CD or DVD. This may enable another program such as Alcohol %, CloneDVD, Game Jackal, or Daemon Tools to copy the protected software to a user's hard disk, cracking Archives. Popular commercial copy protection applications which may be scanned for include SafeDisc and StarForce.[16]

In other cases, it might be possible to decompile a program in order to get access to the original source code or code on a level higher than machine code. This is often possible with scripting languages and languages utilizing JIT compilation. An example is cracking (or debugging) on the .NET platform where one might consider manipulating CIL to achieve one's needs. Java'sbytecode also works in a similar fashion in which there is an intermediate language before the program is compiled to run on the platform dependent machine code.

Advanced reverse engineering for protections cracking Archives as SecuROM, SafeDisc, StarForce, or Denuvo requires a cracker, or many crackers to spend much more time studying the protection, eventually finding every flaw within the protection code, and then coding their own tools to "unwrap" the protection automatically from executable (.EXE) and library (.DLL) files.

There are a number of sites on the Internet that let users download cracks produced by warez groups for popular games and applications (although at the danger of acquiring malicious software that is sometimes distributed via such sites).[17] Although these cracks are used by legal buyers of software, cracking Archives, they can also be used by people who have downloaded or otherwise obtained unauthorized copies (often through P2P networks).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Kevelson, Morton (October ). "Isepic". Ahoy!. pp.&#;71– Retrieved June 27,
  2. ^Tulloch, Mitch (). Microsoft Encyclopedia of Security(PDF), cracking Archives. Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  3. ^Craig, Paul; Ron, Mark (April ). "Chapter 4: Crackers". In Burnett, Mark (ed.). Software Piracy Exposed - Secrets from the Dark Side Revealed. Publisher: Andrew Williams, Page Layout and Art: Patricia Lupien, cracking Archives, Acquisitions Editor: Jaime Quigley, cracking Archives, Copy Cracking Archives Judy Eby, Technical Editor: Mark Burnett, Indexer: Nara Wood, cracking Archives, Cover Designer: Michael Kavish. United States of America: Syngress Publishing. pp.&#;75– doi/B/ ISBN&#.
  4. ^ abFLT (January 22, ). "The_Sims_3_70s_80s_and_90s_Stuff-FLT".
  5. ^Shub-Nigurrath [ARTeam]; ThunderPwr [ARTeam] (January ). "Cracking with Loaders: Theory, General Approach, and a Framework". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (1).
  6. ^Nigurrath, Shub (May ). "Guide on how to play with processes memory, writing loaders, and Oraculumns". CodeBreakers Magazine, cracking Archives. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project, cracking Archives. 1 (2).
  7. ^FLT (September 29, cracking Archives, ). "Test_Drive_Ferrari_Legends_PROPER-FLT".
  8. ^SKIDROW (January 21, ). "shoppingdowntown.us-SKIDROW".
  9. ^"shoppingdowntown.us-FiGHTCLUB nukewar". December 2, Archived from the original on September 13,
  10. ^Cheng, cracking Archives, Jacqui (September 27, ), cracking Archives. "Microsoft files lawsuit over DRM crack". Ars Technica.
  11. ^Fravia (November ). "Is reverse engineering legal?".
  12. ^Pearson, cracking Archives, Jordan (July 24, ). "Programmers Are Racing to Save Apple II Software Before It Goes Extinct". Motherboard. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved January 27,
  13. ^ abcdeCyrus Peikari; Anton Chuvakin (January 12, ). Security Warrior. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p.&#; ISBN&#.
  14. ^Ankit, Jain; Jason, cracking Archives, Kuo; Jordan, Soet; Brian, Tse (April ). "Software Cracking (April )"(PDF). The University of British Columbia - Cracking Archives and Computer Engineering. Retrieved January 27,
  15. ^Wójcik, Bartosz. "Reverse engineering tools review". shoppingdowntown.us. PELock. Archived from the original on September 13, Retrieved February 16,
  16. ^Gamecopyworld Howto
  17. ^McCandless, cracking Archives, David (April 1, ). "Warez Wars". Wired. Cracking Archives Retrieved February 4,
Источник: [shoppingdowntown.us]

Explicit modelling of cracking induced by drying shrinkage

Abstract : The prediction of the durability of a concrete structure is closely linked to the prediction of cracking at cracking Archives early age. Indeed, differential drying between the surface and the core of the structure leads to a heterogeneous stress state and can induce significant micro-cracking at the surface [1, 2]. These micro-cracks will impact not only the mechanical properties but also the permeability of the structure [3], cracking Archives. In this study, a sequential analysis is proposed to represent the drying evolution and the corresponding cracking pattern. First, Finite Elements calculations are used to perform drying simulations and obtain drying shrinkage strains. Then, a beam-particle model is applied to obtain the deformation shape and the cracking pattern. Indeed, this Discrete Elements model is designed to describe discontinuous mediums and thus can naturally predict crack initiation as well as their propagation and closing [4], cracking Archives. This analysis allows us to accurately model the cracking induced by drying shrinkage. The dried specimens can then be subjected to various numerical tests in order to analyse the impact of drying effects on concrete mechanical properties – such as the Young modulus, the tensile and compressive strength and the fracture energy. The influence of shrinkage on the cracks formation and re-closure appearing during the mechanical loading can also be investigated. These numerical studies will benefit from an experimental campaign performed in parallel.



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